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1.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 126-139, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901599

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Quantitative flow ratio (QFR) is an angiography-based technique for functional assessment of coronary artery stenosis. This study investigated the response of QFR to different degree of stenosis severity and its ability to predict the positron emission tomography (PET)-defined myocardial ischemia. @*Methods@#From 109 patients with 185 vessels who underwent both 13 N-ammonia PET and invasive physiological measurement, we compared QFR, fractional flow reserve (FFR) and instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) for the responses to the different degree of anatomical (percent diameter stenosis [%DS]) and hemodynamic (relative flow reserve [RFR], coronary flow reserve, hyperemic stenosis resistance, and stress myocardial flow) stenosis severity and diagnostic performance against PET-derived parameters. @*Results@#QFR, FFR, and iFR showed similar responses to both anatomic and hemodynamic stenosis severity. Regarding RFR, the diagnostic accuracy of QFR was lower than FFR (76.2% vs. 83.2%, p=0.021) and iFR (76.2% vs. 84.3%, p=0.031). For coronary flow capacity (CFC), QFR showed a lower accuracy than iFR (74.1% vs. 82%, p=0.031) and lower discriminant function than FFR (area under curve: 0.74 vs. 0.79, p=0.044). Discordance between QFR and FFR or iFR was shown in 14.6% of cases and was driven by the difference in %DS and heterogeneous distribution of PET-derived RFR and stress myocardial blood flow. @*Conclusions@#QFR demonstrated a similar response to different anatomic and hemodynamic stenosis severity as FFR or iFR. However, its diagnostic performance was inferior to FFR and iFR when PET-derived RFR and CFC were used as a reference.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898174

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

3.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 126-139, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893895

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Quantitative flow ratio (QFR) is an angiography-based technique for functional assessment of coronary artery stenosis. This study investigated the response of QFR to different degree of stenosis severity and its ability to predict the positron emission tomography (PET)-defined myocardial ischemia. @*Methods@#From 109 patients with 185 vessels who underwent both 13 N-ammonia PET and invasive physiological measurement, we compared QFR, fractional flow reserve (FFR) and instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) for the responses to the different degree of anatomical (percent diameter stenosis [%DS]) and hemodynamic (relative flow reserve [RFR], coronary flow reserve, hyperemic stenosis resistance, and stress myocardial flow) stenosis severity and diagnostic performance against PET-derived parameters. @*Results@#QFR, FFR, and iFR showed similar responses to both anatomic and hemodynamic stenosis severity. Regarding RFR, the diagnostic accuracy of QFR was lower than FFR (76.2% vs. 83.2%, p=0.021) and iFR (76.2% vs. 84.3%, p=0.031). For coronary flow capacity (CFC), QFR showed a lower accuracy than iFR (74.1% vs. 82%, p=0.031) and lower discriminant function than FFR (area under curve: 0.74 vs. 0.79, p=0.044). Discordance between QFR and FFR or iFR was shown in 14.6% of cases and was driven by the difference in %DS and heterogeneous distribution of PET-derived RFR and stress myocardial blood flow. @*Conclusions@#QFR demonstrated a similar response to different anatomic and hemodynamic stenosis severity as FFR or iFR. However, its diagnostic performance was inferior to FFR and iFR when PET-derived RFR and CFC were used as a reference.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890470

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786489

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although quantification of amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) is important for evaluating patients with cognitive impairment, its routine clinical use is hampered by complicated preprocessing steps and required MRI. Here, we suggested a one-step quantification based on deep learning using native-space amyloid PET images of different radiotracers acquired from multiple centers.METHODS: Amyloid PET data of the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) were used for this study. A training/validation consists of 850 florbetapir PET images. Three hundred sixty-six florbetapir and 89 florbetaben PET images were used as test sets to evaluate the model. Native-space amyloid PET images were used as inputs, and the outputs were standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) calculated by the conventional MR-based method.RESULTS: The mean absolute errors (MAEs) of the composite SUVR were 0.040, 0.060, and 0.050 of training/validation and test sets for florbetapir PETand a test set for florbetaben PET, respectively. The agreement of amyloid positivity measured by Cohen's kappa for test sets of florbetapir and florbetaben PET were 0.87 and 0.89, respectively.CONCLUSION: We suggest a one-step quantification method for amyloid PET via a deep learning model. The model is highly reliable to quantify the amyloid PET regardless of multicenter images and various radiotracers.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid , Cognition Disorders , Humans , Learning , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Neuroimaging , Positron-Emission Tomography
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786452

ABSTRACT

Radiomics is a medical imaging analysis approach based on computer-vision. Metabolic radiomics in particular analyses the spatial distribution patterns of molecular metabolism on PET images. Measuring intratumoral heterogeneity via image is one of the main targets of radiomics research, and it aims to build a image-based model for better patient management. The workflow of radiomics using texture analysis follows these steps: 1) imaging (image acquisition and reconstruction); 2) preprocessing (segmentation & quantization); 3) quantification (texture matrix design & texture feature extraction); and 4) analysis (statistics and/or machine learning). The parameters or conditions at each of these steps are effect on the results. In statistical testing or modeling, problems such as multiple comparisons, dependence on other variables, and high dimensionality of small sample size data should be considered. Standardization of methodology and harmonization of image quality are one of the most important challenges with radiomics methodology. Even though there are current issues in radiomics methodology, it is expected that radiomics will be clinically useful in personalized medicine for oncology.


Subject(s)
Diagnostic Imaging , Humans , Metabolism , Population Characteristics , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Precision Medicine , Sample Size
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715443

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the prognostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects were 76 patients with newly diagnosed myeloma and pretreatment with 18F-FDG PET/CT from four hospitals. The PET/CT features were evaluated and the clinical characteristics were reviewed. Prognostic factors related to poor progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were identified using a Cox proportional hazards regression model and a prediction scale was developed based on the identified factors. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of 18F-FDG-avid focal bone lesions (≥ 3) was a significant and independent predictor of PFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.28, p = 0.007) and OS (HR = 11.78, p = 0.001). The presence of extramedullary disease on PET/CT scan was also a significant predictor of poor PFS (HR = 2.79, p = 0.006) and OS (HR = 3.89, p = 0.003). A prognostic scale was developed using these two predictors. An increase in score on the scale corresponded to a significantly increased risk of poor OS (p = 0.005). In addition, Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patient survival varied significantly according to the scale (p < 0.001 for OS and p = 0.001 for PFS). CONCLUSION: 18F-FDG-avid focal lesions and the presence of extramedullary disease on PET/CT scan are significantly associated with poor OS in MM patients. The scale developed according to these predictors represents a potential prognostic tool for evaluation of patients with MM.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Electrons , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Multiple Myeloma , Multivariate Analysis , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Prognosis
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714013

ABSTRACT

Radioembolization using beta-emitting yttrium-90 microspheres is being increasingly used for the treatment of primary and metastatic liver cancers. It is a form of intra-arterial brachytherapy which delivers intense radiation to liver tumors with little embolic effect; this mode of action results in unique post-treatment imaging findings. It is important to understand these imaging findings to avoid misinterpretation of tumor response and to determine further management of the disease. Herein, we discuss the current concepts for assessing tumor response, common post-treatment imaging features, and associated complications following radioembolization.


Subject(s)
Brachytherapy , Liver Neoplasms , Liver , Microspheres
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787017

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In malignant melanoma, recurrence is often observed in distant areas from the primary site. While FDG PET is a sensitive imaging for detecting malignant lesions, the role of FDG PET in posttreatment surveillance period has not been investigated sufficiently. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of PET during posttreatment surveillance in melanoma.METHODS: A total of 76 melanoma patients who underwent FDG PET during surveillance period after completion of the first treatment were retrospectively enrolled. PET scans were grouped according to the purpose and clinical situations, routine surveillance, or evaluating clinical suspicion. Final diagnosis of recurrence was determined by complete clinical evaluation or long-term follow-up. In each situation, the diagnostic role of FDG PET was assessed.RESULTS: A total of 143 scans of 76 patients were analyzed: 51 for clinical suspicion and 92 for routine surveillance. In the clinical suspicion group, PET correctly diagnosed non-recurrence in 10 cases (20%). In routine surveillance group, 16 cases (17%) presented recurrence, all of which was correctly diagnosed on PET. NPVand PPV were 100% and 76%, respectively. In subgroup analysis, sensitivity and NPV were higher in the low-risk group (stages I–II(A)) than in the high-risk group (stages II(B)–IV), while specificity and PPV were higher in the high-risk group.CONCLUSION: In conclusion, FDG PET is an effective diagnostic tool in posttreatment surveillance of melanoma. Even in cases without clinical suspicion, melanoma recurs in a considerable proportion of patients, which can be sensitively diagnosed on PET.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Melanoma , Positron-Emission Tomography , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787015

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is a standard imaging modality for response evaluation in FDG-avid lymphoma, there is a controversy using FDG PET in indolent lymphoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of quantitative indexes on FDG PET in response evaluation of the indolent lymphoma.METHODS: Fifty-seven indolent lymphoma patients who completed chemotherapy were retrospectively enrolled. FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) scans were performed at baseline, interim, and end of treatment (EOT). Response was determined by Lugano classification, and progression-free survival (PFS) by follow-up data. Maximumstandardized uptake value (SUV(max)), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were measured in the single hottest lesion (target A) or five hottest lesions (target B). Their efficacies regarding response evaluation and PFS prediction were evaluated.RESULTS: On EOT PET, SUV(max), and MTVof both targets were well associated with visual analysis. Changes between initial and EOT PET were not significantly different between CR and non-CR groups. On interim PET, SUV(max), and %ΔSUV(max) in both targets were significantly different between CR and non-CR groups. For prediction of PFS, most tested indexes were significant on EOT and interim PET, with SUVmax being the most significant prognostic factor.CONCLUSION: Quantitative indexes of FDG PET are well associated with Lugano classification in indolent lymphoma. SUV(max) measured in the single hottest lesion can be effective in response evaluation and prognosis prediction on interim and EOT PET.


Subject(s)
Classification , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Glycolysis , Humans , Lymphoma , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Tumor Burden
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787001

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: ⁶⁸Ga-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N′,N″,N‴-tetraacetic acid-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotide (⁶⁸Ga-DOTATOC) is taken up by activated macrophages, which accumulate in active inflammatory lesions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of ⁶⁸Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT for assessment of vulnerable plaque, by evaluating correlation between aortic uptake of ⁶⁸Ga-DOTATOC and cardiovascular risk factors.METHODS: Fifty patients with neuroendocrine tumors who underwent ⁶⁸Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT were retrospectively enrolled. The uptakes in the thoracic aorta were measured by two methods: multi-sample region-of-interest (ROI) method and single volume-of-interest (VOI) method. TBRmax-avg, TBRmean-avg, TBRmax-VOI, and TBRmean-VOI were defined by maximum and mean target-to-background ratio (TBR) from the multi-sample ROI method and the single VOI method, respectively.RESULTS: Framinghamrisk score (FRS) exhibited significant correlations with TBRmax-avg and TBRmean-avg, aswell as TBRmax-VOI (r = 0.3389–0.4593, P < 0.05 for all). TBRmax-avg and TBRmax-VOI were significantly higher in high FRS group than in low FRS group (1.48 ± 0.21 vs. 1.70 ± 0.17, P < 0.001 for TBRmax-avg and 1.90 ± 0.33 vs. 2.25 ± 0.36, P = 0.002 for TBRmax-VOI). TBR exhibited high correlations between the two measuring methods (r = 0.9684, P < 0.001 for TBRmean-avg and TBRmean-VOI and r = 0.8681, P < 0.001 for TBRmax-avg and TBRmax-VOI).CONCLUSIONS: ⁶⁸Ga-DOTATOC uptake in the thoracic aorta exhibited a significant correlation with cardiovascular risk factors, which suggests the feasibility of ⁶⁸Ga-DOTATOC PET for vulnerable plaque imaging, with a simple measurement of the single VOI method that is comparable to the multi-sample ROI-based approach.


Subject(s)
Aorta, Thoracic , Atherosclerosis , Humans , Macrophages , Methods , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786966

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Herein, we report characteristics of ¹⁸F–fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) during a long-term follow-up. In addition, we investigated the association between FDG uptake and the physician decision to perform an intervention.METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 42 patients with AAAs who underwent FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). The size of the AAA was measured in serial CT or PET/CT images. The long-term growth rate of AAAs was calculated by linear regression of the size change. Maximal SUV of the AAA (SUV(AAA)) and mean SUV of the blood pool (SUV(Blood)) were measured in PET/CT fusion images. To assess the FDG uptake of AAAs, the target-to-background ratio (TBR) was defined as the ratio of SUV(AAA) to SUV(Blood). We compared FDG uptake of AAAs with the long-term growth rate of AAAs and clinical data.RESULTS: TBR was not significantly different between patients with and without significant growth (1.55 ± 0.20 vs. 1.57 ± 0.14; P = 0.5599).However, in patients with significant growth, TBR exhibited a significant positive correlation with the growth rate (r² = 0.2601, P = 0.0306). TBR also exhibited a significant difference between patients with and without intervention (P = 0.0228).CONCLUSION: FDG uptake of AAA is associated with long-term growth of AAAs in a specified group that exhibits growth. FDG PET/CT may only be effective in predicting the long-term growth of AAAs in specific subgroups of patients. It is also suggested that FDG PET is potentially related to the clinical conditions of AAA patients who need surgical or interventional treatment.


Subject(s)
Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Linear Models , Positron-Emission Tomography , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Retrospective Studies
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786920

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: FDG PET is effective in treatment response evaluation of cancer. However, there is no standard method for quantitative evaluation of FDG PET, particularly regarding cytostatic drugs. We compared various FDG PET quantitative methods in terms of response determination.METHODS: A total of 39 refractory metastatic colorectal cancer patients who received a multikinase inhibitor treatment were included. Baseline and posttreatment FDG PET/CT scans were performed before and two cycles after treatment. Standardized uptake value (SUV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) values using various margin thresholds (30–70 % of maximum SUV with increment 10 %, twice mean SUV of blood pool, SUV 3.0, and SUV 4.0) were measured, with measurement target of the hottest lesion or a maximum of five hottest lesions. Treatment response by the PERCIST criteria was also determined. Predictive values of the PET indexes were evaluated in terms of the treatment response determined by the RECIST 1.1 criteria.RESULTS: The agreement rate was 38 % between response determined by the PERCIST and the RECIST criteria (κ = 0.381). When patients were classified into disease control group (PR, SD) and non-control group (PD) by the RECIST criteria, percent changes of TLG with various margin thresholds (particularly, 30–50%of maximum SUV) exhibited significant differences between the two groups, and high diagnostic power for the response by the RECIST criteria. TLG-based criteria, which used a margin threshold of 50 % of maximum SUV, exhibited a high agreement with the RECIST criteria compared with the PERCIST criteria (κ = 0.606).CONCLUSION: In metastatic colorectal cancer, FDG PET/CT could be effective for treatment response evaluation by using TLG measured by margin thresholds of 30–50%of maximum SUV. Further studies are warranted regarding the optimal cutoff values for this method.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Cytostatic Agents , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Glycolysis , Humans , Methods , Positron-Emission Tomography , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786918

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Until now, there was no single standardized regional segmentation method of planar lung perfusion scan.We compared planar scan based two segmentation methods, which are frequently used in the Society of Nuclear Medicine, with reference to the lung perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) derived values in lung cancer patients.METHODS: Fifty-five lung cancer patients (male:female, 37:18; age, 67.8 ± 10.7 years) were evaluated. The patients underwent planar scan and SPECT/CT after injection of technetium-99 m macroaggregated albumin (Tc-99 m-MAA). The % uptake and predicted postoperative percentage forced expiratory volume in 1 s (ppoFEV1%) derived from both posterior oblique (PO) and anterior posterior (AP) methods were compared with SPECT/CT derived parameters. Concordance analysis, paired comparison, reproducibility analysis and spearman correlation analysis were conducted.RESULTS: The % uptake derived from PO method showed higher concordance with SPECT/CT derived % uptake in every lobe compared to AP method. Both methods showed significantly different lobar distribution of%uptake compared to SPECT/CT. For the target region, ppoFEV1% measured from PO method showed higher concordance with SPECT/CT, but lower reproducibility compared to AP method. Preliminary data revealed that every method significantly correlated with actual postoperative FEV1%, with SPECT/CT showing the best correlation.CONCLUSIONS: The PO method derived values showed better concordance with SPECT/CT compared to the AP method. Both PO and AP methods showed significantly different lobar distribution compared to SPECT/CT. In clinical practice such difference according to different methods and lobes should be considered for more accurate postoperative lung function prediction.


Subject(s)
Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Matched-Pair Analysis , Methods , Nuclear Medicine , Perfusion Imaging , Perfusion , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-122231

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The extent of weight gain and its association with clinical factors in patients undergoing radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer remain unclear. We analyzed clinical factors related to sustained weight gain after serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation for radioiodine (I-131) therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population included 301 adult patients who underwent total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine therapy and visited the thyroid clinic regularly. Group 1 received a single radioiodine therapy treatment, while group 2 received multiple radioiodine treatment. Data on transient weight gain, defined as weight gain that resolved (±5%) within 1 year after radioiodine therapy, were collected from medical records. Sustained weight gain was defined as body mass index after treatment (BMI(post)) - BMI before treatment (BMI(pre)) ≥2 kg/m2 more than 1 year following radioiodine therapy. Subjective symptoms were scored by questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was performed using various clinical and laboratory factors to identify risk factors associated with sustained weight gain. RESULTS: Two hundred and fifty-nine (86%) patients showed transient weight gain and 23 (8%) patients showed sustained weight gain. TSH at therapy and T4-on TSH differed significantly in all patients and in the patients in group 1 with sustained weight gain. The proportion of patients with basal BMI≥25 kg/m2 in group 1 with sustained weight gain also differed significantly. Univariate analysis revealed that high serum levels of TSH at therapy (≥100 µIU/mL) and hypercholesterolemia were associated with sustained weight gain in group 1. Multivariate analysis showed that TSH at therapy levels ≥100 µIU/mL was associated with sustained weight gain in group 1. Of 283 patients remaining after excluding those with insufficient TSH suppression during follow-up, T4-on TSH levels were lower in the sustained weight gain group compared to those without sustained weight gain. TSH at therapy levels ≥100 µIU/mL were significantly associated with sustained weight gain in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Most patients (86%) had transient weight gain after TSH at therapy, while 8% of patients showed sustained weight gain. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed relatively high TSH levels (≥100 µIU/mL) to be a risk factor for patients that received a single dose of radioiodine therapy. Insufficient T4 dose was not associated with sustained weight gain.


Subject(s)
Adult , Body Mass Index , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypercholesterolemia , Logistic Models , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , Thyrotropin , Weight Gain
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-66001

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to estimate average radiation exposure from 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) examinations and to analyze possible factors affecting the radiation dose. A nation-wide questionnaire survey was conducted involving all institutions that operate PET/CT scanners in Korea. From the response, radiation doses from injected FDG and CT examination were calculated. A total of 105 PET/CT scanners in 73 institutions were included in the analysis (response rate of 62.4%). The average FDG injected activity was 310 +/- 77 MBq and 5.11 +/- 1.19 MBq/kg. The average effective dose from FDG was estimated to be 5.89 +/- 1.46 mSv. The average CT dose index and dose-length product were 4.60 +/- 2.47 mGy and 429.2 +/- 227.6 mGycm, which corresponded to 6.26 +/- 3.06 mSv. The radiation doses from FDG and CT were significantly lower in case of newer scanners than older ones (P < 0.001). Advanced PET technologies such as time-of-flight acquisition and point-spread function recovery were also related to low radiation dose (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the average radiation dose from FDG PET/CT is estimated to be 12.2 mSv. The radiation dose from FDG PET/CT is reduced with more recent scanners equipped with image-enhancing algorithms.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/chemistry , Humans , Infant , Positron-Emission Tomography , Radiation Dosage , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Whole Body Imaging
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195474

ABSTRACT

The prognosis of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is excellent, which is mainly due to the high therapeutic efficacy of radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy as well as indolent nature of thyroid cancer itself. Although most patients with DTC are well treated with RAI therapy, a certain number of patients have been suffered from refractoriness to RAI therapy. To overcome refractoriness, many alternative treatments have been investigated, and they could be classified based on the mechanisms of action; redifferentiation drug and molecular targeted drug. Not only redifferentiated drugs but also molecular targeted drugs could induce differentiation of thyroid cancer cells. Consequently, alternative treatments allowing tumor cells of RAI avidity followed by RAI therapy could utilize a synergistic effect of both therapies. Combined RAI therapy is expected to improve therapeutic effects and prognoses of RAI refractory thyroid cancers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Iodine , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Prognosis , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1686-1693, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70401

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated hemodynamic significance of stenosis on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) using acetazolamide perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of 171 patients, stenosis in internal carotid artery (ICA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) (ICA-MCA) on MRA and cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) of MCA territory on SPECT was measured using quantification and a 3-grade system. Stenosis and CVR grades were compared with each other, and their prognostic value for subsequent stroke was evaluated. RESULTS: Of 342 ICA-MCA, 151 (44%) presented stenosis on MRA; grade 1 in 69 (20%) and grade 2 in 82 (24%) cases. Decreased CVR was observed in 9% of grade 0 stenosis, 25% of grade 1, and 35% of grade 2. The average CVR of grade 0 was significantly different from grade 1 (p<0.001) and grade 2 stenosis (p=0.007). In quantitative analysis, average CVR index was -0.56+/-7.91 in grade 0, -1.81+/-6.66 in grade 1 and -1.18+/-5.88 in grade 2 stenosis. Agreement between stenosis and CVR grades was fair in patients with lateralizing and non-lateralizing symptoms (kappa=0.230 and 0.346). Of the factors tested, both MRA and CVR were not significant prognostic factors (p=0.104 and 0.988, respectively), whereas hypertension and renal disease were significant factors (p<0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: A considerable proportion of ICA-MCA stenosis detected on MRA does not cause CVR impairment despite a fair correlation between them. Thus, hemodynamic state needs to be assessed for evaluating significance of stenosis, particularly in asymptomatic patients.


Subject(s)
Acetazolamide , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain/blood supply , Carotid Artery, Internal/physiopathology , Carotid Stenosis/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Constriction, Pathologic , Diuretics , Female , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Iodine Radioisotopes , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Male , Middle Aged , Radiopharmaceuticals , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81042

ABSTRACT

Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease as well as a lipid disorder. Atherosclerotic plaque formed in vessel walls may cause ischemia, and the rupture of vulnerable plaque may result in fatal events, like myocardial infarction or stroke. Because morphological imaging has limitations in diagnosing vulnerable plaque, molecular imaging has been developed, in particular, the use of nuclear imaging probes. Molecular imaging targets various aspects of vulnerable plaque, such as inflammatory cell accumulation, endothelial activation, proteolysis, neoangiogenesis, hypoxia, apoptosis, and calcification. Many preclinical and clinical studies have been conducted with various imaging probes and some of them have exhibited promising results. Despite some limitations in imaging technology, molecular imaging is expected to be used both in the research and clinical fields as imaging instruments become more advanced.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Lipoproteins, LDL/metabolism , Macrophages/immunology , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Positron-Emission Tomography , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193457

ABSTRACT

The role of integrated 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT) is uncertain in gallbladder cancer. The aim of this study was to show the role of PET-CT in gallbladder cancer patients. Fifty-three patients with gallbladder cancer underwent preoperative computed tomography (CT) and PET-CT scans. Their medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-six patients underwent resection. Based on the final outcomes, PET-CT was in good agreement (0.61 to 0.80) with resectability whereas CT was in acceptable agreement (0.41 to 0.60) with resectability. When the diagnostic accuracy of the predictions for resectability was calculated with the ROC curve, the accuracy of PET-CT was higher than that of CT in patients who underwent surgical resection (P=0.03), however, there was no difference with all patients (P=0.12). CT and PET-CT had a discrepancy in assessing curative resection in nine patients. These consisted of two false negative and four false positive CT results (11.3%) and three false negative PET-CT results (5.1%). PET-CT was in good agreement with the final outcomes compared to CT. As a complementary role of PEC-CT to CT, PET-CT tended to show better prediction about resectability than CT, especially due to unexpected distant metastasis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cholecystography , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Gallbladder/pathology , Gallbladder Neoplasms/diagnosis , Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Positron-Emission Tomography , Radiopharmaceuticals , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
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