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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e34-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967400

ABSTRACT

Background@#The risk of device thrombosis and device-oriented clinical outcomes with bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) was reported to be significantly higher than with contemporary drug-eluting stents (DESs). However, optimal device implantation may improve clinical outcomes in patients receiving BVS. The current study evaluated mid-term safety and efficacy of Absorb BVS with meticulous device optimization under intravascular imaging guidance. @*Methods@#The SMART-REWARD and PERSPECTIVE-PCI registries in Korea prospectively enrolled 390 patients with BVS and 675 patients with DES, respectively. The primary endpoint was target vessel failure (TVF) at 2 years and the secondary major endpoint was patientoriented composite outcome (POCO) at 2 years. @*Results@#Patient-level pooled analysis evaluated 1,003 patients (377 patients with BVS and 626 patients with DES). Mean scaffold diameter per lesion was 3.24 ± 0.30 mm in BVS group.Most BVSs were implanted with pre-dilatation (90.9%), intravascular imaging guidance (74.9%), and post-dilatation (73.1%) at proximal to mid segment (81.9%) in target vessel.Patients treated with BVS showed comparable risks of 2-year TVF (2.9% vs. 3.7%, adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.283, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.487–3.378, P = 0.615) and 2-year POCO (4.5% vs. 5.9%, adjusted HR, 1.413, 95% CI, 0.663–3.012,P = 0.370) than those with DES. The rate of 2-year definite or probable device thrombosis (0.3% vs. 0.5%, P = 0.424) was also similar. The sensitivity analyses consistently showed comparable risk of TVF and POCO between the 2 groups. @*Conclusion@#With meticulous device optimization under imaging guidance and avoidance of implantation in small vessels, BVS showed comparable risks of 2-year TVF and device thrombosis with DES.

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e383-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001169

ABSTRACT

Background@#In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the SMART-CHOICE trial, P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after three months of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) achieved clinical outcomes comparable to those of 12 months of DAPT.Nonetheless, the effects of sex on these outcomes remain unknown. @*Methods@#This open-label, non-inferiority, randomized study, conducted in 33 hospitals in South Korea, included 2,993 patients undergoing PCI with drug-eluting stents. Patients were randomly assigned to receive DAPT (aspirin plus a P2Y12 inhibitor) for three months then P2Y12 inhibitor alone for nine months, or DAPT for the entire 12 months. The primary endpoints were major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) 12 months after the index procedure. The bleeding endpoints were Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) bleeding types 2 to 5. @*Results@#Of the patients, 795 (26.6%) were women, who were older and had a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia than men. The sexes exhibited comparable primary endpoints (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55–1.55; P = 0.770) and bleeding endpoints (adjusted HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.63–1.81; P = 0.811). P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy vs DAPT was associated with lower risk of BARC type 2 to 5 bleeding in women (adjusted HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.16–0.98; P = 0.045) but the difference was not statistically significant when using the Bonferroni correction. The primary endpoints were similar between treatment groups in both sexes. @*Conclusion@#In both sexes undergoing PCI, P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after three months of DAPT achieved similar risks of the primary endpoints and the bleeding events compared with prolonged DAPT. Therefore, the benefits of early aspirin withdrawal with ongoing P2Y12 inhibitors may be comparable in women and men.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e202-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001139

ABSTRACT

Background@#s: Fimasartan is the most recently developed, potent, and long-acting angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB). However, data are limited regarding treatment effects of fimasartan in patients with heart failure. @*Methods@#Between 2010 and 2016, patients who underwent coronary revascularization for myocardial infarction (MI) with heart failure and prescription of ARB at hospital discharge were enrolled from the Korean nationwide medical insurance data. Clinical outcomes were compared between patients receiving fimasartan and those receiving other ARBs (candesartan, valsartan, losartan, telmisartan, olmesartan, and irbesartan). The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause death, recurrent MI, hospitalization for heart failure, and stroke. @*Results@#Of 2,802 eligible patients, fimasartan was prescribed to 124 patients (4.4%). During a median follow-up of 2.2 years (interquartile range, 1.0–3.9), 613 events of the primary outcome occurred. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome between patients receiving fimasartan and those receiving other ARBs (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46–1.45). Compared with patients receiving other ARBs, those receiving fimasartan had comparable incidence of all-cause death (adjusted HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.30–1.63), recurrent MI (adjusted HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.49–3.34), hospitalization for heart failure (adjusted HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.27–1.84), and stroke (adjusted HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.18–1.96). @*Conclusion@#In this nationwide cohort, fimasartan, compared with other ARBs, had comparable treatment effects for a composite of all-cause death, recurrent MI, hospitalization for heart failure, and stroke in patients with heart failure after MI.

4.
Gut and Liver ; : 814-824, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000421

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The combinatorial effects of prophylactic methods for postendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP) in patients with risk factors remain unclear. In this network meta-analysis, we compared the efficacy of various prophylactic strategies to decrease the risk of PEP among patients with risk factors. @*Methods@#A systematic review was performed to identify randomized controlled trials from PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library through July 2021. We used frequentist network meta-analysis to compare the rates of PEP among patients who received prophylactic treatments as follows: class A, rectal nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; class B, prophylactic pancreatic stent; class C, aggressive hydration; or control, no prophylaxis or active control. We selected those studies that included patients with risk factors for PEP. @*Results@#We identified 19 trials, comprising 4,328 participants. Class ABC (odds ratio [OR], 0.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03 to 0.24), class AC (OR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.47), class AB (OR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.26), class BC (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.41), class A (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.50), and class B (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.46), were associated with a reduced risk of PEP as compared to that of the control. The most effective prophylaxis was ABC (0.87), followed by AC (0.68), AB (0.65), BC (0.56), A (0.49), and B (0.24) according to P-score. @*Conclusions@#The results of this network meta-analysis suggest that the more prophylactic methods are employed, the better the outcomes. It appears that for patients with risk factors, we need to prevent PEP through the use of these well proven combination strategies.

5.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 184-192, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999370

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a rare X-linked recessive disorder caused by unresponsiveness to androgens because of mutations in the AR gene. Here, we investigated the clinical outcomes and molecular spectrum of AR variants in patients with AIS attending a single academic center. @*Methods@#This study included 19 patients with AIS who were confirmed by molecular analysis of AR. Clinical features and endocrinological findings were retrospectively collected, including presenting features, external genitalia, sex of rearing, timing of gonadectomy, pubertal outcomes, and sex hormone levels. Molecular analysis of AR was performed using Sanger, targeted gene panel, or whole-exome sequencing. @*Results@#Among all 19 patients, 14 (74%) were classified as having complete AIS (CAIS), whereas 5 (26%) had partial AIS (PAIS). All patients with CAIS, and 3 patients with PAIS were reared as female. One patient with CAIS manifested a mixed germ cell tumor at the age of 30 years. Molecular analysis of AR identified 19 sequence variants; 12 (63%) were previously reported, and the remaining 7 (37%) were novel. Missense mutations were the most common type (12 of 19, 63%), followed by small deletions, nonsense mutations, an insertion, and a splice site mutation. @*Conclusion@#Here, we describe the clinical outcomes and molecular characteristics of 19 Korean patients with AIS. Patients with PAIS manifested various degrees of masculinization of the external genitalia. Nonsense and frameshift mutations were frequent in patients with CAIS, whereas patients with PAIS harbored exclusively missense mutations.

6.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 168-177, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999365

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Central Precocious Puberty of Korean Pediatrics and Adolescents of the Korean Society of Pediatric Endocrinology has newly developed evidence-based 2022 clinical practice guidelines for central precocious puberty in Korean children and adolescents. These guidelines provide the grade of recommendations, which includes both the strength of recommendations and the level of evidence. In the absence of sufficient evidence, recommendations are based on expert opinion. These guidelines have been revised and supplement the previous guidelines "Clinical Guidelines for Precocious Puberty 2011," and are drawn from a comprehensive review of the latest domestic and international research and the grade of recommendation appropriate to the domestic situation. This review summarizes the newly revised guidelines into 8 key questions and 27 recommendations and consists of 4 sections: screening, diagnosis, treatment, and long-term outcome of central precocious puberty.

7.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 77-86, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999353

ABSTRACT

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomally recessive disorders that result from impaired synthesis of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid. Most cases (~95%) are caused by mutations in the CYP21A2 gene, which encodes steroid 21-hydroxylase. CAH patients manifest a wide phenotypic spectrum according to their degree of residual enzyme activity. CYP21A2 and its pseudogene (CYP21A1P) are located 30 kb apart in the 6q21.3 region and share approximately 98% of their sequences in the coding region. Both genes are aligned in tandem with the C4, SKT19, and TNX genes, forming 2 segments of the RCCX modules that are arranged as STK19-C4A-CYP21A1P-TNXA-STK19B-C4B-CYP21A2-TNXB. The high sequence homology between the active gene and pseudogene leads to frequent microconversions and large rearrangements through intergenic recombination. The TNXB gene encodes an extracellular matrix glycoprotein, tenascin-X (TNX), and defects in TNXB cause Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Deletions affecting both CYP21A2 and TNXB result in a contiguous gene deletion syndrome known as CAH-X syndrome. Because of the high homology between CYP21A2 and CYP21A1P, genetic testing for CAH should include an evaluation of copy number variations, as well as Sanger sequencing. Although it poses challenges for genetic testing, a large number of mutations and their associated phenotypes have been identified, which has helped to establish genotype-phenotype correlations. The genotype is helpful for guiding early treatment, predicting the clinical phenotype and prognosis, and providing genetic counseling. In particular, it can help ensure proper management of the potential complications of CAH-X syndrome, such as musculoskeletal and cardiac defects. This review focuses on the molecular pathophysiology and genetic diagnosis of 21-hydroxylase deficiency and highlights genetic testing strategies for CAH-X syndrome.

8.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1151-1163, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002400

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To develop a deep-learning-based bone age prediction model optimized for Korean children and adolescents and evaluate its feasibility by comparing it with a Greulich-Pyle-based deep-learning model. @*Materials and Methods@#A convolutional neural network was trained to predict age according to the bone development shown on a hand radiograph (bone age) using 21036 hand radiographs of Korean children and adolescents without known bone development-affecting diseases/conditions obtained between 1998 and 2019 (median age [interquartile range {IQR}], 9 [7–12] years; male:female, 11794:9242) and their chronological ages as labels (Korean model). We constructed 2 separate external datasets consisting of Korean children and adolescents with healthy bone development (Institution 1: n = 343;median age [IQR], 10 [4–15] years; male: female, 183:160; Institution 2: n = 321; median age [IQR], 9 [5–14] years; male:female, 164:157) to test the model performance. The mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and proportions of bone age predictions within 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of the reference age (chronological age) were compared between the Korean model and a commercial model (VUNO Med-BoneAge version 1.1; VUNO) trained with Greulich-Pyle-based age as the label (GP-based model). @*Results@#Compared with the GP-based model, the Korean model showed a lower RMSE (11.2 vs. 13.8 months; P = 0.004) and MAE (8.2 vs. 10.5 months; P = 0.002), a higher proportion of bone age predictions within 18 months of chronological age (88.3% vs. 82.2%; P = 0.031) for Institution 1, and a lower MAE (9.5 vs. 11.0 months; P = 0.022) and higher proportion of bone age predictions within 6 months (44.5% vs. 36.4%; P = 0.044) for Institution 2. @*Conclusion@#The Korean model trained using the chronological ages of Korean children and adolescents without known bone development-affecting diseases/conditions as labels performed better in bone age assessment than the GP-based model in the Korean pediatric population. Further validation is required to confirm its accuracy.

9.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 81-88, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002374

ABSTRACT

Biliary stent removal can cause hemobilia due to injury to the adjacent vessel, but it is rarely reported. If significant hemobilia occurs during stent removal, samesession covered self-expandable metal stent (CSEMS) insertion may be useful as a rescue or bridge therapy before angiography. Here, we report two cases of lifethreatening hemobilia following stent removal successfully treated by CSEMS. The first case was a Klatskin tumor bismuth type IV patient who required biliary stenting for resolving malignant biliary obstruction. The second case was a hepatocellular carcinoma patient who had undergone multiple transarterial chemoembolization and required biliary stents for liver abscess. In this situation, inserting a CSEMS at a higher level than the expected bleeding site and recognizing stenting as a temporary therapy with its limitations are important. Also, it is crucial to consider pre-procedural imaging in high-risk patients, and perform post-procedural imaging to evaluate for ongoing bleeding or vascular abnormalities.

10.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 22-29, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925475

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare bone fragility disorder caused by defects in type 1 collagen biosynthesis. This study investigated the genotype-phenotype correlations and the efficacy of pamidronate therapy in patients with OI in a single academic center. @*Methods@#This study included 24 patients with OI. A clinical scoring system was used to evaluate disorder severity. COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes were analyzed in 13 patients using Sanger sequencing. Genotype-phenotype correlations and the efficacy of pamidronate therapy were analyzed through a retrospective medical chart review. @*Results@#Of the 24 patients, 18 (75%) were classified as type I (12 with type Ia and 6 with type Ib), 2 as type III (8.4%), and 4 as type IV (16.7%). Type Ia patients showed relatively higher lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) standard deviation scores (SDS) and lower clinical scores than those with other types. Seven patients with qualitative mutations had lower lumbar BMD-SDS (P=0.015) and higher clinical scores (P=0.008) than 6 patients with quantitative mutations. The annual fracture frequency and lumbar BMD-SDS improved in patients with qualitative mutations after pamidronate treatment. @*Conclusion@#This study demonstrated that OI patients with qualitative mutations in COL1A1/2 had a more severe phenotype than those with quantitative mutations. Patients with qualitative mutations showed a significant reduction in fracture frequency and an increase in lumbar BMD-SDS after pamidronate treatment. Clinical score and genotype might be helpful for predicting phenotype and response to pamidronate therapy in OI patients.

11.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 359-368, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924932

ABSTRACT

Background@#Discontinuing growth hormone (GH) treatment during the transition to adulthood has been associated with adverse health outcomes in patients with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency (CO-GHD). This study investigated the metabolic changes associated with interrupting GH treatment in adolescents with CO-GHD during the transition period. @*Methods@#This study included 187 patients with CO-GHD who were confirmed to have adult GHD and were treated at six academic centers in Korea. Data on clinical parameters, including anthropometric measurements, metabolic profiles, and bone mineral density (BMD) at the end of childhood GH treatment, were collected at the time of re-evaluation for GHD and 1 year after treatment resumption. @*Results@#Most patients (n=182, 97.3%) had organic GHD. The median age at treatment discontinuation and re-evaluation was 15.6 and 18.7 years, respectively. The median duration of treatment interruption was 2.8 years. During treatment discontinuation, body mass index Z-scores and total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels increased, whereas fasting glucose levels decreased. One year after GH treatment resumption, fasting glucose levels, HDL cholesterol levels, and femoral neck BMD increased significantly. Longer GH interruption (>2 years, 60.4%) resulted in worse lipid profiles at re-evaluation. The duration of interruption was positively correlated with fasting glucose and non-HDL cholesterol levels after adjusting for covariates. @*Conclusion@#GH treatment interruption during the transition period resulted in worse metabolic parameters, and a longer interruption period was correlated with poorer outcomes. GH treatment should be resumed early in patients with CO-GHD during the transition period.

12.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 142-147, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937172

ABSTRACT

Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a hypercalcemia disorder with inappropriately normal or increased serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels resulting from excessive secretion of PTH from one or more of the parathyroid glands. PHPT is uncommon in infants and children, with an estimated incidence of 2–5 cases per 100,000 persons. Patients with PHPT usually present with bone pain, urolithiasis, or nephrolithiasis, as well as nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue and weakness. Asymptomatic hypercalcemia may also be detected incidentally. Only a few cases of pediatric PHPT have been reported in Korea. We present three patients (a 9-year-old girl, a 14-year-old boy, and a 14-year-old girl) with PHPT who manifested variable clinical features of hypercalcemia. The first and second patients each had a parathyroid adenoma and presented with abdominal pain caused by pancreatitis and a ureter stone, respectively. The third patient had an ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma and presented with gait disturbance and weakness of the lower extremities. All of the patients underwent surgical resection of parathyroid adenoma, and their serum calcium levels subsequently normalized without medication.

13.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 169-172, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938813

ABSTRACT

Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) is preferred over conventional surgical tracheostomy for prolonged airway protection and mechanical ventilation. However, despite its advantages, severe PDT-related complications have been reported, including catastrophic hemorrhage from common carotid artery laceration and innominate artery pseudo-aneurysm. PDT can typically be applied to the trachea, which is the focal point for the transverse course of great vessels (e.g., the anomalous brachiocephalic trunk, which overlaps with the targeted lesion anteriorly); therefore, to improve patient outcomes, an alternative method using aortic debranching may be considered.

14.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 548-560, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916533

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Elevated levels of cardiac troponin in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) is not well understood and is often ignored. This study aimed to investigate the impact of cardiac troponin I (TnI) levels on the clinical outcome of patients visiting the ED with or without CKD. @*Methods@#In this retrospective single-center cohort study, we enrolled patients visiting the ED without a diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Elevated cardiac TnI was defined as being ≥99th percentile of the normal population (Siemens ADVIA Centaur TnI-Ultra≥0.040 ng/mL). The clinical outcomes of patients with CKD stage≤2 and CKD stage ≥3 were compared. The primary endpoint was the 180-day all-cause death, including cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular deaths. @*Results@#Among a total of 30,472 patients (median age, 61 years; male sex, 54.3%), elevated TnI was found in 4,377 patients (14.4%). There were 3,634 deaths (11.9%) including 584 cardiovascular (1.9%) and 3,050 non-cardiovascular deaths (10.0%). The risk of all-cause death increased in patients with elevated TnI in both CKD stage≤2 (hazard ratio [HR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-2.3) and CKD stage≥3 (HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.4-1.7), and so did the risks of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular death (HR, 1.2-4.7) (P<0.05, all). The association of elevated TnI with death risk was consistent in multivariate analyses and in most clinical subgroup analyses. @*Conclusion@#Elevated TnI was associated with higher 180-day mortality irrespective of renal function among patients visiting the ED without documented CAD. CKD patients visiting the ED with elevated TnI may warrant additional evaluation or careful follow-up even without the presence of CAD.

15.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 148-167, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894667

ABSTRACT

Post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP) is one of the most burdensome adverse events, occurs in about 3 to 15 percent of patients after the procedure. Various and extensive attempts have been made to find proper prophylaxis for PEP. Nowadays, pharmacologic agents consist one of the pivotal axis for prophylaxis for PEP. In this review article, we tried to overview pharmacologic prophylaxis including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aggressive hydration, protease inhibitors, exocrine pancreatic secretion inhibitors, and nitrates from recent updated results of randomized controlled studies and key meta-analyses.

16.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e106-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892152

ABSTRACT

Background@#There are no data on comparison between clopidogrel monotherapy and prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients at high-risk undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). @*Methods@#Of 2,082 consecutive patients undergoing PCI using second-generation drugeluting stent (DES), we studied 637 patients at high-risk either angiographically or clinically who received clopidogrel longer than 24 months and were event-free at 12 months after index PCI. Patients were divided into 2 groups: the clopidogrel monotherapy group and the prolonged DAPT group. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), definite or probable stent thrombosis, or stroke between 12 months and 36 months after the index PCI. @*Results@#In propensity score-matched population (246 pairs), the cumulative rate of primary outcome was 4.5% in the clopidogrel monotherapy group and 4.9% in the prolonged DAPT group (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.54–2.75; P = 0.643). There was no significant difference in all-cause death, MI, stent thrombosis, stroke between the clopidogrel monotherapy group and the prolonged DAPT group. @*Conclusion@#Compared with prolonged DAPT, clopidogrel monotherapy showed similar long-term outcomes in patients at high-risk after second-generation DES implantation.

17.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 105-111, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889172

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by reduced bone mass that results in increased risk of fractures. Pediatric osteoporosis can be caused by monogenic diseases, chronic diseases, and/or their treatment. This study was performed to investigate the effect of pamidronate infusion on osteoporosis in children and adolescents. @*Methods@#This study included 13 unrelated pediatric patients (10 males and 3 females) whose bone mineral density (BMD) z-score was <-2.0. Pamidronate was administered intravenously at a dosage of 1 mg/kg for 3 consecutive days every 4 months. Clinical and biochemical findings were reviewed retrospectively. The BMD values of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline and annually. @*Results@#The underlying diseases were immobilization (62%), inflammatory bowel disease (23%), protein-losing enteropathy (8%), and idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis (8%). The mean age at the start of treatment was 12.7±4.3 years. Duration of treatment ranged from 12–50 months. The baseline height-standard deviation score (SDS) and weight-SDS were -2.01±2.08 and -2.60±1.62, respectively. The lumbar spine BMD z-scores improved significantly after 1 year of pamidronate treatment, but the femoral neck BMD z-scores did not. However, both z-scores had significantly increased by the end of treatment. @*Conclusion@#This study demonstrated that pamidronate treatment increased BMD in pediatric patients with osteoporosis with no significant adverse events. Further studies are required to better define the long-term efficacy and safety of pamidronate therapy in a large number of pediatric patients.

18.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 148-167, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902371

ABSTRACT

Post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP) is one of the most burdensome adverse events, occurs in about 3 to 15 percent of patients after the procedure. Various and extensive attempts have been made to find proper prophylaxis for PEP. Nowadays, pharmacologic agents consist one of the pivotal axis for prophylaxis for PEP. In this review article, we tried to overview pharmacologic prophylaxis including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aggressive hydration, protease inhibitors, exocrine pancreatic secretion inhibitors, and nitrates from recent updated results of randomized controlled studies and key meta-analyses.

19.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e106-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899856

ABSTRACT

Background@#There are no data on comparison between clopidogrel monotherapy and prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients at high-risk undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). @*Methods@#Of 2,082 consecutive patients undergoing PCI using second-generation drugeluting stent (DES), we studied 637 patients at high-risk either angiographically or clinically who received clopidogrel longer than 24 months and were event-free at 12 months after index PCI. Patients were divided into 2 groups: the clopidogrel monotherapy group and the prolonged DAPT group. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), definite or probable stent thrombosis, or stroke between 12 months and 36 months after the index PCI. @*Results@#In propensity score-matched population (246 pairs), the cumulative rate of primary outcome was 4.5% in the clopidogrel monotherapy group and 4.9% in the prolonged DAPT group (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.54–2.75; P = 0.643). There was no significant difference in all-cause death, MI, stent thrombosis, stroke between the clopidogrel monotherapy group and the prolonged DAPT group. @*Conclusion@#Compared with prolonged DAPT, clopidogrel monotherapy showed similar long-term outcomes in patients at high-risk after second-generation DES implantation.

20.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 105-111, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896876

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by reduced bone mass that results in increased risk of fractures. Pediatric osteoporosis can be caused by monogenic diseases, chronic diseases, and/or their treatment. This study was performed to investigate the effect of pamidronate infusion on osteoporosis in children and adolescents. @*Methods@#This study included 13 unrelated pediatric patients (10 males and 3 females) whose bone mineral density (BMD) z-score was <-2.0. Pamidronate was administered intravenously at a dosage of 1 mg/kg for 3 consecutive days every 4 months. Clinical and biochemical findings were reviewed retrospectively. The BMD values of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline and annually. @*Results@#The underlying diseases were immobilization (62%), inflammatory bowel disease (23%), protein-losing enteropathy (8%), and idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis (8%). The mean age at the start of treatment was 12.7±4.3 years. Duration of treatment ranged from 12–50 months. The baseline height-standard deviation score (SDS) and weight-SDS were -2.01±2.08 and -2.60±1.62, respectively. The lumbar spine BMD z-scores improved significantly after 1 year of pamidronate treatment, but the femoral neck BMD z-scores did not. However, both z-scores had significantly increased by the end of treatment. @*Conclusion@#This study demonstrated that pamidronate treatment increased BMD in pediatric patients with osteoporosis with no significant adverse events. Further studies are required to better define the long-term efficacy and safety of pamidronate therapy in a large number of pediatric patients.

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