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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927078

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium vivax exhibits dormant liver-stage parasites, called hypnozoites, which can cause relapse of malaria. The only drug currently used for eliminating hypnozoites is primaquine. The antimalarial properties of primaquine are dependent on the production of oxidized metabolites by the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2D6 (CYP2D6). Reduced primaquine metabolism may be related to P. vivax relapses. We describe a case of 4 episodes of recurrence of vivax malaria in a patient with decreased CYP2D6 function. The patient was 52-year-old male with body weight of 52 kg. He received total gastrectomy and splenectomy 7 months before the first episode and was under chemotherapy for the gastric cancer. The first episode occurred in March 2019 and each episode had intervals of 34, 41, and 97 days, respectively. At the first and second episodes, primaquine was administered as 15 mg for 14 days. The primaquine dose was increased with 30 mg for 14 days at the third and fourth episodes. Seven gene sequences of P. vivax were analyzed and revealed totally identical for all the 4 samples. The CYP2D6 genotype was analyzed and intermediate metabolizer phenotype with decreased function was identified.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903862

ABSTRACT

The computer vision diagnostic approach currently generates several malaria diagnostic tools. It enhances the accessible and straightforward diagnostics that necessary for clinics and health centers in malaria-endemic areas. A new computer malaria diagnostics tool called the malaria scanner was used to investigate living malaria parasites with easy sample preparation, fast and user-friendly. The cultured Plasmodium parasites were used to confirm the sensitivity of this technique then compared to fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis and light microscopic examination. The measured percentage of parasitemia by the malaria scanner revealed higher precision than microscopy and was similar to FACS. The coefficients of variation of this technique were 1.2-6.7% for Plasmodium knowlesi and 0.3-4.8% for P. falciparum. It allowed determining parasitemia levels of 0.1% or higher, with coefficient of variation smaller than 10%. In terms of the precision range of parasitemia, both high and low ranges showed similar precision results. Pearson’s correlation test was used to evaluate the correlation data coming from all methods. A strong correlation of measured parasitemia (r2=0.99, P<0.05) was observed between each method. The parasitemia analysis using this new diagnostic tool needs technical improvement, particularly in the differentiation of malaria species.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896158

ABSTRACT

The computer vision diagnostic approach currently generates several malaria diagnostic tools. It enhances the accessible and straightforward diagnostics that necessary for clinics and health centers in malaria-endemic areas. A new computer malaria diagnostics tool called the malaria scanner was used to investigate living malaria parasites with easy sample preparation, fast and user-friendly. The cultured Plasmodium parasites were used to confirm the sensitivity of this technique then compared to fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis and light microscopic examination. The measured percentage of parasitemia by the malaria scanner revealed higher precision than microscopy and was similar to FACS. The coefficients of variation of this technique were 1.2-6.7% for Plasmodium knowlesi and 0.3-4.8% for P. falciparum. It allowed determining parasitemia levels of 0.1% or higher, with coefficient of variation smaller than 10%. In terms of the precision range of parasitemia, both high and low ranges showed similar precision results. Pearson’s correlation test was used to evaluate the correlation data coming from all methods. A strong correlation of measured parasitemia (r2=0.99, P<0.05) was observed between each method. The parasitemia analysis using this new diagnostic tool needs technical improvement, particularly in the differentiation of malaria species.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903850

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium vivax reemerged in 1993. It has been sustained for more than 25 years and become one of the important indigenous parasitic diseases in northern and western parts of the Republic of Korea near the demilitarized zone. In particular, relapse is a significant concern for the control of malaria, as short- and long-term incubation periods vary among those infected in Korea. In this study, the prevalence of asymptomatic carriers was examined among residents of high endemic areas of vivax malaria during nonseasonal transmission of mosquitoes. Blood samples from 3 endemic regions in northwestern Korea were evaluated by microscopic examination, rapid diagnostic testing, and nested PCR to identify asymptomatic patients carrying malaria parasites in the community. However, no positive malaria case among residents of endemic areas was detected. Additionally, serological analysis was carried out to measure antibodies against 3 antigenic recombinant proteins of P. vivax, merozoite surface protein 1-19, circumsporozoite surface protein-VK210, and liver-stage antigen (PvLSA-N), by the protein array method. Interestingly, seropositivity of sera between previous exposure and samples without exposure to malaria was significantly higher using the PvLSA-N antigen than the other antigens, suggesting that PvLSA-N can be used as a serological marker to analyze the degree of exposure for malaria transmission in endemic areas. This indicates a very low asymptomatic carrier prevalence during the nonmalaria season in the endemic areas of Korea.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896146

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium vivax reemerged in 1993. It has been sustained for more than 25 years and become one of the important indigenous parasitic diseases in northern and western parts of the Republic of Korea near the demilitarized zone. In particular, relapse is a significant concern for the control of malaria, as short- and long-term incubation periods vary among those infected in Korea. In this study, the prevalence of asymptomatic carriers was examined among residents of high endemic areas of vivax malaria during nonseasonal transmission of mosquitoes. Blood samples from 3 endemic regions in northwestern Korea were evaluated by microscopic examination, rapid diagnostic testing, and nested PCR to identify asymptomatic patients carrying malaria parasites in the community. However, no positive malaria case among residents of endemic areas was detected. Additionally, serological analysis was carried out to measure antibodies against 3 antigenic recombinant proteins of P. vivax, merozoite surface protein 1-19, circumsporozoite surface protein-VK210, and liver-stage antigen (PvLSA-N), by the protein array method. Interestingly, seropositivity of sera between previous exposure and samples without exposure to malaria was significantly higher using the PvLSA-N antigen than the other antigens, suggesting that PvLSA-N can be used as a serological marker to analyze the degree of exposure for malaria transmission in endemic areas. This indicates a very low asymptomatic carrier prevalence during the nonmalaria season in the endemic areas of Korea.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914689

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Adenosine A2A receptor agonist polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) possesses an anti-inflammatory effect and suppress apoptotic cell death in several disorders. In this current study, the effect of PDRN on inflammation and apoptosis in rats with Achilles tendon injury was investigated. @*Methods@#von Frey filament test and plantar test were conducted for the determination of pain threshold. Analysis of histological alterations was conducted by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Immunohistochemistry for cleaved caspase-3-positive cells and cleaved caspase-9-positive cells was done. Enzyme-linked immunoassay was used to detect the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and cyclic adenosine-3’,5’-monophosphate (cAMP). Western blot was conducted to detect the protein levels of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), protein kinase A (PKA), Bcl-2-associated X (Bax), and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). @*Results@#PDRN treatment relieved mechanical allodynia and alleviated thermal hyperalgesia after Achilles tendon injury. TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations were decreased by PDRN application. PDRN injection significantly enhanced cAMP concentration and phosphorylated CREB versus CREB ratio, showing cAMP-PKA-CREB pathway was activated by PDRN application. PDRN treatment inhibited percentages of cleaved caspase-3-positive cells and caspase-9-posiive cells and the suppressed Bax versus Bcl-2 ratio in Achilles tendon injury rats. @*Conclusions@#PDRN is probably believed to have a good effect on pain and inflammation in the urogenital organs. PDRN may be used as a new treatment for Achilles tendon injury.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835684

ABSTRACT

Submental or submandibular intubation has been reported to cause fewer complications than tracheostomy. However, the risk of infection is always inherent because oral wounds are exposed to microbial flora and bacteria in the oral cavity. A novel technique of submandibular intubation was devised to reduce infection and injury to the soft tissues. We would like to report a novel safe technique that can be performed in patients requiring submental or submandibular intubation. This is the first report of submandibular intubation using a sterile disposable camera cable drape. This novel technique of submandibular intubation is safer, more sterile, easier, and less invasive than conventional submandibular intubation.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834361

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The effects of dexmedetomidine on locomotor function and thermal hyperalgesia in sciatic nerve crush injury (SNCI) were investigated using rats. @*Methods@#After exposing the right sciatic nerve, the sciatic nerve was crushed for 1 minute by a surgical clip. One day after nerve injury, dexmedetomidine (5, 25, and 50 µg/kg) was directly applied to the injured sciatic nerve once a day for 14 days. Walking track analysis was used to assess locomotor function and plantar test was conducted to assess thermal pain sensitivity. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expression of c-Fos in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Western blot was used to evaluate the expression level of nerve growth factor (NGF) and myelin basic protein (MBP) in the sciatic nerve. @*Results@#SNCI resulted in deterioration of locomotor function and increased thermal pain sensitivity. The level of c-Fos expression in the PVN and vlPAG was increased and the level of NGF and MBP expression in the sciatic nerve was enhanced by SNCI. Dexmedetomidine treatment improved locomotor function and upregulated expression of NGF and MBP in the sciatic nerve of SNCI. Dexmedetomidine treatment alleviated thermal hyperalgesia and downregulated expression of c-Fos in the vlPAG and PVN after SNCI. @*Conclusions@#Dexmedetomidine may be used as a potential new treatment drug for recovery of locomotion and control of pain in peripheral nerve injury.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831325

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. We, herein, report two novel USH2A variants from two unrelated Korean families and their clinical phenotypes, with attention to severe or more than severe sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). @*Methods@#. Two postlingually deafened subjects (SB237-461, M/46 and SB354-692, F/34) with more than severe SNHL and also with suspicion of Usher syndrome type II (USH2) were enrolled. A comprehensive audiological and ophthalmological assessments were evaluated. We conducted the whole exome sequencing and subsequent pathogenicity prediction analysis. @*Results@#. We identified the following variants of USH2A from the two probands manifesting more than severe SNHL and retinitis pigmentosa (RP): compound heterozygosity for a nonsense (c.8176C>T: p.R2723X) and a missense variant (c.1823G>A: p.C608Y) in SB237, and compound heterozygosity for two frameshift variants (c.14835delT: p.S4945fs & c.13112_13115delAAAT: p.G4371fs) in SB354. Based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology guidelines, two novel variants, c.1823G>A: p.C608Y and c.14835delT: p.Ser4945fs, can be classified as “uncertain significance” and “pathogenic,” respectively. The audiogram exhibited more than severe SNHL and a down-sloping configuration, necessitating cochlear implantation. The ophthalmic examinations revealed typical features of RP. Interestingly, one proband (SB 354-692) carrying two truncating compound heterozygous variants exhibited more severe hearing loss than the other proband (SB 237-461), carrying one truncation with one missense variant. @*Conclusion@#. Our results provide insight on the expansion of audiological spectrum encompassing more than severe SNHL in Korean subjects harboring USH2A variants, suggesting that USH2A should also be included in the candidate gene of cochlear implantation. A specific combination of USH2A variants causing truncating proteins in both alleles could demonstrate more severe audiological phenotype than that of USH2A variants carrying one truncating mutation and one missense mutation, suggesting a possible genotype-phenotype correlation. The understanding of audiological complexity associated with USH2A will be helpful for genetic counseling and treatment starategy.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713688

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) impacts quality of life in men by causing lower urinary tract symptoms. α1-Adrenoceptor (α1-AR) blockers improve lower urinary tract symptoms. We investigated the efficacy of add-on therapy with α1-AR blockers on BPH rats. METHODS: Rats in the drug-treated groups were orally administered each drug once a day for 30 days after orchiectomy. To induce BPH, rats were castrated and testosterone (20 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously once per day for 30 days. Cystometry was conducted to measure voiding contraction pressure and the interval contraction time, immunohistochemistry was performed to measure c-Fos and nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in the neuronal voiding centers, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase histochemistry was used to measure nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression. RESULTS: Orchiectomy and testosterone injection decreased voiding contraction pressure and the interval contraction time, suggesting BPH symptoms. Voiding contraction pressure and the interval contraction time were greater in the group that received the combination treatment (tamsulosin with naftopidil) than in the tamsulosin monotherapy or naftopidil monotherapy groups. c-Fos, NGF, and NOS expression in the neuronal voiding centers was enhanced by BPH induction. c-Fos, NGF, and NOS expression was suppressed by the combination treatment (tamsulosin with naftopidil) to a greater extent than was the case for tamsulosin monotherapy or naftopidil monotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Combination therapy of tamsulosin and naftopidil showed greater efficacy for the treatment of BPH than tamsulosin monotherapy or naftopidil monotherapy; therefore, combination therapy can be considered as a novel therapeutic method for BPH.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Male , Methods , NAD , Nerve Growth Factor , Neurons , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Orchiectomy , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Quality of Life , Rats , Testosterone
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717676

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Rotenone is the most widely used neurotoxin for the making Parkinson disease (PD) animal model. The neurodegenerative disorder PD shows symptoms, such as slowness of movements, tremor at resting, rigidity, disturbance of gait, and instability of posture. We investigated whether treadmill running improves motor ability using rotenone-caused PD rats. The effect of treadmill running on PD was also assessed in relation with apoptosis of cerebellar Purkinje cells. METHODS: Treadmill running was applied to the rats in the exercise groups for 30 minutes once a day for 4 weeks, starting 4 weeks after birth. We used rota-rod test for the determination of motor coordination and balance. In this experiment, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, immunohistochemistry for calbindin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Iba-1, and western blot analysis for Bax and Bcl-2 were performed. RESULTS: Treadmill running enhanced motor balance and coordination by preventing the loss of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar vermis. Treadmill running suppressed PD-induced expression of GFAP-positive reactive astrocytes and Iba-1-positive microglia, showing that treadmill running suppressed reactive astrogliosis and microglia activation. Treadmill running suppressed TUNEL-positive cell number and Bax expression and enhanced Bcl-2 expression, demonstrating that treadmill running inhibited the progress of apoptosis in the cerebellum of rotenone-induced PD rats. CONCLUSIONS: Treadmill running improved motor ability of the rotenone-induced PD rats by inhibiting apoptosis in the cerebellum. Apoptosis suppressing effect of treadmill running on rotenone-induced PD was achieved via suppression of reactive astrocyte and inhibition of microglial activation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Astrocytes , Blotting, Western , Calbindins , Cell Count , Cerebellar Vermis , Cerebellum , Gait , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Immunohistochemistry , Microglia , Models, Animal , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Parkinson Disease , Parturition , Posture , Purkinje Cells , Rats , Rotenone , Running , Tremor
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717675

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection induces neurodevelopmental disorders, such as cerebral palsy. Exercise activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway that enhances neurogenesis. Wnt ligands are also implicated in the hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is a downstream molecule of Akt, and GSK-3β is known to modulate hippocampal neurogenesis negatively. METHODS: Cerebral palsy was made by maternal LPS-injection. On the 5 weeks after birth, treadmill running was applied to the rat pups of the exercise groups, for 30 minutes, 5 times a week during 6 weeks. RESULTS: Treadmill running alleviated short-term memory impairments of the cerebral palsy rat pups. Hippocampal cell proliferation was increased and hippocampal apoptosis was suppressed by treadmill running in the cerebral palsy rat pups. Hippocampal phosphorylated-PI3K/PI3K ratio, phosphorylated-Akt/Akt ratio, and Wnt expression were enhanced by treadmill running in the cerebral palsy rat pups. In contrast, hippocampal phosphorylated-GSK-3β/GSK-3β ratio and β-catenin expression were suppressed by treadmill running in the cerebral palsy rat pups. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed that short-term memory improvement due to treadmill running in cerebral palsy occurs via activation of the PI3K-Akt-Wnt pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Cerebral Palsy , Glycogen Synthase , Ligands , Memory, Short-Term , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Neurogenesis , Neuronal Plasticity , Parturition , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Phosphotransferases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Rats , Running
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A rapid increase in desflurane concentration has been demonstrated to induce transient sympathetic hyperactivity and lead to increases in blood pressure and heart rate (HR). Additionally, the use of dexmedetomidine as an anesthetic adjunct has been reported to attenuate intraoperative sympathetic responses. We examined the hemodynamic effects of dexmedetomidine infusion before anesthetic induction on desflurane-induced cardiovascular changes. METHODS: Patients were randomly divided into three groups. They received either normal saline (NS) (group 1, only NS) or dexmedetomidine solution diluted in 50 ml NS (group 2, 0.5 µg/kg; group 3, 1.0 µg/kg) for 10 minutes with a syringe pump before anesthetic induction. Desflurane was administered at a vaporizer dial setting of 8% for 5 minutes by manual ventilation. RESULTS: In group 1, the HR significantly increased above the baseline during the entire 5 minutes after desflurane inhalation and the mean blood pressure (MBP) significantly increased above the baseline at 1, 2, and 3 minutes after desflurane inhalation. However, in groups 2 and 3, the increases in HR and MBP induced by desflurane inhalation were significantly suppressed. The HR and MBP in group 2 remained closer to the baseline than in group 3. CONCLUSIONS: A loading infusion of dexmedetomidine for 10 minutes before induction of general anesthesia effectively attenuates the transient cardiovascular stimulation induced by desflurane inhalation, without significant hemodynamic side effects. The HR and MBP remained closer to the baseline after administration of 0.5 µg/kg dexmedetomidine than after administration of a dose of 1.0 µg/kg.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Blood Pressure , Dexmedetomidine , Heart Rate , Hemodynamics , Humans , Inhalation , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Syringes , Ventilation
14.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 698-702, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-89680

ABSTRACT

Previous studies reported some relationships between donepezil treatment and hippocampus in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, due to methodological limitations, their close relationships remain unclear. The aim of this study is to predict treatment response to donepezil by utilizing the automated segmentation of hippocampal subfields volumes (ASHS) in AD. Sixty four AD patients were prescribed with donepezil and were followed up for 24 weeks. Cognitive function was measured to assess whether there was a response from the donepezil treatment. ASHS was implemented on non-responder (NR) and responder (TR) groups, and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of hippocampal subfields in predicting response to donepezil. The left total hippocampus and the CA1 area of the NR were significantly smaller than those of the TR group. The ROC curve analysis showed the left CA1 volumes showed highest area under curve (AUC) of 0.85 with a sensitivity of 88.0%, a specificity of 74.0% in predicting treatment response to donepezil treatment. We expect that hippocampal subfields volume measurements that predict treatment responses to current AD drugs will enable more evidence-based, individualized prescription of medications that will lead to more favorable treatment outcomes.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Area Under Curve , Cognition , Hippocampus , Humans , Prescriptions , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136435

ABSTRACT

Acute coronary artery obstruction is a rare but fatal complication of surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). Sudden coronary spasm, embolization of calcium plaque, and surgical factors can induce acute coronary syndrome after AVR. Here, we report a case of left main coronary ostial obstruction that occurred immediately after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. This case highlights the importance of coronary ostial flow patency and assessment of regional wall motion abnormalities with intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography in AVR.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Aortic Valve , Calcium , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Coronary Vessels , Echocardiography , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Spasm , Weaning
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136434

ABSTRACT

Acute coronary artery obstruction is a rare but fatal complication of surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). Sudden coronary spasm, embolization of calcium plaque, and surgical factors can induce acute coronary syndrome after AVR. Here, we report a case of left main coronary ostial obstruction that occurred immediately after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. This case highlights the importance of coronary ostial flow patency and assessment of regional wall motion abnormalities with intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography in AVR.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Aortic Valve , Calcium , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Coronary Vessels , Echocardiography , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Spasm , Weaning
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205049

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The functions of the lower urinary tract (LUT), such as voiding and storing urine, are dependent on complex central neural networks located in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral ganglia. Thus, the functions of the LUT are susceptible to various neurologic disorders including spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI at the cervical or thoracic levels disrupts voluntary control of voiding and the normal reflex pathways coordinating bladder and sphincter functions. In this context, it is noteworthy that α1-adrenoceptor blockers have been reported to relieve voiding symptoms and storage symptoms in elderly men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Tamsulosin, an α1-adrenoceptor blocker, is also considered the most effective regimen for patients with LUT symptoms such as BPH and overactive bladder (OAB). METHODS: In the present study, the effects of tamsulosin on the expression of c-Fos, nerve growth factor (NGF), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) in the afferent micturition areas, including the pontine micturition center (PMC), the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter (vlPAG), and the spinal cord (L5), of rats with an SCI were investigated. RESULTS: SCI was found to remarkably upregulate the expression of c-Fos, NGF, and NADPH-d in the afferent pathway of micturition, the dorsal horn of L5, the vlPAG, and the PMC, resulting in the symptoms of OAB. In contrast, tamsulosin treatment significantly suppressed these neural activities and the production of nitric oxide in the afferent pathways of micturition, and consequently, attenuated the symptoms of OAB. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these results, tamsulosin, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, could be used to attenuate bladder dysfunction following SCI. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism and effects of tamsulosin on the afferent pathways of micturition.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic Antagonists , Afferent Pathways , Aged , Animals , Brain , Ganglia , Humans , Male , NAD , Nerve Growth Factor , Nervous System Diseases , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Periaqueductal Gray , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Rats , Reflex , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spinal Cord , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic , Urinary Bladder, Overactive , Urinary Tract , Urination
18.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 911-911, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-16969

ABSTRACT

Unfortunately, the corresponding author's affiliation was incorrect in the original publication of this article..

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-16098

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) is a strong target antigen for the determination of infection with Plasmodium species specifically. However, a more effective antibody is needed because of the low sensitivity of the current antibody in many immunological diagnostic assays. In this study, recombinant Plasmodium vivax LDH (PvLDH) was experimentally constructed and expressed as a native antigen to develop an effective P. vivax-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb). Two mAbs (2CF5 and 1G10) were tested using ELISA and immunofluorescence assays (IFA), as both demonstrated reactivity against pLDH antigen. Of the 2 antibodies, 2CF5 was not able to detect P. falciparum, suggesting that it might possess P. vivax-specificity. The detection limit for a pair of 2 mAbs-linked sandwich ELISA was 31.3 ng/ml of the recombinant antigen. The P. vivax-specific performance of mAbs-linked ELISA was confirmed by in vitro-cultured P. falciparum and P. vivax-infected patient blood samples. In conclusion, the 2 new antibodies possessed the potential to detect P. vivax and will be useful in immunoassay.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Immunoassay , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Limit of Detection , Plasmodium vivax , Plasmodium
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-137242

ABSTRACT

During past decades, the formation and storage principle of memory have received much attention in the neuroscience field. Although some studies have attempted to demonstrate the nature of the engram, elucidating the memory engram allocation mechanism was not possible because of the limitations of existing methods, which cannot specifically modulate the candidate neuronal population. Recently, the development of new techniques, which offer ways to mark and control specific populations of neurons, may accelerate solving this issue. Here, we review the recent advances, which have provided substantial evidence showing that both candidates (neuronal population that is activated by learning, and that has increased CREB level/excitability at learning) satisfy the criteria of the engram, which are necessary and sufficient for memory expression.


Subject(s)
Learning , Memory , Neurons , Neurosciences
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