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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927973

ABSTRACT

Following the preparation of substance benchmarks in Huanglian Decoction from 18 batches, the method for detecting their characteristic spectra was established to identify the similarity range and peak attribution. The content and transfer rate ranges of the index components coptisine, palmatine, berberine, liquiritin, glycyrrhizic acid, 6-gingerol, and cinnamaldehyde and the extraction amount were combined for analyzing the quality value transfer from the Chinese medicinal pieces to substance benchmarks and clarifying the key quality attributes of substance benchmarks in Huanglian Decoction. The results showed that the substance benchmarks in Huang-lian Decoction of 18 batches exhibited good similarity in characteristic spectra(all greater than 0.98). There were 17 characteristic peaks identified in the substance benchmarks of Huanglian Decoction, including 10 from Coptidis Rhizoma, 3 from Glycyrrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma Praeparata Cum Melle(processed with water), 1 from Zingiberis Rhizoma, and 3 from Cinnamomi Ramulus. The contents and average transfer rates of the index components were listed as follows: coptisine 2.20-6.46 mg·g~(-1) and 18.50%±2.93%; palmatine 3.03-8.13 mg·g~(-1) and 26.56%±4.69%; berberine 7.71-22.29 mg·g~(-1) and 17.34%±3.00%; liquiritin 0.88-2.18 mg·g~(-1) and 9.88%±4.88%; glycyrrhizic acid 1.83-4.44 mg·g~(-1) and 8.50%±3.72%; 6-gingerol 0.56-1.43 mg·g~(-1) and 11.36%±2.37%; cinnamaldehyde 1.55-3.48 mg·g~(-1) and 19.02%±4.36%. The extraction amount of the substance benchmarks from the 18 batches was controlled at 10.65%-13.88%. In this paper, the quality value transfer of substance benchmarks in Huanglian Decoction was analyzed based on the characteristic spectra, the index component contents and the extraction amount, which has provided a basis for the subsequent development of Huanglian Decoction and the quality control of its related preparations.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/standards , Quality Control
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927972

ABSTRACT

A total of 18 batches of Zhuru Decoction samples were prepared. Chromatographic fingerprints were established for Zhuru Decoction and single decoction pieces, the content of which was then determined. The extraction rate ranges, content, and transfer rate ranges of puerarin, liquiritin, and glycyrrhizic acid, together with the common peaks and the similarity range of the fingerprints, were determined to clarify key quality attributes of Zhuru Decoction. The 18 batches of Zhuru Decoction samples had 25 common peaks and the fingerprint similarity higher than 0.95. Puerariae Lobatae Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens had 21, 3, and 1 characteristic peaks, respectively. The 18 batches of samples showed the extraction rates within the range of 18.45%-25.29%. Puerarin had the content of 2.20%-3.07% and the transfer rate of 38.5%-45.9%; liquiritin had the content of 0.24%-0.85% and the transfer rate of 15.9%-37.5%; glycyrrhizic acid had the content of 0.39%-1.87% and the transfer rate of 16.2%-32.8%. In this paper, the quality value transmitting of substance benchmarks of Zhuru Decoction was analyzed based on chromatographic fingerprints, extraction rate, and the content of index components. A scientific and stable method was preliminarily established, which provided a scientific basis for the quality control and formulation development of Zhuru Decoction.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/standards , Glycyrrhizic Acid/analysis , Quality Control , Rhizome/chemistry
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906388

ABSTRACT

Huaihuasan, first recorded in Puji Benshifang by XU Shu-wei from the Southern Song dynasty, consists of four herbs, namely Sophorae Flos (fried), Platycladi Cacumen (smashed with pestle and baked), Schizonepetae Spica, and Aurantii Fructus (cut into pieces after the removal of pulp and then fried yellow with wheat bran). At present, Huaihuasan and its modified formulas vary in clinical usages and dosages, and the resulting outcomes have been investigated. However, there are few reviews uncovering its historical evolution. On this basis, this review systematically combed and verified the historical evolution, dose conversion between ancient and modern times, efficacy, and indications of Huaihuasan, as well as the origin and processing of the contained herbs. The findings have demonstrated that Huaihuasan is composed of four herbs, with the original plants and medicinal parts basically the same as those recorded in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Sophorae Flos refers to the dried flower and bud of Sophora japonica in family Leguminosae, Platycladi Cacumen the dried branch and leaf of Platycladus orientalis in family Cupressaceae, Schizonepetae Spica the dried flower spike of Schizonepeta tenuifolia in family Labiatae, and Aurantii Fructus the dried immature fruit of Citrus aurantium in family Rutaceae or its cultivated varieties. On account of the efficacy in clearing intestine, stopping bleeding, dispersing wind, and moving Qi, Huaihuasan has been mainly used to treat intestinal diseases such as bloody defecation and perianal abscess. In modern clinical practice, it is mainly applicable to patients with hematochezia and bleeding due to internal hemorrhoid, ulcerative colitis, or anal fissure. It was suggested that the raw medicinal materials should be decocted and processed according to the methods described in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Following the conversion formula of one Qian=4 g, this paper determined the dosages of Sophorae Flos (fried), Platycladi Cacumen (smashed with pestle and baked), Schizonepetae Spica, and Aurantii Fructus (cut into pieces after the removal of pulp and then fried yellow with wheat bran) all to be 2 g, with the total dosage being 8 g. Such comprehensive analysis based on ancient books and modern literature has provided a more scientific reference for the clinical application, research, and development of this classical formula.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690511

ABSTRACT

The point of this study is to explore and investigate mechanisms of Buyang Huanwu decoction for treatment of cerebral infarction (CI) using a network pharmacology approach. First, TCMSP database, DrugBank database and PharmMapper server were used and combined with oral bioavailability and drug analysis to screen the components of Buyang Hanwu decoction and predict the potential targets. Then, Cytoscape 3.5.1 software was used to construct compounds-targets network and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks for targets of compounds and CI-related targets and merge the two PPI networks to acquire active targets. Finally, gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analysis of active targets were carried out by DAVID online analysis tool and KOBAS 3.0 software. In total of 150 screened compounds and 232 potential targets were obtained. And in total of 208 active targets were finally determined by merging networks. Results indicated that Buyang Huanwu decoction might have a role in treating CI by regulating some biological processes including response to drug, aging, response to hypoxia, and blood coagulation, and some molecular function, such as protein binding, enzyme binding and serine-type endopeptidase activity. The mechanisms might be concerned with PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, HIF-1 signaling pathway and cAMP signaling pathway. Among them, the regulation of PI3K-Akt signaling pathway might be one of the most crucial mechanisms.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687412

ABSTRACT

The hawthorn leaves have the effect of activating blood, removing blood stasis, regulating qi through the veins, dissolving turbidity and lowering lipid. Procyanidinis is one of its main active components and plays an important role in regulating vasoactivity. Previous studies showed that the regulating effect of procyanidins was related to its regulation on nitric oxide secretion from vascular endothelial cells, and this effect was dependent on the extracellular calcium concentration, suggesting that the changes in intracellular calcium ion concentration in endothelial cells may play a key role in this process. However, the research on this issue is still insufficient so far. This study is aimed to observe the effect of hawthorn leaf oligomeric procyanidins (HLP) on calcium mobilization of vascular endothelial cells, and investigate the underlying mechanism. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were cultured and labeled with Fura-2. HUVEC were treated with HLP at concentrations of 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg·L⁻¹, and the intracellular calcium concentrations were measured with a living cell microscope for 30 min. HLP increased the intracellular calcium concentration of HUVEC in a concentration dependent manner; and the intracellular calcium concentrations in 25 and 50 mg·L⁻¹ HLP groups were significantly higher than that in the normal group. With the use of calcium-free incubation buffer, addition of calcium chelating agent EGTA in incubation buffer, or use of inhibitors for sodium calcium exchanger, the effect of HLP was significantly inhibited. On the other hand, the effect of HLP could also be weakened by inhibiting the calcium release from the intracellular storage. In conclusion, these results suggest that HLP can elicit calcium mobilization in vascular endothelial cells, which may be one of the mechanisms for its vascular modulatory activity; and this calcium mobilizing effect may be achieved through promoting both extracellular calcium influx and intracellular calcium release, additionally the former may be related to activating the reverse transport of Na⁺-Ca²⁺ exchangers on the cell membrane.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-305355

ABSTRACT

Remaining organic and functional damage of ischemia cardio-cerebrovascular disease is always a main trouble puzzling the clinicians. After the discovery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), researchers realize that postnatal angiogenesis is an important biological process, which play a key role to repair the ischemia tissue and improve the function. So a new concept which names therapeutic angiogenesis supply a new treament way for the ischemia cardio-cerebrovascular disease. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has accumulated rich experience on treating the ischemia disease, studies found that many Chinese medicine prescriptions and effective ingredients can increase the therapeutic angiogenesis, howerer the mechanisms were not the same, they mainly manifest in regular the secretion of angiogenic factors, increase the proliferation and differentiation etc. In this paper, we review recent studies, summary the Chinese medicine prescriptions and effective ingredients which can increase the therapeutic angiogenesis, and analyze the differernt pathway. We view to provide reference for the later researchers.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inducing Agents , Animals , Brain Ischemia , Drug Therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Drug Therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237952

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the inflammatory cascade mechanism through Toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) pathway after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, and to study molecular mechanisms of Guanmaitong (GMT) Tablet for protecting brain damage.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We used bolt-line method to block/release the middle cerebral artery, causing cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury model. GMT Tablet was given by gastrogavage. Rats were then divided into the high dose GMT group (1200 mg/kg), the middle dose GMT group (600 mg/kg), the low dose GMT group (300 mg/kg), the positive control group (Tanakan, 20 mg/kg). Their right brain tissues were fixed in 10% neutral formalin. TLR2 expressions were detected by immunofluorescence staining. The total protein was extracted from right brain tissues by ultrasonica- tion. Expression levels of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK), phospho-extracellular regulated protein kinases (p-ERK), p38-mitogen activated protein kinases (p-ERK), phospho-p38-mitogen activated protein kinases [p-p38-MAPKs(p-p38)] were assessed by Western blot. Abdominal aortic blood was withdrawn. IL-6 and IL-1β levels were detected by ELISA in brain tissues and serum.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the sham-oepration group, expression levels of TLR2, ERK, p-ERK, p38, p-p38 protein were up-regulated (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), and contents of IL-6 and IL-1β in brain tissues and serum were increased in the model group (P < 0.01). Expression levels of TLR2, ERK, p-ERK, p38, p-p38 were down-regulated (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), and contents of IL-6 and IL-1β were reduced in brain tissues and serum in middle and high dose GMT groups (P < 0.05, P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>TLR2 pathway was involved in cerebral I/R injury. GMT protected neurons by down-regulating protein expressions of TLR2, ERK, p-ERK, p38, p-p38 and contents of IL-1β and IL-6.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Brain Ischemia , Metabolism , Cerebral Infarction , Down-Regulation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Interleukin-1beta , Interleukin-6 , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury , Tablets , Toll-Like Receptor 2 , Metabolism , Up-Regulation , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Metabolism
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-301850

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the clinical effect of the sacrococcygeal space injection for the treatment of failed back surgery syndrome.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>From July 1998 to October 2012,47 patients with failed back surgery syndrome were treated and included 39 males and 8 females with an average age of 61.5 years old ranging from 35 to 89 years old. Among them,41 patients experienced one time of operation, 6 patients with twice of operation. Forty-one patients underwent single,bilateral fenestration or central laminectomy decompression, discectomy. Six patients underwent total laminectomy discectomy and inter body fusion and pedicle screw fixation. All patients were examined by X-ray plain film, CT or MRI before treatment. The anticoagulation was discontinuation before treatment. The needle was put into the sacrococcygeal gap at prone position in the sense of frustration,suction without cerebrospinal fluid and blood,with injection of Mailuoning (Chinese characters: see text) 15 ml. The pain was assessed by VAS before and after treatment. The Oswestry low back pain disability index and survival quality interference degree were evaluated.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>At 1 month after treatment,the pain VAS decreased from 59.24 +/- 17.35 before treatment to 19.19 +/- 11.19 after treatment (P < 0.05); The Oswestry low back pain disability index decreased from (41.35 +/- 9.87)% before treatment to (23.17 +/- 17.56)% after treatment (P < 0.05); The survival quality interference degree decreased from 6.5 +/- 2.2 before treatment to 2.6 +/- 1.4 after treatment (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The sacrococcygeal gap injection for treatment of failed back surgery syndrome has advantages of simple, safe, fewer complications, and low treatment cost.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Failed Back Surgery Syndrome , Diagnostic Imaging , Drug Therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Radiography , Sacrococcygeal Region , Diagnostic Imaging
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-300160

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the protective effect of formula of removing both phlegm and blood stasis (TYTZ) on myocardial tissues of Chinese mini-swine with coronary heart disease of phlegm-stasis cementation syndrome.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Totally 36 Chinese mini-swine were randomly divided to six groups: the normal control group, the model group, the Danlou tablet group, and TYTZ groups with doses of 2.0, 1.0, 0.5 g x kg(-1), with six in each group. Except for the normal control group, all of other groups were fed with high-fat diet for 2 weeks. Interventional balloons are adopted to injure their left anterior descending artery endothelium. After the operation, they were fed with high-fat diet for 8 weeks to prepare the coronary heart disease model of phlegm-stasis cementation syndrome in Chinese mini-swine. After the operation, they were administered with drugs for 8 weeks. The SOD activity and MDA content of each group were observed at the 0th week (before the experiment), the 2nd week after the high-fat diet (before the operation or drug administration) , the 6th week after the high-fat diet (4 weeks after the drug administration) and the 10th week after the high-fat diet (8 weeks after the drug administration). Meanwhile, the myocardial enzymogram test and the HE staining pathological observation were performed at the end of the experiment. The changes in the myocardial cell ultra-structure were observed under transmission electron microscope.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Compared with the normal control group, the model group showed significant decrease in serum SOD activity and notable increase in MDA content from the 2nd week to the end of experiment (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). In the 10th week, the CK, LDH and CK-MB levels in serum also significantly increased in the model group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01), with obvious structural abnormality in myocardial tissue pathologic morphology and ultra-structure. Compared with the model group, TYTZ groups showed specific increase in serum SOD activity and oblivious decrease in the MDA level (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Meanwhile, TYTZ could significantly decrease serum CK and LDH levels in the model group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), attenuate the ischemia injury of myocardial tissue, and improve the ultra-structure of cardiomyocytes.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>TYTZ shows an obvious protective effect on the myocardial injury in Chinese mini-swine with coronary heart disease of phlegm-stasis cementation syndrome. Its mechanism is related to the resistance against free radical oxidation injury and the inhibition of the lipid per-oxidation.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Coronary Artery Disease , Genetics , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Female , Humans , Male , Mucus , Metabolism , Myocardium , Metabolism , Protective Agents , Swine , Swine, Miniature
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330299

ABSTRACT

To establish neonatal rat cardiac fibroblast inflammatory secretion model by using LPS 100 microg x L(-1) combined with ATP 5 mmol x L(-1), in order to study the inhibitory effect of quercetin on the secretion of inflammatory factors TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 of cardiac fibroblasts, further investigate the effect of quercetin on the protein expression of p-NF-kappaB p65 (S276) and p-Akt (S473) by western blot, and discuss the inhibitory effect of quercetin on the inflammatory secretion of cardiac fibroblasts. According to the findings, quercetin with the concentrations between 51.74 micromol x L(-1) and 827.81 micromol x L(-1) had no significant effect on the activity of cardiac fibroblasts. Quercetin with the concentrations of 82.78, 41.39, 20.70 micromol x L(-1) could notably inhibit the increase of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta induced by LPS 100 microg x L(-1) for 3 h and then ATP 5 mmol x L(-1) for 36 h (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Quercetin with the concentrations of 82.78, 41.39 micromol x L(-1) could notably inhibit the increase of IL-6 induced LPS 100 microg x L(-1) for 3 h and then ATP 5 mmol x L(-1) for 36 h (P < 0.05), without any notable effect of quercetin with the concentration of 20.70 micromol x L(-1). Quercetin with the concentrations of 82.78, 41.39, 20. 70 micromol x L(-1) could notably inhibit the NF-kappaB p65 (S276) activation induced by LPS 100 microg x L(-1) for 3 h and then ATP 5 mmol x L(-1) for 15 min, with the most significant effect in 20.70 micromol x L(-1). Quercetin with the concentrations of 82.78, 41.39, 20.70 micromol x L(-1) could notably inhibit the increase of p-Akt(473) expression induced by LPS 100 microg x L(-1) for 3 h and then ATP 5 mmol x L(-1) for 240 min (P < 0.05). Therefore, this study believes that quercetin could attenuate the secretion of inflammatory factors TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 of cardiac fibroblasts by inhibiting the activation of NF-kappaB p65 (S276) and Akt (473).


Subject(s)
Animals , Cells, Cultured , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Endomyocardial Fibrosis , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Female , Fibroblasts , Allergy and Immunology , Heart , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Male , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Quercetin , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-231594

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To clarify the protective roles of compatibility of geniposide and ginsenoside (Rg1) in regulating ischemia injured microglia homeostasis by comparing the difference in regulatory roles of geniposide, Rg1, or ginsenoside + Rg1 in balancing secretion of oxygen glucose deprivation induced microglia inflammatory cytokines.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The mimic ischemia injured microglia model was induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Then geniposide, Rg1, or ginsenoside + Rg1 (Tongluo Jiunao Injection, TJI) was respectively added. The NO content was determined by Griess Reagent. The cyto activity was detected using cell count kit. Contents of TNF-alpha and TGF-beta and their expression levels were detected by ELISA and Western blot.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Geniposide + Rg1 could significantly inhibit the release of NO, elevate the TGF-beta level, and decrease the content of TNF-alpha without influencing the cell survival. The two active ingredients played different therapeutic roles. The compatible use was obviously superior to use any one of the two active ingredients alone.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Geniposide, Rg1, or Ginsenoside + Rg1 had regulating roles in balancing ischemia injured microglia homeostasis. Its mechanisms might be related to up-regulating the TGF-beta expression and down-regulating TNF-alpha expression.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Ginsenosides , Pharmacology , Hypoxia , Metabolism , Iridoids , Pharmacology , Mice , Microglia , Metabolism , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-291292

ABSTRACT

To establish cardiomyocyte hypoxia/reoxygenation injury model by culturing primary cardiomyocytes from suckling SD rats, in order to study the effect of succinic acid on LDH leakage rate cardiomyocyte ischemia/reperfusion injury. Furthermore, flow cytometry and western blot were conducted to detect the effect of succinic acid on cardiomyocyte apoptosis, cleaved caspase-3 and p-Akt, and discuss the protective effect of succinic acid on primary cardiomyocyte hypoxia/reoxygenation injury of primary cardiomyocytes from neonatal SD rats. According to the findings of the study, succinic acid at the concentrations ranging between 31.25 mg x L(-1) and 500 mg x L(-1) had no significant effect on primary cardiomyocyte activity, and succinic acid at the concentrations of 400, 200, 100, 50 mg x L(-1) could notably reduce cardiomyocyte ischemia/reperfusion LDH leakage rate (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05, respectively). Succinic acid at the concentrations of 400 mg x L(-1) and 200 mg x L(-1) could significantly reduce the percentage of cardiomyocyte apoptosis (P < 0.05), and inhibit the protein expression of cleaved caspase-3 caused by cardiomyocyte ischemia/reperfusion (P < 0.05). Succinic acid at the concentration of 400 mg x L(-1) could remarkably increase the protein expression of cardiomyocyte Akt (P < 0.05), while succinic acid at the concentration of 200 mg x L(-1) had no obvious effect on the protein expression of cardiomyocyte Akt. Therefore, this study demonstrated that succinic acid could inhibit necrosis and apoptosis caused by cardiomyocyte hypoxia/reoxygenation by activating Akt phosphorylation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Metabolism , Cell Hypoxia , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Female , Humans , Hypoxia , Metabolism , Male , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury , Metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Oxygen , Metabolism , Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Succinic Acid , Pharmacology
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