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1.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 329-340, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914315

ABSTRACT

Pulpitis (toothache) is a painful inflammation of the dental pulp and is a prevalent problem throughout the world. This pulpal inflammation occurs in the cells inside the dental pulp, which have host defense mechanisms to combat oral microorganisms invading the pulp space of exposed teeth.This innate immunity has been well studied, with a focus on Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The function of TLR4, activated by Gram-negative bacteria, has been demonstrated in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons for dental pain. Although Gram-positive bacteria predominate in the teeth of patients with caries and pulpitis, the role of TLR2, which is activated by Gram-positive bacteria, is poorly understood in dental primary afferent (DPA) neurons that densely innervate the dental pulp. Using Fura-2 based Ca2+ imaging, we observed reproducible intracellular Ca2+ responses induced by Pam3 CSK 4 and Pam2 CSK 4 (TLR2-specific agonists) in TG neurons of adult wild-type (WT) mice. The response was completely abolished in TLR2 knock-out (KO) mice. Single-cell RT-PCR detected Tlr2 mRNA in DPA neurons labeled with fluorescent retrograde tracers from the upper molars. Using the mouse pulpitis model, real-time RT-PCR revealed that Tlr2 and inflammatory-related molecules were upregulated in injured TG, compared to non-injured TG, from WT mice, but not from TLR2 KO mice. TLR2 protein expression was also upregulated in injured DPA neurons, and the change was corresponded with a significant increase in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expression. Our results provide a better molecular understanding of pulpitis by revealing the potential contribution of TLR2 to pulpal inflammatory pain.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914193

ABSTRACT

The aims of this study were to determine the short-term effectiveness of an internet-based lifestyle modification (LSM) program in preventing the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in prediabetes patients in community settings. A total of 415 subjects who were diagnosed with prediabetes were randomly assigned to the LSM and standard management (SM) groups. After the 6-month intervention, the LSM group had a statistically significant reduction in body weight, body mass index compared to the SM group participants. In the LSM group, blood glucose levels were significantly decreased after intervention and the clinical improvement effect was evident in the group that achieved the target weight loss of 5% or more of the initial weight for 6 months. Internet-based 6-month-intensive LSM programs conducted by public health center personnel are an effective way to provide lifestyle intervention programs and encourage maintenance of healthy behaviors in subjects with a high risk of T2DM in community settings.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903582

ABSTRACT

The phosphorous balance is clinically important in increasing the long-term outcomes and preventing complications of end-stage renal disease. Sevelamer is a phosphate binder used widely to regulate hyperphosphatemia. On the other hand, gastrointestinal side effects increase with increasing sevelamer intake. A 29-year-old male with end-stage renal disease of IgA nephropathy on maintenance hemodialysis was admitted for diffuse alveolar bleeding and pneumonia. He presented with a low-grade fever and watery diarrhea tinged with blood. Initially, a Clostridioides difficile-associated diarrhea treatment was started with positive findings of Clostridioides difficile toxin and culture. Despite this, there was no improvement in the symptoms even with the appropriate antibiotic treatment. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis revealed an occlusive mass in the rectum and secondary obstructive changes in the sigmoid colon. The initial suspicion was a malignancy or fungal infection. Sigmoidoscopy with a biopsy identified the mass as a lump of mucous material with the entire lumen covered with exudate. The subsequent histopathology examination revealed a colonic mucosal injury and characteristic ''fish scale"-like sevelamer crystals in the exudate. The diagnosis of a sevelamer-induced rectal ulcer was made. We report this case of a sevelamer-associated rectal ulcer of the sigmoid.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898507

ABSTRACT

Background@#The purpose of this study is to identify factors that affect work dissatisfaction and turnover intention for dedicated nurses working in emergency departments of vulnerable areas of health care. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors related to the working environment that influence job dissatisfaction and intention to turnover among dedicated nurses working in emergency rooms in areas of medical vulnerability. @*Methods@#We conducted a survey of nurses working in emergency rooms in vulnerable areas of medical care, and the survey was conducted for two consecutive years. A logistic regression analysis was performed with the working environment variable as the independent variable and the work environment dissatisfaction and turnover intention as dependent variables, respectively. @*Results@#The variables that significantly affected both dissatisfactions with the working environment and turnover intention at the current institution were age, overlapping work in other departments, and the total work experience of nurses. Annual salary, the average number of double-duty (continuous work) per month, type of work, and work experience of nurses at the current institution had a significant effect only on dissatisfaction with the working environment. @*Conclusion@#The results of this study are thought to be of great help if the government takes reference when establishing medical policies in vulnerable areas in the future.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895878

ABSTRACT

The phosphorous balance is clinically important in increasing the long-term outcomes and preventing complications of end-stage renal disease. Sevelamer is a phosphate binder used widely to regulate hyperphosphatemia. On the other hand, gastrointestinal side effects increase with increasing sevelamer intake. A 29-year-old male with end-stage renal disease of IgA nephropathy on maintenance hemodialysis was admitted for diffuse alveolar bleeding and pneumonia. He presented with a low-grade fever and watery diarrhea tinged with blood. Initially, a Clostridioides difficile-associated diarrhea treatment was started with positive findings of Clostridioides difficile toxin and culture. Despite this, there was no improvement in the symptoms even with the appropriate antibiotic treatment. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis revealed an occlusive mass in the rectum and secondary obstructive changes in the sigmoid colon. The initial suspicion was a malignancy or fungal infection. Sigmoidoscopy with a biopsy identified the mass as a lump of mucous material with the entire lumen covered with exudate. The subsequent histopathology examination revealed a colonic mucosal injury and characteristic ''fish scale"-like sevelamer crystals in the exudate. The diagnosis of a sevelamer-induced rectal ulcer was made. We report this case of a sevelamer-associated rectal ulcer of the sigmoid.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890803

ABSTRACT

Background@#The purpose of this study is to identify factors that affect work dissatisfaction and turnover intention for dedicated nurses working in emergency departments of vulnerable areas of health care. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors related to the working environment that influence job dissatisfaction and intention to turnover among dedicated nurses working in emergency rooms in areas of medical vulnerability. @*Methods@#We conducted a survey of nurses working in emergency rooms in vulnerable areas of medical care, and the survey was conducted for two consecutive years. A logistic regression analysis was performed with the working environment variable as the independent variable and the work environment dissatisfaction and turnover intention as dependent variables, respectively. @*Results@#The variables that significantly affected both dissatisfactions with the working environment and turnover intention at the current institution were age, overlapping work in other departments, and the total work experience of nurses. Annual salary, the average number of double-duty (continuous work) per month, type of work, and work experience of nurses at the current institution had a significant effect only on dissatisfaction with the working environment. @*Conclusion@#The results of this study are thought to be of great help if the government takes reference when establishing medical policies in vulnerable areas in the future.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875485

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We examined the concordance rate among fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour post-challenge glucose (2hr PG), and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in the diagnosis of diabetes in a population with a high-risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Korea. @*Methods@#Among the participants from the Korean Diabetes Prevention Study, individuals with FPG ≥ 100 mg/dL, body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23.0 kg/m2, and no previous history of T2DM were consecutively enrolled after a 75 g glucose tolerance test. We analyzed the differences in the clinical characteristics in subjects with stage 1 (FPG, 100 to 109 mg/dL) and stage 2 (FPG, 110 to 125 mg/dL) impaired fasting glucose (IFG). @*Results@#Of 1,637 participants, 27.2% had T2DM and 59.3% had IFG and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). The mean age was 55.0 ± 8.1 years and the mean BMI was 26.3 ± 2.7 kg/m2. Based on FPG criteria, 515 (31.4%) and 352 (21.5%) subjects were classified as having stage 1 and stage 2 IFG, respectively. The 19.0% of stage 1 and 43.5% of stage 2 subjects showed 2hr PG levels in the diabetic range. Even for those in the normal FPG range, 63 (9.5%) participants showed a 2hr PG level of ≥ 200 mg/dL. Of 446 subjects with newly-diagnosed diabetes, 340 (76.2%) showed FPG levels < 126 mg/dL. @*Conclusions@#The oral glucose tolerance test should be actively considered for Korean adults who are overweight or obese with the IFG range (FPG, 100 to 125 mg/ dL) to allow for early detection of diabetes and prompt intervention.

8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875102

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of abdominal distension on proper chest compression position selection during the use of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). @*Methods@#Fifty-eight patients who underwent thoraco-abdominal MDCT for the diagnosis of aortic dissection from January 2013 to August 2018 were included in the study. Abdominal distension was defined as a condition in which the area around the navel in the supine position was higher than the lower half of the sternum. The left ventricle maximal diameter (LVMD) level was scored based on the vertebral body using MDCT. The distance from the end of the sternum (Se), the middle of the lower half of the sternum (Sm), and the upper edge of the liver (Lu) to the LVMD were measured and analyzed. @*Results@#The LVMD level was significantly higher in the abdominal distension group than in the non-abdominal distension group (1.74±1.39 vs. 2.77±1.33, P=0.007). The difference was about 1/2 of the height of a vertebral body, i.e. 1.2 cm. In the abdominal distension group, Lu was higher (19.6±18.0 vs. 29.2±13.1, P=0.034) and the distance from LVMD to Sm was shorter than in the non-abdominal distension group (36.3±17.5 vs. 45.8±11.5, P=0.027). @*Conclusion@#Abdominal distension alters the position of the heart through the elevation of the diaphragm. Therefore, when performing chest compressions in patients with cardiac arrest, it is necessary to select a chest compression location based on the presence or absence of abdominal distension.

9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918677

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In Korea, the Broselow tape (BT) is widely used to estimate weight in resuscitation. Validation of BT in Korean children is essential because the tool was developed based on children’s weight and height in the United States. The validation was previously performed in a small-scale dataset. The authors aimed to validate BT using the 2005 Korean nationwide anthropometric survey data. @*Methods@#From the population used for the survey, we sampled children aged 0-12 years. The weights estimated by BT were compared with measured weights of the children using Bland-Altman analysis with results recorded as percentage differences. We measured the accuracy of BT, defined as within a 10% error of the measured weight, and the concordance of the color-coded zones derived from the estimated and measured weights. The accuracy and concordance were further assessed according to the age groups and body mass index-for-age Z-score ( 2, overweight or obese). @*Results@#A total of 108,128 children were enrolled. The mean age was 55.2 ± 37.5 months. The bias was –5.4% (P < 0.001), and the limits of agreement were –28.3% and 17.6%, respectively. The accuracy and concordance of BT were 64.4% and 67.2%, respectively. Differences of no more than 1 color-coded zone between estimated and measured weights accounted for 89.8% and 84.1% of the under- and overweight (or obese) children, respectively. @*Conclusion@#BT accurately estimates weight in approximately two-thirds of Korean children. In addition, adjustment of 1 color-coded zone may be considered in children with extreme weight.

10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918671

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Genital injury is a common pediatric injury. Given the lack of nationwide data, the authors aimed to show age group-related epidemiologic features of genital injury in Korea. @*Methods@#We reviewed the data from 2011-2016 Emergency Department-based Injury In-depth Surveillance registry, which involves 23 emergency departments in Korea. From the dataset, we included children (< 18 years) with the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes related to genital injury as the final diagnosis with excluding those with other codes or combined injuries. Age groups were defined as follows; infants (< 1 year), toddlers (1-3), preschoolers (4-6), schoolers (7-12), and adolescents (13-17). The clinical features and outcomes were analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 3,030 children were included with the median age of 6 years (interquartile range, 4-10) and the proportion of girls of 53.0%. Only 144 children (4.8%) were transported by the emergency medical service providers. The most common mechanism and place were blunt injury (1,826 [60.3%]) and home (1,535 [50.7%]), respectively. Of the codes, “Contusion of external genital organs (S30.2)” was most common (1,574 [51.9%]). As for outcomes, 2,770 children (91.4%) were discharged, 252 (8.3%) were hospitalized (intensive care units, 1 child [0.03%]), and 108 (3.6%) underwent surgery. Severe injury occurred in 111 children (3.7%) without a mortality. With increasing age in the age groups, non-accidental injury, school and sports-related injuries, hospitalization, and surgery (All Ps < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#Genital injury may occur at evening, in spring and summer, at home, and in the form of accidental or blunt injury. Most children are discharged. Contrary to these general features, older children tend to undergo more frequently non-accidental injury, school and sports-related injuries, hospitalization, and surgery. Thus, we need age-specific strategies for injury prevention.

11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916523

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study examined the characteristics of acute poisoning patients who visited the emergency room to use as data for developing the treatment support project of acute poisoning patients. @*Methods@#A total of 2,586 acute in-depth survey data were used for a cross-analysis for poisoning severity, emergency medical treatment result and poisoning reason by age group, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the association of poisoning intentionality and other variables. @*Results@#Poisoning intentionality risk analysis identified that males had a lower risk than females (P<0.001), and young adults (aged 13-29 years) had the highest risk (P<0.001). In addition, the higher poisoning severity patients had a higher risk than patients who had no poisoning symptom (severe P<0.001, death P=0.029). The older patients had the higher poisoning severity proportion, and the poisoning substance of expired patients was mostly pesticides. @*Conclusion@#To develop the appropriate emergency medical response system for acute poisoning patients, it is necessary to provide an integrated system for poisoning treatment information and analysis.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831607

ABSTRACT

Integrase inhibitor is uniquely available as single tablet regimen (STR) in Korea. In this study, the durability until 96 weeks was compared between dolutegravir/abacavir/lamivudine (D/A/L) and elvitegravir/cobicistat/tenofovir/emtricitabine (E/T/E) in treatment naïve human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infected individuals. From 2014 to 2017, 153 and 234 subjects started D/A/L and E/T/E, respectively. During 96 weeks, 73 discontinued initial STR and the reason of discontinuation was typable in 44. The frequency of drug adverse event related discontinuation (AEDC) was higher in D/A/L (13.1% vs. 6.4%, P = 0.023) while most non-AE related discontinuations occurred in E/T/E (8/9), such as drug-drug interaction, meal requirement and virologic failure. AEDC occurred usually within 24 weeks (20/35) and D/A/L to E/T/E AEDC incidence rate ratio was 3.71 (95% confidence interval, 1.36–10.10) in this period. Regarding the durability, D/A/L and E/T/E revealed no significant difference at week 96 (P = 0.138) while durability of D/A/L was worse in the aspect of AEDC (P = 0.013).

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899774

ABSTRACT

Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is a useful tool that is widely used in the emergency and intensive care areas. In Korea, insurance coverage of ultrasound examination has been gradually expanding in accordance with measures to enhance Korean National Insurance Coverage since 2017 to 2021, and which will continue until 2021. Full coverage of health insurance for POCUS in the emergency and critical care areas was implemented in July 2019. The National Health Insurance Act classified POCUS as a single or multiple-targeted ultrasound examination (STU vs. MTU). STU scans are conducted of one organ at a time, while MTU includes scanning of multiple organs simultaneously to determine each clinical situation. POCUS can be performed even if a diagnostic ultrasound examination is conducted, based on the physician's decision. However, the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service plans to monitor the prescription status of whether the POCUS and diagnostic ultrasound examinations are prescribed simultaneously and repeatedly. Additionally, MTU is allowed only in cases of trauma, cardiac arrest, shock, chest pain, and dyspnea and should be performed by a qualified physician. Although physicians should scan all parts of the chest, heart, and abdomen when they prescribe MTU, they are not required to record all findings in the medical record. Therefore, appropriate prescription, application, and recording of POCUS are needed to enhance the quality of patient care and avoid unnecessary cut of medical budget spending. The present article provides background and clinical guidance for POCUS based on the implementation of full health insurance coverage for POCUS that began in July 2019 in Korea.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899742

ABSTRACT

Background@#Trauma mortality review is the first step in assessing the quality of the trauma treatment system and provides an important basis for establishing a regional inclusive trauma system. This study aimed to obtain a reliable measure of the preventable trauma death rate in a single province in Korea. @*Methods@#From January to December 2017, a total of 500 sample cases of trauma-related deaths from 64 hospitals in Gyeonggi Province were included. All cases were evaluated for preventability and opportunities for improvement using a multidisciplinary panel review approach. @*Results@#Overall, 337 cases were included in the calculation for the preventable trauma death rate. The preventable trauma death rate was estimated at 17.0%. The odds ratio was 3.97 folds higher for those who arrived within “1–3 hours” than those who arrived within “1 hour.” When the final treatment institution was not a regional trauma center, the odds ratio was 2.39 folds higher than that of a regional trauma center. The most significant stage of preventable trauma death was the hospital stage, during which 86.7% of the cases occurred, of which only 10.3% occurred in the regional trauma center, whereas preventable trauma death was more of a problem at emergency medical institutions. @*Conclusion@#The preventable trauma death rate was slightly lower in this study than in previous studies, although several problems were noted during inter-hospital transfer; in the hospital stage, more problems were noted at emergency medical care facilities than at regional trauma centers. Further, several opportunities for improvements were discovered regarding bleeding control.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892070

ABSTRACT

Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is a useful tool that is widely used in the emergency and intensive care areas. In Korea, insurance coverage of ultrasound examination has been gradually expanding in accordance with measures to enhance Korean National Insurance Coverage since 2017 to 2021, and which will continue until 2021. Full coverage of health insurance for POCUS in the emergency and critical care areas was implemented in July 2019. The National Health Insurance Act classified POCUS as a single or multiple-targeted ultrasound examination (STU vs. MTU). STU scans are conducted of one organ at a time, while MTU includes scanning of multiple organs simultaneously to determine each clinical situation. POCUS can be performed even if a diagnostic ultrasound examination is conducted, based on the physician's decision. However, the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service plans to monitor the prescription status of whether the POCUS and diagnostic ultrasound examinations are prescribed simultaneously and repeatedly. Additionally, MTU is allowed only in cases of trauma, cardiac arrest, shock, chest pain, and dyspnea and should be performed by a qualified physician. Although physicians should scan all parts of the chest, heart, and abdomen when they prescribe MTU, they are not required to record all findings in the medical record. Therefore, appropriate prescription, application, and recording of POCUS are needed to enhance the quality of patient care and avoid unnecessary cut of medical budget spending. The present article provides background and clinical guidance for POCUS based on the implementation of full health insurance coverage for POCUS that began in July 2019 in Korea.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892038

ABSTRACT

Background@#Trauma mortality review is the first step in assessing the quality of the trauma treatment system and provides an important basis for establishing a regional inclusive trauma system. This study aimed to obtain a reliable measure of the preventable trauma death rate in a single province in Korea. @*Methods@#From January to December 2017, a total of 500 sample cases of trauma-related deaths from 64 hospitals in Gyeonggi Province were included. All cases were evaluated for preventability and opportunities for improvement using a multidisciplinary panel review approach. @*Results@#Overall, 337 cases were included in the calculation for the preventable trauma death rate. The preventable trauma death rate was estimated at 17.0%. The odds ratio was 3.97 folds higher for those who arrived within “1–3 hours” than those who arrived within “1 hour.” When the final treatment institution was not a regional trauma center, the odds ratio was 2.39 folds higher than that of a regional trauma center. The most significant stage of preventable trauma death was the hospital stage, during which 86.7% of the cases occurred, of which only 10.3% occurred in the regional trauma center, whereas preventable trauma death was more of a problem at emergency medical institutions. @*Conclusion@#The preventable trauma death rate was slightly lower in this study than in previous studies, although several problems were noted during inter-hospital transfer; in the hospital stage, more problems were noted at emergency medical care facilities than at regional trauma centers. Further, several opportunities for improvements were discovered regarding bleeding control.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810957

ABSTRACT

Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is a useful tool that is widely used in the emergency and intensive care areas. In Korea, insurance coverage of ultrasound examination has been gradually expanding in accordance with measures to enhance Korean National Insurance Coverage since 2017 to 2021, and which will continue until 2021. Full coverage of health insurance for POCUS in the emergency and critical care areas was implemented in July 2019. The National Health Insurance Act classified POCUS as a single or multiple-targeted ultrasound examination (STU vs. MTU). STU scans are conducted of one organ at a time, while MTU includes scanning of multiple organs simultaneously to determine each clinical situation. POCUS can be performed even if a diagnostic ultrasound examination is conducted, based on the physician's decision. However, the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service plans to monitor the prescription status of whether the POCUS and diagnostic ultrasound examinations are prescribed simultaneously and repeatedly. Additionally, MTU is allowed only in cases of trauma, cardiac arrest, shock, chest pain, and dyspnea and should be performed by a qualified physician. Although physicians should scan all parts of the chest, heart, and abdomen when they prescribe MTU, they are not required to record all findings in the medical record. Therefore, appropriate prescription, application, and recording of POCUS are needed to enhance the quality of patient care and avoid unnecessary cut of medical budget spending. The present article provides background and clinical guidance for POCUS based on the implementation of full health insurance coverage for POCUS that began in July 2019 in Korea.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Budgets , Chest Pain , Critical Care , Dyspnea , Emergencies , Heart , Heart Arrest , Insurance Coverage , Insurance , Insurance, Health , Korea , Medical Records , National Health Programs , Patient Care , Point-of-Care Systems , Prescriptions , Shock , Thorax , Ultrasonography
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765026

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: All emergency centers in Korea use the Korean Triage and Acuity Scale (KTAS) as their initial triage tool. However, KTAS has been used without verification of its reliability. In this study, we assess the interrater agreement of KTAS by two independent nurses in real-time and analyse the factors which have an effect on the disagreement of KTAS levels. METHODS: This study was a prospective observational study conducted with patients who visited an emergency department (ED). Two teams, each composed of two nurses, triaged patients and recorded KTAS level and the main complaint from the list of 167 KTAS complaints, as well as modifiers. Interrater reliability between the two nurses in each team was assessed by weighted-kappa. Pearson's χ² test was conducted to determine if there were differences between each nurse's KTAS levels, depending on whether they chose the same complaints and the same modifiers or not. RESULTS: The two teams triaged a total of 1,998 patients who visited the ED. Weighted-kappa value was 0.772 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.750–0.794). Patients triaged by different chosen complaints showed (38.0%) higher inconsistency rate in KTAS levels than those triaged by the same complaint (10.9%, P < 0.001). When nurses chose the same complaint and different modifiers, the ratio of different levels (50.5%) was higher than that of the same complaint and same modifier (8.1%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study showed that KTAS is a reliable tool. Selected complaints and modifiers are confirmed as important factors for reliability; therefore, selecting them properly should be emphasized during KTAS training courses.


Subject(s)
Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Korea , Observational Study , Prospective Studies , Triage
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785595

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The use of computed tomography (CT) in pediatric patients has decreased since the association between radiation and cancer risk has been reported. However, in adolescent patients being treated as adult patients, there has been a high incidence of CT use in emergency departments (EDs). Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the CT use in adolescent patients with complaints of headache or abdominal pain in the general and pediatric EDs of the same hospital.METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients aged 15 to 18 years, who presented with headache or abdominal pain at the general and pediatric EDs of Seoul National University Hospital from January 2010 to December 2014, was conducted.RESULTS: A total of 407 adolescent patients with complaints of headache and 980 with abdominal pain were included in this study. The adolescent patients in the general ED were more likely to undergo CT scans than those in the pediatric ED, with both patients having headache (42.4% vs. 20.5%, respectively, P<0.001) and abdominal pain (29.0% vs. 18.4%, respectively, P<0.001). There was no statistical difference in the rates of positive CT findings between the general and pediatric EDs. The frequency of visits to the general ED was associated with high rates of CT use in adolescent patients with complaints of headache (odds ratio, 3.95; 95% confidence interval, 2.01 to 7.77) and those with abdominal pain (odds ratio, 1.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.18 to 2.64).CONCLUSION: The ED setting influences the use of CT on adolescent patients, and a child-friendly environment could reduce the radiation risks.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Adolescent , Adult , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Headache , Humans , Incidence , Radiation Exposure , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Tertiary Care Centers , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716212

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Our previous study demonstrated that persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thumb.) at different stages of ripening provided different protective effects against high-fat/cholesterol diet (HFD)-induced dyslipidemia in rats. In this study, we compared the metabolites profile and gene expressions related to triglyceride (TG)/cholesterol metabolism in vitro and in vivo after treating with persimmon water extracts (PWE) or tannin-enriched persimmon concentrate (TEP). METHODS: Primary and secondary metabolites in test materials were determined by GC-TOF/MS, UHPLC-LTQ-ESI-IT-MS/MS, and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. The expression of genes related to TG and cholesterol metabolism were determined by RT-PCR both in HepG2 cells stimulated by oleic acid/palmitic acid and in liver tissues obtained from Wistar rats fed with HFD and PWE at 0, 150, 300, and 600 mg/d (experiment I) or TEP at 0, 7, 14, and 28 mg/d (experiment II) by oral gavage for 9 weeks. RESULTS: PLS-DA analysis and heatmap analysis demonstrated significantly differential profiling of metabolites of PWE and TEP according to processing of persimmon powder. In vitro, TEP showed similar hypolipidemic effects as PWE, but significantly enhanced hypocholesterolemic effects compared to PWE in sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2), HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene expression. Consistently, TEP and PWE showed similar hypolipidemic capacity in vivo, but significantly enhanced hypocholesterolemic capacity in terms of SREBP2, HMGCR, and bile salt export pump (BSEP) gene expression. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that column extraction after hot water extraction may be a good strategy to enhance tannins and long-chain fatty acid amides, which might cause stimulation of hypocholesterolemic actions through downregulation of cholesterol biosynthesis gene expression and upregulation of LDL receptor gene expression.


Subject(s)
Amides , Animals , Bile , Cholesterol , Diet , Diospyros , Down-Regulation , Dyslipidemias , Gene Expression , Hep G2 Cells , In Vitro Techniques , Liver , Metabolism , Oxidoreductases , Proprotein Convertases , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Receptors, LDL , Tannins , Triglycerides , Up-Regulation , Water
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