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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 364-374, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922921

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research is to study the effect of small molecule compound piceatannol (PIC) on host inflammation in adenine induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) mice, and then to explore its mechanism based on the regulation of gut microbiota. All procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine. The level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); UPLC-TQ/MS technology was used to monitor the level of proinflammatory uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresol sulfate (PCS); the expression of occludin was tested by Western blot; in vitro anaerobic culture of gut bacteria was used to produce indole; the abundance of gut microbiota was evaluated by 16S rDNA sequencing. The results showed that PIC had no effect on inflammatory infiltration in kidney tissue of CKD mice, but could decrease IL-6 level in blood and IL-6/TNF-α level in colon tissue. PIC did not improve intestinal occludin protein expression in CKD mice; while it could significantly reduce the levels of IS and PCS in blood and liver of CKD mice. Further mechanism studies showed that PIC could inhibit the synthesis of IS precursor indole in gut bacteria. Moreover, PIC could decrease the abundance of gut bacteria which producing uremic toxin, such as reducing the abundance of indole and p-cresol producing gut bacteria. In conclusion, PIC could regulate gut microbiota and inhibit the synthesis of uremic toxin precursor, thereafter reducing the accumulation of IS and PCS in vivo, ultimately relieving the inflammation of CKD mice.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928140

ABSTRACT

Essential oils(EOs) from Chinese medicinals, which can be used as adjuvants and exert certain therapeutic effect, are directly used in Chinese medicine formulas. Conventional research strategy for EOs from Chinese medicinals is to compare the efficacy of the prescriptions before and after the addition of EOs, and the penetration-enhancing mechanisms of EOs remain unclear. In modern research on EOs from Chinese medicinals, the method for studying chemical penetration enhancers is often used, which fails to reflect the overall efficacy of EOs. This study clarified the property regularity of EOs from Chinese medicinals as transdermal penetration enhancers, and thereby proposed a research model which integrated the medicinal and adjuvant properties of EOs from Chinese medicinals via "component-delivery-effect" characterization route. The core concept is that constituents of EOs from Chinese medicinals and their delivery process play a key role in their external application. This research model is expected to serve as a reference for further research on EOs from Chinese medicinals for transdermal application.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic , Administration, Cutaneous , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928073

ABSTRACT

The demand for Angelicae Sinensis Radix, the dry root of Angelica sinensis, has been increasing year by year. However, the continuous cropping obstacles, frequent occurrence of pests and diseases, overuse of chemical pesticides, excessive pesticide residues and other problems in Angelicae Sinensis Radix production have attracted much attention. In this paper, we summarized the common diseases and pests attacking Angelica sinensis as well as the detection methods and characteristics of pesticide residues in Angelicae Sinensis Radix from 2002 to 2021. Additionally, we compared the limit standards of pesticide residues in Angelicae Sinensis Radix in and out of China and put forward suggestions for the high-quality and green development of Angelicae Sinensis Radix industry conside-ring the existing problems. The pesticide residues in Angelicae Sinensis Radix have been changing from organochlorines to organophosphorus pesticides. In recent years, some organophosphorus pesticides such as phorate, phoxim, isofenphos-methyl, phorate-sulfoxide, fenamiphos, isocarbophos, omethoate, and triazophos in Angelicae Sinensis Radix have seriously exceeded the standards. The detection methods of pesticide residues has evolved from chromatography to high performance chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS), and some new detection techniques such as immunoassay have also been applied. Pesticide residues have become a primary factor that restricting the development of Angelicae Sinensis Radix industry. Therefore, moderate application of pesticides, establishment of ecological planting system, and strict limit standards of pesticide residues are necessary to solve the pesticide residue problem.


Subject(s)
Angelica sinensis/chemistry , Chromatography, Liquid , Organophosphorus Compounds , Pesticide Residues , Pesticides
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928053

ABSTRACT

This paper explored the specific peptides from Bubali Cornu by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and based on mathematics set theory. Following the profile analysis of peptides from Bubali Cornu, Bovis Grunniens Cornu, Caprae Hircus Cornu, and Suis Cornu by nano LC-LTQ-Obitrap-MS after digestion with trypsin, the relationship of peptide composition among different samples was analyzed using the mathematics set theory. The ones that existed only in the Bubali Cornu set rather than in any other set were considered as the specific peptides of Bubali Cornu. The further bioinformatic analysis revealed four specific peptides from Bubali Cornu, whose specificity was verified by UPLC-QQQ-MS. The results showed that these four peptides could be used for distinguishing Bubali Cornu from Caprae Hircus Cornu and Suis Cornu. This study has provided a rapid and simple method for seeking the specific peptides in animal medicines, which can be utilized for quality evaluation of animal medicines, thus making them authenticable and traceable.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, Liquid , Cornus , Horns/chemistry , Peptides/chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928003

ABSTRACT

As a unique medical resource in China, Chinese herbal medicine plays a key role in the prevention and treatment of human diseases. With the gradual expansion of applications, the quality of Chinese herbal medicine has become the focus of attention. The quality of Chinese herbal medicines depends largely on their source authenticity. Tracing the origin of Chinese herbal medicines plays an important role in ensuring their quality and efficacy and reducing the mixing and adulteration of Chinese herbal medicines from different regions. Stable isotope technology, as a key technology for origin tracing of agricultural products and food, has been used in the research of Chinese herbal medicines from multiple sources and origins in recent years. This new technological means contributes to standardizing the origin of Chinese herbal medicines and controlling their quality from the source. Apart from introducing the basic principles of stable isotope technology and the characteristics of common stable isotopes, this study reviewed the application status of light and heavy stable isotopes in the origin tracing of Chinese herbal medicines and their correlation with ecological factors, and forecasted the application prospect of this technology in the authentication of Chinese herbal medicines, aiming to provide reference for the geographical origin tracing of Chinese herbal medicines and promote the sustainable development of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Drug Contamination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Humans , Isotopes , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927988

ABSTRACT

In order to evaluate the composition and distribution characteristics of inorganic elements in Laminaria japonica, this study employed inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS) to detect the inorganic elements and used high performance liquid chromatography tandem ICP-MS(HPLC-ICP-MS) to determine the content of different arsenic species in L. japonica from diffe-rent origins. Micro X-ray fluorescence(Micro-XRF) was used to determine micro-area distribution of inorganic elements in L. japonica. The results showed that the average content of Mn, Fe, Sr, and Al was high, and that of As and Cr exceeded the limits of the national food safety standard. According to the results of HPLC-ICP-MS, arsenobetaine(AsB) was the main species of As contained in L. japonica. The more toxic inorganic arsenic accounts for a small proportion, whereas its content was 1-4 times of the limit in the national food safety standard. The results of Micro-XRF showed that As, Pb, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni were mainly distributed on the surface of L. japonica. Among them, As and Pb had a clear tendency to diffuse from the surface to the inside. The results of the study can provide a basis for the processing as well as the medicinal and edible safety evaluation of L. japonica.


Subject(s)
Arsenic/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Laminaria , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Spectrum Analysis , Trace Elements/analysis
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927981

ABSTRACT

Obvious epigenetic differentiation occurred on Lycium barbarum in different cultivation areas in China. To investigate the difference and change rule of DNA methylation level and pattern of L. barbarum from different cultivation areas in China, the present study employed fluorescence-assisted methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism(MSAP) to analyze the methylation level and polymorphism of 53 genomic DNA samples from Yinchuan Plain in Ningxia, Bayannur city in Inner Mongolia, Jingyuan county and Yumen city in Gansu, Delingha city in Qinghai, and Jinghe county in Xinjiang. The MSAP technical system suitable for the methylation analysis of L. barbarum genomic DNA was established and ten pairs of selective primers were selected. Among amplified 5'-CCGG-3' methylated sites, there were 35.85% full-methylated sites and 39.88% hemi-methylated sites, showing a high degree of epigenetic differentiation. Stoichiometric analysis showed that the ecological environment was the main factor affecting the epigenetic characteristics of L. barbarum, followed by cultivated varieties. Precipitation, air temperature, and soil pH were the main ecological factors affecting DNA methylation in different areas. This study provided a theoretical basis for the analysis of the epigenetic mechanism of L. barbarum to adapt to the diffe-rent ecological environments and research ideas for the introduction, cultivation, and germplasm traceability of L. barbarum.


Subject(s)
China , DNA Methylation , DNA Primers , Epigenesis, Genetic , Lycium/genetics
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927928

ABSTRACT

An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UHPLC-MS/MS) method was established to investigate the pharmacokinetic behaviors of psoralenoside, isopsoralenoside, calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, psoralen, isopsoralen, methylnissolin, and neobavaisoflavone in rat plasma after oral administration of Bufei Huoxue Capsules. After SD rats were administered with Bufei Huoxue Capsules suspension by gavage, blood samples were collected from the inner canthus at different time points. After protein precipitation, plasma samples were separated on ACQUITY UPLC BEH C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm). The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile(A) and water(B) containing 0.1% formic acid in gradient elution. The positive and negative ions were measured simultaneously in the multi-reaction monitoring(MRM) mode. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and fitted by DAS 3.2.8. Psoralenoside, isopsoralenoside, calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, psoralen, isopsoralen, methylnissolin, and neobavaisoflavone were detected in the rat plasma after drug administration, with AUC_(0-t) of(3 357±1 348),(3 555±1 696),(3.03±0.88),(2.21±0.33),(1 787±522),(2 295±539),(5.69±1.41) and(3.40±0.75) μg·L~(-1)·h, and T_(max) of(1.56±0.62),(1.40±0.70),(0.21±0.05),(0.25±0.12),(0.26±0.11),(0.34±0.29),(0.74±0.59), and 0.25 h. The method is proved specific and repeatable and is suitable for the determination of psoralenoside, isopsoralenoside, calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, pso-ralen, isopsoralen, methylnissolin, and neobavaisoflavone in the rat plasma, which can be applied to pharmacokinetic study.


Subject(s)
Animals , Capsules , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reproducibility of Results , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922768

ABSTRACT

Chansu has demonstrated adverse reactions in clinical settings, which is associated with its toxicity and limits its clinical applications. But there are methodological limitations for drug safety evaluation. In the current study, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, lipidomic profiling, and molecular docking were used to systemically assess Chansu-induced acute inflammatory irritation and further identify the underlying drug targets. Compared with the EtOAc extract, Chansu water fraction containing indolealkylamines caused acute inflammatory irritation in rats, including acute pain (spontaneous raising foot reaction), and inflammation (paw edema). At the molecular level, lipids analysis revealed significantly higher levels of pro-inflammatory mediators of the COX and LOX pathways. However, anti-inflammatory mediators from the CYP 450, ALA, and DHA pathways markedly decreased after exposure to Chansu water fraction. Moreover, four indolealkylamines from Chansu showed a high theoretical affinity to a known irritation target, 5-HT


Subject(s)
Animals , Bufanolides , Edema/drug therapy , Inflammation , Lipidomics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Rats , Water
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879138

ABSTRACT

In this paper, network pharmacology method and molecular docking technique were used to investigate the target genes of Olibanum and Myrrha compatibility and the possible mechanism of action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis(RA). Our team obtained the main active components of Olibanum-Myrrha based on literatures study, relevant traditional Chinese medicine systematic pharmacological databases and literature retrieval, and made target prediction of the active components through SwissTargetPrediction database. At the same time, RA-related targets were collected through DrugBank, GeneCards and Therapeutic Target Database(TDD) databases; and VENNY 2.1 was use to collect intersection targets to map common targets of drug and disease of Venn diagram online. The team used STRING database to construct PPI protein interaction network diagram, and screen out core targets according to the size of the interaction, and Cytoscape 3.6.0 software was used to construct network models of "traditional Chinese medicine-component-target" "traditional Chinese medicine-component-target-disease" and core target interaction network model. The intersection target was analyzed by using DAVID 6.8 online database for GO function analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, and Pathon was used to visualization. AutoDock Vina and Pymol were used to connect the core active components with the core targets. Sixteen active components of Olibanum-Myrrha pairs were found and collected in the laboratory, and 320 relevant potential targets, 468 RA-related targets and 62 intersection targets were obtained through the Venn diagram. It mainly acted on multiple targets, such as IL6, TNF, IL1 B and MAPK1, involving TNF signaling pathway and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway in RA treatment. Finally, in this study, possible targets and signaling pathways of Olibanum-Myrrha compatibility therapy for RA were discussed, and molecular docking between core targets and core active components was conducted, which could provide scientific basis for the study on the mechanism of Olibanum-Myrrha compatibility.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Frankincense , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879134

ABSTRACT

This study is to clarify the composition and content differences of water-soluble nutrients in Lycium barbarum leaves(LBLs) from different areas. The total polysaccharides, free monosaccharides and oligosaccharides, nucleosides and amino acids in 35 batches of LBLs were analyzed with use of spectrophotometry, HPLC-ELSD and UPLC-MS/MS. The results showed that LBLs contained abundant polysaccharides, fructose, glucose, sucrose and maltose, with an average contents of 39.07, 12.69, 8.99, 17.44, 8.32 mg·g~(-1), respectively. Besides, eight nucleosides and twelve amino acids were detected in LBLs, and their average total contents were 54.95, 336.9 μg·g~(-1). Principal component analysis(PCA) and partial least squares discrimination analysis(PLS-DA) of carbohydrate, nucleoside and amino acid showed that the water-soluble nutrients of the samples from Qinghai Province were significantly different from those from other areas mainly in asparagine, proline, glutamine, sucrose, adenine and guanosine. In this study, the compositions and contents of water-soluble nutrients in LBLs were preliminarily clarified, which provided basis for further development and utilization of LBLs resoures.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Liquid , Lycium , Nutrients , Plant Leaves , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Water
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878991

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the effect of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, its stems and leaves on the diversity of intestinal microflora in rats with diabetic kidney injury. Diabetic rats model was established by feeding high glucose and high fat diet and 5% glucose solution with intraperitoneal injection of 30 mg·kg~(-1) streptozocin(STZ). The rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, irbesartan control group, Huangkui Capsules control group, as well as low, middle and high dose groups of Sal-viae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, its stems and leaves. After administration for 2 weeks, 16 S rRNA technique was used to analyze the diversity of intestinal microflora in the feces of each group. The results showed rats in the model group developed renal tubular epithelial vacuole degeneration and a large amount of inflammatory cell infiltration in the renal interstitium. A small amount of inflammatory cell infiltration was seen in each administration group. The kidney structure of rats in irbesartan group, Huangkui Capsules group, high-dose group of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and its stem water extract, as well as high dose group of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and its stem ethnol extract group was close to the normal group. The diversity and structure of intestinal flora in the model group were significantly different from those in the normal group. Each administration group improved the fecal flora diversity in rats with diabetic kidney injury to a certain extent, especially the high dose of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and its stems water extract. Different flora were found in feces of diabetic nephropathy model rats on class, order, family and genus levels. On families and genera levels, the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium, Turicibacter, Peptostreptococcaceae, Desulfovibrio, and SMB53 showed an upward trend in model group, but that of Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Rikenella, Rumen fungi showed a downward trend. The administration groups can improve the relative abundance of the above intestinal flora in the model rats to a normal-like level. The results of this study provide a reference for resource utilization and further development of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Rats , Salvia miltiorrhiza
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878883

ABSTRACT

Nano-LC MS/MS was used to analyze trypsin digested deer-hide gelatin(DHG) samples, hydroxylation and O-glycosylation on lysine sites of DHG were comprehensive identified by using PEAKS Studio software. The sites, sorts and amounts of hydroxylation and O-glycosylation on Type Ⅰ collagen α1 chain(COL1 A1) and α2 chain(COL1 A2) of DHG were revealed. As a result, 5 284 peptides were identified from DHG samples, which were mainly from COL1 A1 and COL1 A2. Among these peptides, there were 449 peptides with hydroxylysine, 442 with galactosyl-hydroxylysine, 449 with glucosyl-galactosyl-hydroxylysine. The major modified sites of hydroxylation and O-glycosylation in DHG were shown as follow: α1-9 N and α2-5 N in N-telopeptides, α1-87, α1-174, α1-930, α2-87, α2-174, α2-933 in triple helix domain, and α1-16 C in C-telopeptides. These hydroxylation and O-glycosylation were correlated with the formation and stability of collagen molecules and collagen fibrils. It is feasible for the collagens and peptides dissolving from deer skin collagen fibrils under high temperature and pressure decocting, high temperature and pressure also might destroy inter-molecular covalent cross-linking and help those glycol-peptides formations. The present study provided ideas and strategies for the in-depth investigation on DHG chemical constituents, and showed good theoretical significance and application value.


Subject(s)
Animals , Deer/metabolism , Gelatin , Glycosylation , Hydroxylation , Lysine/metabolism , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906523

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the effect of sedimentary type Limonitum on hemostatic indexes in blood and metal ions in serum of rats with hemorrhage. Method:The hemorrhagic rat models were established by warfarin sodium. The experimental animals were divided into control group,model group,powder group and water decoction group. On day 15 from drug administration, the contents of 6-keto prostaglandin F<sub>1</sub><italic><sub>α</sub></italic>(6-keto-PGF<sub>1</sub><italic><sub>α</sub></italic>),thromboxane B<sub>2</sub>(TXB<sub>2</sub>),arachidonic acid(AA),endothelin 1(ET-1),platelet activating factor(PAF),P-selectin(PS),and Ca<sup>2+</sup> in the whole blood of rats in each group were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The contents of Na,Mg,K,Ca,Fe,Al,Li,Be,Ti,V,Cr,Mn,Co,Ni,Cu,Zn,As,Sr,Cd,Sn,Sb,Ba,and Pb in serum samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer(ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS). Result:Compared with the model group,the content of 6-keto-PGF<sub>1</sub><italic><sub>α</sub></italic> was reduced in the powder group and water decoction group (<italic>P</italic><0.05),and the contents of TXB<sub>2</sub>,AA,ET-1,PAF,PS,Ca<sup>2+ </sup>were<sup> </sup>significantly increased(<italic>P</italic><0.01),with a positive and beneficial regulatory effect. In the powder group, 10 kinds of metal elements in serum of rats were significantly and positively regulated: Na,K,Ca,Fe,Li,Ti,V,Co,Cu,and Zn(<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic>P</italic><0.01). In the water decoction group, 10 metal elements with significant positive regulation were as follows: Na,K,Ca,Fe,Li,V,Ni,Cu,Zn,and Sr(<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic>P</italic><0.01). In addition,the content of Cr(<italic>P</italic><0.01) in the powder group and Cr(<italic>P</italic><0.01),Pb(<italic>P</italic><0.05) in the water decoction group were significantly reduced. Conclusion:The powder and water decoction of sedimentary type Limonitum had definite and positive intervention effect on warfarin hemorrhage model rats,which could play a coagulation role by enhancing the vasoconstriction ability,promoting the activation of platelets,and increasing the platelet aggregation rate and blood viscosity. The metal elements such as Na,K,Ca,Fe,Li,Ti,V,Co,Cu,Zn,Ni and Sr may be the material basis for sedimentary type Limonitum to exert hemostatic effect. According to the above indicators,the intervention effect of powder group and decoction group was basically the same.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906494

ABSTRACT

Mume Flos is a traditional Chinese medicinal material,with the effects of soothing the liver,resolving phlegm and dispelling stagnation. It was mainly used to treat globus hystericus,liver and stomach pain,loss of appetite,dizziness and scrofula. Mume Flos is native to China,with a long history of cultivation and application and complex and diverse varieties. There are hundreds varieties of Mume Flos,including fruiting Mei and flowering Mei. However,there was no ancient literature on which color of Mume Flos is the best traditional Chinese medicinal material among those with different colors,as well as relevant study report on the correlation between medicinal Mume Flos group and plant systematics. In order to define the origin,the author conducted the textual research on the changes in the origin,quality and producing areas of the Mume Flos in the past dynasties. According to the findings, traditional medicinal Mume Flos were mainly green calyx Mume Flos and white Mume Flos,and derived from flowering Mei of the true Mume branch. Among them, green calyx Mume Flos belonged to the green calyx group, while medicinal white Mume Flos belonged to the albo-plena group and the single-lobe group. The producing area of Mume Flos was first recorded in Sheng Nong's Herbal Classic,where now in southern Shaanxi province. After the Song dynasty,due to climate,social and economic factors,the producing areas of Mume Flos had continued to move southward from Shaanxi province to the Yangtze River and Dongting Lake basins. Till the Ming and Qing dynasties,the distribution of Mume Flos was also reported in Guangdong province and Hainan province. In modern times,due to the comprehensive impact of natural climate conditions and urbanization,the producing areas of medicinal Mume Flos had gradually changed from Sichuan province,Jiangsu province and Zhejiang province to southern Anhui province at present. In this paper,the textual research is conducted to define the origin and systematically summarize the changes in the producing areas of Mume Flos,so as to provide reference for defining the origin of Mume Flos and the groups of medicinal Mume Flos and making further development and utilization of resources.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906489

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the possible mechanism of Chloriti Lapis in the treatment of epilepsy by the metabonomics of brain tissue in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-kindled epileptic rats treated with Chloriti Lapis. Method:The epileptic animal model in rats was established by PTZ kindling, and the rats were divided into the control group, model group, carbamazepine group and Chloriti Lapis group. The brain tissue samples were detected by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC/Q-TOF-MS), and the experimental results were statistically analyzed by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and SPSS 18.0. Result:The metabolic fingerprints and metabolic profiles of the rat brain tissue were established, which showed that the metabolic profiles of each group had changed significantly and could be separated well among the groups. Moreover, the Chloriti Lapis group had a tendency to be closer to the control group than the carbamazepine group. Seven differential metabolites were screened, including phosphatidylserine (PS) (18∶0/18∶0), <italic>L</italic>-glutamic acid, docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide, arachidonic acid, glucosylsphingosine, cholestane-3,7,12,24,25-pentol and lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) (P-18∶0). Except for docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide and LysoPC (P-18∶0), Chloriti Lapis had significant intervening and regulating effects on the other five differential metabolites. There were 12 possible metabolic pathways that affected the metabolic disorder of PTZ-kindled rats, and 3 important metabolic pathways (pathway impact>0.1), namely, <italic>D-</italic>glutamine and <italic>D-</italic>glutamate metabolism, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, and arachidonic acid metabolism, among which <italic>D-</italic>glutamine and <italic>D-</italic>glutamate metabolism was the most important metabolic pathways. Conclusion:From this point of view, Chloriti Lapis has a clear intervention effect on PTZ-kindled epileptic rats, which may be related to the intervention of the above differential metabolite contents and related metabolic pathways. It can reduce the toxic effect of excitatory neurotransmitters on neurons in brain tissue and inhibit the development of inflammation in brain tissue, so as to maintain the biological function of brain cells and slow down the occurrence of epilepsy.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906433

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of Chloriti Lapis on metal elements in brain tissue and plasma of epileptic rats kindled by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), and to explore the possible material basis of Chloriti Lapis. Method:PTZ kindling method was used to establish epileptic rat model. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) were used to determine the contents of metal elements in brain tissue and plasma of the blank group, model group, carbamazepine group (0.1 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) and Chloriti Lapis group (2 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>). The data were statistically analyzed by SPSS 18.0 software. Result:Compared with the blank group, the contents of Sr, Sb and Ba in brain tissue of rats in the model group were significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), while the contents of Zn, Fe, Cu, K, Li, Co, Sn and Pb were significantly decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, the contents of Zn, Fe, K, Li, Co, As and Pb in brain tissue of rats in the Chloriti Lapis group were obviously increased (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), while the contents of Sr and Sb were significantly decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). These results showed that Chloriti Lapis had positive effect on the regulation of the content of metal elements in rat brain tissue to normal level, the intervention effect was clear, and the overall effect was better than that of carbamazepine group. The determination of 21 metal elements in plasma showed that compared with the blank group, the levels of K, Sr and Cd in the model group were significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.05), and the contents of Li, Al, Ti and Cr were significantly decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Compared with the model group, the contents of Ca, K, Li, Al and V in the Chloriti Lapis group were obviously increased (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), and the contents of Fe, Ti, Sr and Cd were significantly decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic>P</italic><0.01). The correlation analysis of metal elements among the groups showed that there were 17 pairs of elements had positively correlation in the brain tissue of rats, 2 pairs of elements had significant negative correlation. In the plasma of rats, 8 pairs of elements had significant positive correlation and 6 pairs of elements had significant negative correlation. Conclusion:The metal element groups represented by Zn, Fe, K, Li, Co, As, Pb, Sr, Sb, Ca, Al, V, Ti and Cd may be the effective material basis for Chloriti Lapis to interfere PTZ-kindled epileptic model rats, which may be related to the influence of these metal element groups on the release of neurotransmitters and the electrical balance of neurons, the regulation of abnormal synchronous discharge induced by Na<sup>+</sup>, K<sup>+</sup>, Ca<sup>2+</sup> channel disorders and intervention of metabolism pathways in brain tissue related to epilepsy. It can make the excitatory and inhibitory activities restrain each other, and finally reach the normal physiological state of neurons and cells. The intervention effect of Chloriti Lapis group was better than that of carbamazepine group.

18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 37-49, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872614

ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a serious chronic disease with high incidence, poor prognosis, and a variety of complications. Indoxyl-sulfate (IS) and p-cresol sulfate (PCS) are two typical gut-derived uremic toxins, which are produced by the co-metabolism of intestinal microbes and the host. With the progression of CKD, gut-derived uremic toxins such as IS and PCS accumulate in patients with CKD and thereafter accelerate the progression of CKD. Gut microbiota is closely related with CKD, and targeting gut microbiota to regulate gut-derived uremic toxins synthesis and metabolic pathways may be a promising strategy to delay the progression of CKD. In this paper, the relationship between gut microbiota, gut-derived uremic toxins, and CKD was analyzed, and the strategy to delay the progression of CKD by targeting gut microbiota and uremic toxins metabolism pathway was proposed.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921752

ABSTRACT

Two terpenes, 3-keto-tirucalla-8,24-dien-21-oic acid(KTDA) and 2-methoxy-5-acetoxy-furanogermacr-1(10)-en-6-one(FSA), are isolated from Olibanum and Myrrha respectively, which are characterized by high yield and easy crystallization during the preparation. The present study explored the regulatory targets and anti-inflammatory mechanism of KTDA and FSA based on network pharmacology and cell viability assay. First, the drug-likeness of KTDA and FSA was predicted by Swiss ADME. The target prediction of active components was carried out by Swiss Target Prediction and Pharmmapper. TTD, Drug Bank, and Gene Cards were searched for inflammation-related target genes of KTDA and FSA. Protein-protein interaction(PPI) analysis was performed on the inflammatory targets of KTDA and FSA by STRING, and Cytoscape was used to conduct topological analysis of the interaction results and construct the PPI network. GO function and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of inflammatory targets of KTDA and FSA were carried out by DAVID, and a " component-target-pathway" network was constructed. Finally, lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced RAW264. 7 cells were treated with KTDA and FSA at different concentrations, and nitric oxide(NO) concentration and protein and m RNA expression levels were detected. The results showed that both KTDA and FSA showed good drug-likeness. A total of 157 and 142 inflammation-related targets of KTDA and FSA were screened out. PPI network analysis showed that MAPK1, AKT1, MAPK8, PIK3 CA,PIK3 R1, EGFR, etc. might be the key proteins for the anti-inflammatory effect. PI3 K/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways were obtained by KEGG and GO-BP enrichment. Cell experiment results showed that KTDA and FSA could exert anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting NO production, reducing the phosphorylation levels of JNK, p38, and AKT proteins, and down-regulating the m RNA expression of interleukin(IL)-1β and IL-6. Meanwhile, FSA could also inhibit ERK phosphorylation. The results indicated that KTDA and FSA had significant anti-inflammatory activity, which provided a scientific basis and important support for the further research,development, and utilization of Olibanum and Myrrha.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ants , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Frankincense , Lipopolysaccharides , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921704

ABSTRACT

The present study evaluates different processing and drying methods and investigates their effects on the chemical components in Paeoniae Radix Alba via content determination. The fresh medicinal materials of Paeoniae Radix Alba collected from Bozhou of Anhui province were processed(boiled and peeled) and dried(hot air-dried, infrared-dried, and microwave-dried) at different temperatures(40, 50, 60 and 70 ℃), and the 11 components(monoterpene glycosides, polyphenols, tannin, and benzoic acid) in Paeoniae Radix Alba were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-TQ-MS). Then the compounds in processed and dried samples were analyzed by partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA), and the contribution rates of differential components were evaluated by variable important in projection(VIP). The results indicated that the samples obtained by different processing and drying methods could be distinguished. Albiflorin, gallic acid, 1,2,3,4,6-pentakis-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, and benzoic acid were the common differential components in boiled Paeoniae Radix Alba. Benzoic acid was the common differential component in peeled Paeoniae Radix Alba. Gallic acid was the common differential component in Paeoniae Radix Alba dried by different methods. The samples could not be distinguished after drying at different temperatures due to the lack of common differential components. This study is expected to provide a reference for the selection of processing and drying methods and the optimization of processing parameters.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Paeonia , Plant Extracts , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
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