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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1188-1198, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831126

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In pulmonary oligometastases from colorectal cancer (POM-CRC), the primarily recommended local therapy is metastasectomy. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is another local therapy modality that is considered as an alternative option in patients who cannot undergo surgery. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to demonstrate the effects of SBRT on POM-CRC by integrating the relevant studies. @*Materials and Methods@#The authors explored MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and SCOPUS, and selected studies including patients treated with SBRT for POM-CRC and availability of local control (LC) or overall survival (OS) rate. In this meta-analysis, the effect of SBRT was presented in the form of the LC and OS rates for 1, 2, 3, and 5 years after SBRT as pooled estimates, and the frequency of pulmonary toxicity of grade 3 or higher after SBRT (PTG3-SBRT). @*Results@#Fourteen full texts among the searched 4,984 studies were the objects of this meta-analysis. The overall number of POM-CRC patients was 495 as per the integration of 14 studies. The pooled estimate LC rate at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years after SBRT was 81.0%, 71.5%, 56.0%, and 61.8%, and the OS rate was 86.9%, 70.1%, 57.9%, and 43.0%, respectively. The LC and OS rates gradually declined until 3 years after SBRT in a similar pattern. Among the 14 studies, only two studies reported PTG3-SBRT as 2.2% and 10.8%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#For POM-CRC, SBRT is an ablative therapy with a benefit on LC and OS rates and less adverse effects on the lung.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831034

ABSTRACT

Background@#Lymphopenia frequently occurs after concomitant chemoradiation (CCRT) in patients with glioblastoma (GBM) and is associated with worse overall survival (OS). A few studies have tried to identify risk factors for lymphopenia; however, the results were not clear. We aimed to identify potential risk factors for lymphopenia, focusing on the use of dexamethasone to control cerebral edema in patients with GBM. @*Methods@#The electronic medical records of 186 patients with newly diagnosed GBM treated at our institution between 2009 and 2017 were retrospectively examined. Acute lymphopenia was defined as total lymphocyte count less than 1,000 cells/μL at 4 weeks after completion of CCRT.Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for lymphopenia, and Cox regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for OS. @*Results@#Of the 125 eligible patients, 40 patients (32.0%) developed acute lymphopenia. Female sex and median daily dexamethasone dose ≥2 mg after initiation of CCRT were independent risk factors for acute lymphopenia on multivariate analysis. Acute lymphopenia, extent of surgical resection, and performance status were associated with OS; however, dexamethasone use itself was not an independent risk factor for poor OS. @*Conclusion@#Female sex, median daily dexamethasone dose ≥2 mg after initiation of CCRT until 4 weeks after completion of CCRT may be associated with acute lymphopenia. However, dexamethasone use itself did not affect OS in patients newly diagnosed with GBM. These results should be validated by further prospective studies controlling for other confounding factors.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831026

ABSTRACT

Background@#: The Guideline Working Group of the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO)conducted a nationwide questionnaire survey for diverse queries faced in the treatment of brain tumors.As part I of the survey, the aim of this study is to evaluate national patterns of clinical practiceabout antiepileptic drug (AED) and steroid usage for management of brain tumors. @*Methods@#: A web-based survey was sent to all members of the KSNO by email. The survey included9 questions of AED usage and 5 questions of steroid usage for brain tumor patients. All questionswere developed by consensus of the Guideline Working Group. @*Results@#: The overall response rate was 12.8% (54/423). Regarding AED usage, the majority ofrespondents (95.2%) routinely prescribed prophylactic AEDs for patients with seizure at the peri/postoperativeperiod. However, as many as 72.8% of respondents prescribed AED routinely for seizure-naïvepatients, and others prescribed AED as the case may be. The duration of AED prophylaxis showedwide variance according to the epilepsy status and the location of tumor. Levetiracetam (82.9%) wasthe most preferred AED for epilepsy prophylaxis. Regarding steroid usage, 90.5% of respondents usesteroids in perioperative period, including 34.2% of them as a routine manner. Presence of peritumoraledema (90.9%) was considered as the most important factor determining steroid usage followed bydegree of clinical symptoms (60.6%). More than half of respondents (51.2%) replied to discontinue thesteroids within a week after surgery if there are no specific medical conditions, while 7.3% preferredslow tapering up to a month after surgery. @*Conclusion@#: The survey demonstrated the prevailing practice patterns on AED and steroid usagein neuro-oncologic field among members of the KSNO. This information provides a point of referencefor establishing a practical guideline in the management of brain tumor patients.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831025

ABSTRACT

Background@#: The Guideline Working Group of the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO)conducted a nationwide questionnaire survey for diverse queries faced in the treatment of brain tumors.As part II of the survey, the aim of this study is to evaluate the national patterns of clinical practicefor patients with diffuse midline glioma and meningioma. @*Methods@#: A web-based survey was sent to all members of the KSNO by email. The survey included4 questions of diffuse midline glioma and 6 questions of meningioma (including 2 case scenarios).All questions were developed by consensus of the Guideline Working Group. @*Results@#: In the survey about diffuse midline glioma, 76% respondents performed histologicconfirmation to identify H3K27M mutation on immunohistochemical staining or sequencing methods.For treatment of diffuse midline glioma, respondents preferred concurrent chemoradiotherapy withtemozolomide (TMZ) and adjuvant TMZ (63.8%) than radiotherapy alone (34.0%). In the surveyabout meningioma, respondents prefer wait-and-see policy for the asymptomatic small meningiomawithout peritumoral edema. However, a greater number of respondents had chosen surgical resectionas the first choice for all large size meningiomas without exception, and small size meningiomaswith either peritumoral edema or eloquent location. There was no single opinion with major consensuson long-term follow-up plans for asymptomatic meningioma with observation policy. As many as68.1% of respondents answered that they would not add any adjuvant therapies for World Health Organizationgrade II meningiomas if the tumor was totally resected including dura. @*Conclusion@#: The survey demonstrates the prevailing clinical practice patterns for patients with diffusemidline glioma and meningioma among members of the KSNO. This information provides a pointof reference for establishing a practical guideline in the management of diffuse midline glioma andmeningioma.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831024

ABSTRACT

Background@#: The Guideline Working Group of the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO)conducted the nationwide questionnaire survey for diverse queries facing to treat patients with braintumor. As part III of the survey, the aim of this study is to evaluate the national patterns of clinical practicefor patients with brain metastasis and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). @*Methods@#: A web-based survey was sent to all members of the KSNO by email. The survey included7 questions of brain metastasis and 5 questions of PCNSL, focused on the management strategiesin specific situations. All questions were developed by consensus of the Guideline WorkingGroup. @*Results@#" In the survey about brain metastasis, respondents preferred surgical resection withadjuvant treatment for patients with a surgically accessible single brain metastatic lesion less than 3cm in size without extracranial systemic lesions. However, most respondents considered radiosurgeryfor surgically inaccessible lesions. As the preferred treatment of multiple brain metastases according tothe number of brain lesions, respondents tended to choose radiotherapy with increasing number of lesions.Radiosurgery was mostly chosen for the brain metastases of less than or equal to 4. In the surveyabout PCNSL, a half of respondents choose high-dose methotrexate-based polychemotherapy asthe first-line induction therapy for PCNSL. The consolidation and salvage therapy showed a little variationamong respondents. For PCNSL patients with cerebrospinal fluid dissemination, intrathecal chemotherapywas most preferred. @*Conclusion@#: The survey demonstrates the prevailing clinical practice patterns for patients withbrain metastasis and PCNSL among members of the KSNO. This information provides a point of referencefor establishing a practical guideline in the management of brain metastasis and PCNSL.

6.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 166-175, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761013

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as prognostic factors in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 66 patients with locally advanced NSCLC treated with definitive CCRT. Among these patients, 95% received paclitaxel/carboplatin or docetaxel/cisplatin. The median radiation dose was 66 Gy in 33 fractions. The NLR and PLR before/after CCRT were evaluated. The maximally selected log-rank test was used to obtain the cutoff values related to the overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Patients with high post-CCRT NLR (>3.12) showed worse OS, locoregional progression-free survival (LRPFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) than those with low NLR (2-year OS: 25.8% vs. 68.2%, p 141) showed worse OS and LRPFS than those with low PLR (2-year OS: 37.5% vs. 71.1%, p = 0.004; 2-year LRPFS: 16.5% vs. 40.3%, p = 0.040). Patients with high NLR change (>1.61) showed worse OS and LRPFS than those with low NLR change (2-year OS: 26.0% vs. 59.0%, p < 0.001; 2-year LRPFS: 6.8% vs. 31.8%, p = 0.004). The planning target volume (hazard ration [HR] = 2.05, p = 0.028) and NLR change (HR = 3.17, p = 0.025) were the significant factors for OS in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: NLR change after CCRT was associated with poor prognosis of survival in patients with locally advanced NSCLC. An elevated NLR after CCRT might be an indicator of an increased treatment failure risk.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Failure
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To analyze clinical outcome of CyberKnife (CK) tumor-tracking stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for prostate cancer (Pca) according to the magnitude of intra-fractional prostate motion. METHODS: Medical records and daily treatment logs for 71 patients who received CK tumor-tracking SBRT were retrospectively analyzed. Statistical relationships between prostate motion and various outcome results, including local recurrence (LR), biochemical failure (BF), and treatment-related toxicity, were investigated in order to evaluate motion-dependent efficacy of tumor-tracking SBRT for Pca. RESULTS: In a total 71 patients, 3 (4.2%) patients with LR, 12 (16.9%) patients with BF, and 22 (31%) patients with grade-II or worse toxicities to rectal or bladder (22 to rectal, 22 to bladder and 8 patients to both) were observed in a median follow-up of 47 months. Magnitudes of intra-fractional tumor motion along superior-inferior, right-left, and anterior-posterior (AP) axes were 0.15 ± 0.31, 0.12 ± 0.19, and 0.73 ± 0.32 mm, respectively. Radial magnitude was estimated to be 1.0 ± 0.35 mm. Intra-fractional movement was not significantly correlated with tumor control. However, it was significant correlated with the incidence of grade-II or worse toxicity to rectum or bladder particularly when tumor motion was in the AP axis. CONCLUSION: Our quantitative results revealed that toxicity related to SBRT treatment was highly sensitive to intra-fractional prostate movements, although local-tumor control was not affected by such movements. Our results demonstrate that precise motion correction is essential in prostate SBRT, even if it seems to be small.


Subject(s)
Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Medical Records , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms , Radiosurgery , Rectum , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Urinary Bladder
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714079

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although intracavitary radiotherapy (ICR) is essential for the radiation therapy of cervical cancer, few institutions in Korea perform 3-dimensional (3D)-based ICR. To identify patients who would benefit from 3D-based ICR, dosimetric parameters for tumor targets and organs at risk (OARs) were compared between 2-dimensional (2D)- and 3D-based ICR. METHODS: Twenty patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who underwent external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) following 3D-based ICR were retrospectively evaluated. New 2D-based plans based on the Manchester system were developed. Tumor size was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: The mean high risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) D90 value was about 10% lower for 2D- than for 3D-based plans (88.4% vs. 97.7%; P = 0.068). Tumor coverage did not differ between 2D- and 3D-based plans in patients with tumors ≤ 4 cm at the time of brachytherapy, but the mean HR-CTV D90 values in patients with tumors > 4 cm were significantly higher for 3D-based plans than for 2D-based plans (96.0% vs. 78.1%; P = 0.017). Similar results were found for patients with tumors > 5 cm initially. Other dosimetric parameters for OARs were similar between 2D- and 3D-based plans, except that mean sigmoid D2cc was higher for 2D- than for 3D-based plans (67.5% vs. 58.8%; P = 0.043). CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that 3D-based ICR plans improve tumor coverage while satisfying the dose constraints for OARs. 3D-based ICR should be considered in patients with tumors > 4 cm size at the time of brachytherapy or > 5 cm initially.


Subject(s)
Brachytherapy , Colon, Sigmoid , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Korea , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Organs at Risk , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Discrimination based on type of employment against non-regular workers is still a social issue. However, there are few studies on job factors that affect the discrimination experience in each type of employment or the association between discrimination and health impact indicators. This study examined occupational health characteristics according to discrimination experience and relating factors that affect discrimination experience. METHODS: This study used the 4th Korean Working Conditions Survey (2014) provided by the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency. Among the 50,000 workers, 7731 non-regular wage workers were selected as study population. To examine differences in discrimination experience, we used a t-test on occupational risk factors, occupational stress, occupational characteristics, health impact indicators. To identify the factors that affected discrimination experience, we performed binomial logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The discrimination experience rate was significantly higher in male, aged less than 40 years old, above high school graduate than middle school graduate, higher wage level, shorter employment period and larger company's scale. As factors related to discrimination experience, they experienced discrimination more as occupational stress was higher and when they were temporary or daily workers rather than permanent workers, work patterns were not consistent, and the support of boss was low. It showed that physical, musculoskeletal, and mental occupational risk scores and subjective job instability were higher and work environment satisfaction was lower in discrimination experienced group. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that the demographic and occupational factors were complexly related to discrimination experience in non-regular workers. The experience of discrimination had increased when occupational stress was higher, they were temporary or daily workers rather than permanent workers, work patterns were not consistent, and their boss' support was low. Improving various relating factors, (e.g. occupational stresses, employment status and occupational characteristics), this would ultimately expect to improve non-regular workers' discrimination.


Subject(s)
Discrimination, Psychological , Employment , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Male , Occupational Health , Risk Factors , Salaries and Fringe Benefits
10.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 198-207, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144726

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Whether preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is better than postoperative CRT in oncologic outcome and toxicity is contentious in prospective randomized clinical trials. We systematically analyze and compare the treatment result, toxicity, and sphincter preservation rate between preoperative CRT and postoperative CRT in stage II–III rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library from 1990 to 2014 for relevant trials. Only phase III randomized studies performing CRT and curative surgery were selected and the data were extracted. Meta-analysis was used to pool oncologic outcome and toxicity data across studies. RESULTS: Three randomized phase III trials were finally identified. The meta-analysis results showed significantly lower 5-year locoregional recurrence rate in the preoperative-CRT group than in the postoperative-CRT group (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.41–0.84; p = 0.004). The 5-year distant recurrence rate (p = 0.55), relapse-free survival (p = 0.14), and overall survival (p = 0.22) showed no significant difference between two groups. Acute toxicity was significantly lower in the preoperativeCRT group than in the postoperative-CRT group (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between two groups in perioperative and chronic complications (p = 0.53). The sphincter-saving rate was not significantly different between two groups (p = 0.24). The conversion rate from abdominoperineal resection to low anterior resection in low rectal cancer was significantly higher in the preoperative-CRT group than in the postoperative-CRT group (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: As compared to postoperative CRT, preoperative CRT improves only locoregional control, not distant control and survival, with similar chronic toxicity and sphincter preservation rate in rectal cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Chemoradiotherapy , Humans , Prospective Studies , Rectal Neoplasms , Recurrence
11.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 198-207, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144718

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Whether preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is better than postoperative CRT in oncologic outcome and toxicity is contentious in prospective randomized clinical trials. We systematically analyze and compare the treatment result, toxicity, and sphincter preservation rate between preoperative CRT and postoperative CRT in stage II–III rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library from 1990 to 2014 for relevant trials. Only phase III randomized studies performing CRT and curative surgery were selected and the data were extracted. Meta-analysis was used to pool oncologic outcome and toxicity data across studies. RESULTS: Three randomized phase III trials were finally identified. The meta-analysis results showed significantly lower 5-year locoregional recurrence rate in the preoperative-CRT group than in the postoperative-CRT group (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.41–0.84; p = 0.004). The 5-year distant recurrence rate (p = 0.55), relapse-free survival (p = 0.14), and overall survival (p = 0.22) showed no significant difference between two groups. Acute toxicity was significantly lower in the preoperativeCRT group than in the postoperative-CRT group (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between two groups in perioperative and chronic complications (p = 0.53). The sphincter-saving rate was not significantly different between two groups (p = 0.24). The conversion rate from abdominoperineal resection to low anterior resection in low rectal cancer was significantly higher in the preoperative-CRT group than in the postoperative-CRT group (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: As compared to postoperative CRT, preoperative CRT improves only locoregional control, not distant control and survival, with similar chronic toxicity and sphincter preservation rate in rectal cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Chemoradiotherapy , Humans , Prospective Studies , Rectal Neoplasms , Recurrence
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168660

ABSTRACT

An epidemiological study was performed to know the recent infection status of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae (PwMc) in freshwater crayfish, Cambaroides similis, from 2 streams in Jeollanam-do, Republic of Korea. Crayfish were collected from creeks in Bogil-do (Island), Wando-gun, and in a creek near Daeheung Temple in Haenam-gun. The infection rate of crayfish with PwMc in Bogil-do was 89.8%, and the metacercarial burden was 37 PwMc per the infected crayfish. Crayfish in a creek near Daeheung Temple were larger and twice heavier than those in Bogil-do. Of them, 96.5% were infected with PwMc. An average of 140 metacercariae was found in the infected crayfish, almost quadruple to those of Bogil-do. There was a strong correlation between the number of PwMc and body weight of the crayfish. These results suggest that P. westermani metacercariae are still prevalent in crayfish of the 2 regions in Jeollanam-do, Korea.


Subject(s)
Astacoidea , Body Weight , Epidemiologic Studies , Fresh Water , Incidence , Korea , Metacercariae , Paragonimus westermani , Paragonimus , Republic of Korea , Rivers
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44798

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the dose distribution between carotid sparing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and opposed lateral field technique (LAFT), and to determine the effects of carotid sparing IMRT in early glottic cancer patients who have risk factors for atherosclerosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten early glottic cancer patients were treated with carotid sparing IMRT. For each patient, the conventional LAFT plan was developed for comparison. IMRT and LAFT plans were compared in terms of planning target volume (PTV) coverage, conformity index, homogeneity index, and the doses to planning organ at risk volume (PRV) for carotid arteries, spinal cord and pharyngeal constrictor muscle. RESULTS: Recurrence was not observed in any patients during the follow-up period. V95% for PTV showed no significant difference between IMRT and LAFT plans, while V100% was significantly higher in the IMRT plan (95.5% vs. 94.6%, p = 0.005). The homogeneity index (11.6%) and conformity index (1.4) in the IMRT plan were significantly better than those in the LAFT plans (8.5% and 5.1, respectively) (p = 0.005). The median V5Gy (90.0%), V25Gy (13.5%), and V50Gy (0%) for carotid artery PRV in the IMRT plan were significantly lower than those in the LAFT plan (99.1%, 89.0%, and 77.3%, respectively) (p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that carotid sparing IMRT can significantly decrease the dose to carotid arteries compared to LAFT, and it would be considered for early glottic cancer patient with high risk of atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Carotid Arteries , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Recurrence , Risk Factors , Spinal Cord
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61893

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We compared the treatment results and toxicity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy (CCRT) alone (the CRT arm) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by CCRT (the NCT arm). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multi-institutional retrospective study was conducted to review NPC patterns of care and treatment outcome. Data of 568 NPC patients treated by CCRT alone or by neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by CCRT were collected from 15 institutions. Patients in both treatment arms were matched using the propensity score matching method, and the clinical outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: After matching, 300 patients (150 patients in each group) were selected for analysis. Higher 5-year locoregional failure-free survival was observed in the CRT arm (85% vs. 72%, p=0.014). No significant differences in distant failure-free survival (DFFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival were observed between groups. In subgroup analysis, the NCT arm showed superior DFFS and DFS in stage IV patients younger than 60 years. No significant difference in compliance and toxicity was observed between groups, except the radiation therapy duration was slightly shorter in the CRT arm (50.0 days vs. 53.9 days, p=0.018). CONCLUSION: This study did not show the superiority of NCT followed by CCRT over CCRT alone. Because NCT could increase the risk of locoregional recurrences, it can only be considered in selected young patients with advanced stage IV disease. The role of NCT remains to be defined and should not be viewed as the standard of care.


Subject(s)
Arm , Chemoradiotherapy , Compliance , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Humans , Induction Chemotherapy , Methods , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Propensity Score , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Standard of Care , Treatment Outcome
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138533

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN), a rare premalignant condition, is difficult to eradicate. We assess the effectiveness of high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICR) in patients with VAIN or carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the vagina after hysterectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed 34 patients treated for posthysterectomy VAIN or CIS of the vagina by brachytherapy as the sole treatment. All patients underwent a coloposcopic-directed punch biopsy or had abnormal cytology, at least 3 consecutive times. All patients were treated with a vaginal cylinder applicator. The total radiation dose was mainly 40 Gy in 8 fractions during the periods of 4 weeks at a prescription point of the median 0.2 cm (range, 0 to 0.5 cm) depth from the surface of the vaginal mucosa. RESULTS: Acute toxicity was minimal. Seven patients had grade 1/2 acute urinary and rectal complications. There were 15 cases of late toxicity, predominantly vaginal mucosal reaction in 12 patients. Of these patients, two patients suffered from grade 3 vaginal stricture and dyspareunia continuously. After a median follow-up time of 48 months (range, 4 to 122 months), there were 2 recurrences and 2 persistent diseases, in which a second-line therapy was needed. The success rate was 88.2%. The average prescription point in failure patients was 1.1 mm from the surface of the vagina compared to an average of 2.6 mm in non-recurrent patients (p=0.097). CONCLUSION: HDR-ICR is an effective treatment method in VAIN patients. In spite of high cure rates, we should consider issues regarding vaginal toxicity and radiation techniques to reduce the occurrence of failure and toxicity.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Brachytherapy , Carcinoma in Situ , Constriction, Pathologic , Dyspareunia , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hysterectomy , Methods , Mucous Membrane , Prescriptions , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Vagina , Vaginal Neoplasms
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138532

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN), a rare premalignant condition, is difficult to eradicate. We assess the effectiveness of high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICR) in patients with VAIN or carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the vagina after hysterectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed 34 patients treated for posthysterectomy VAIN or CIS of the vagina by brachytherapy as the sole treatment. All patients underwent a coloposcopic-directed punch biopsy or had abnormal cytology, at least 3 consecutive times. All patients were treated with a vaginal cylinder applicator. The total radiation dose was mainly 40 Gy in 8 fractions during the periods of 4 weeks at a prescription point of the median 0.2 cm (range, 0 to 0.5 cm) depth from the surface of the vaginal mucosa. RESULTS: Acute toxicity was minimal. Seven patients had grade 1/2 acute urinary and rectal complications. There were 15 cases of late toxicity, predominantly vaginal mucosal reaction in 12 patients. Of these patients, two patients suffered from grade 3 vaginal stricture and dyspareunia continuously. After a median follow-up time of 48 months (range, 4 to 122 months), there were 2 recurrences and 2 persistent diseases, in which a second-line therapy was needed. The success rate was 88.2%. The average prescription point in failure patients was 1.1 mm from the surface of the vagina compared to an average of 2.6 mm in non-recurrent patients (p=0.097). CONCLUSION: HDR-ICR is an effective treatment method in VAIN patients. In spite of high cure rates, we should consider issues regarding vaginal toxicity and radiation techniques to reduce the occurrence of failure and toxicity.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Brachytherapy , Carcinoma in Situ , Constriction, Pathologic , Dyspareunia , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hysterectomy , Methods , Mucous Membrane , Prescriptions , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Vagina , Vaginal Neoplasms
17.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 147-155, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-209404

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to observe the outcomes of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) with or without concurrent chemotherapy in resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in single institution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2002 to 2013, 78 patients diagnosed with NSCLC after curative resection were treated with radiotherapy alone (RT, n = 48) or concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT, n = 30). The indications of adjuvant radiation therapy were N2 node positive (n = 31), close or involved resection margin (n = 28), or gross residual disease due to incomplete resection (n = 19). The median radiation dose was 57.6 Gy (range, 29.9 to 66 Gy). RESULTS: Median survival time was 33.7 months (range, 4.4 to 140.3 months). The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 49.5% (RT 46% vs. CCRT 55.2%; p = 0.731). The 3-year disease-free survival rate was 45.5% (RT 39.4% vs. CCRT 55.3%; p = 0.130). The 3-year local control rate was 68.1% (RT 64.4% vs. CCRT 77.7%; p = 0.165). The 3-year DMFS rate was 56.1% (RT 52.6% vs. CCRT 61.7%; p = 0.314). In multivariate analysis, age > or =66 years and pathologic stage III were significant poor prognostic factors for OS. Treatment failure occurred in 40 patients. Four patients had radiologically confirmed grade 3 radiation pneumonitis. CONCLUSION: In NSCLC, adjuvant RT or CCRT after curative surgery is a safe and feasible modality of treatment. OS gain was seen in patients less than 66 years. Postoperative CCRT showed a propensity of achieving better local control and improved disease-free survival compared to RT alone according to our data.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Radiation Pneumonitis , Radiotherapy , Treatment Failure
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-213734

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We wanted to evaluate the role of postoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March 1993 to July 2008, 101 patients with advanced SCCHN and who had undergone macroscopically complete resection were enrolled. Survival and the cumulative incidence of local or regional relapse, metastasis, and acute toxicity were analyzed. RESULTS: There was a marginally significant difference of disease-free survival at five years in favor of the CRT arm (51.3% vs. 41.8%, respectively; p=0.10). However, there was no significant difference in overall survival between the two treatment arms (p=0.20). The rate of locoregional failure only for the radiotherapy arm was significantly higher than that for the CRT arm (23.2% vs. 4.4%, respectively; p=0.01). The incidence of grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicity was significantly higher in the CRT arm than that in the radiotherapy arm (37.7% vs. 1.7%, respectively; p=0.01). In CRT arm, early mortality group within 1 year had low performance status and old age over sixty compared with those of the others. CONCLUSION: After curative-intent surgery, adjuvant CRT is more effective in locoregional tumor control than radiotherapy alone for patients with advanced SCCHN. However, compared with radiotherapy alone, this combined modality treatment had no survival benefit, and was significantly associated with increased toxicity. Thus, patients with low performance status and old age must be cautious in selection of toxic trimodality treatment.


Subject(s)
Arm , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Head , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Incidence , Neck , Neoplasm Metastasis , Patient Selection , Prognosis , Recurrence
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-112914

ABSTRACT

Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support under cannulation connected from the left atrium to the aorta (LA-AA) is used as a bridge to recovery in heart failure patients because it is non-invasive to ventricular muscle. However, it has serious problems, such as valve stenosis and blood thrombosis due to the low ejection fraction of the ventricle. We theoretically estimated the effect of the in-series cannulation, connected from ascending aorta to descending aorta (AA-DA), on ventricular unloading as an alternative to the LA-AA method. We developed a theoretical model of a LVAD-implanted cardiovascular system that included coronary circulation. Using this model, we compared hemodynamic responses according to various cannulation methods such as LA-AA, AA-DA, and a cannulation connected from the left ventricle to ascending aorta (LV-AA), under continuous and pulsatile LVAD supports. The AA-DA method provided 14% and 18% less left ventricular peak pressure than the LA-AA method under continuous and pulsatile LVAD conditions, respectively. The LA-AA method demonstrated higher coronary flow than AA-DA method. Therefore, the LA-AA method is more advantageous in increasing ventricular unloading whereas the AA-DA method is a better choice to increase coronary perfusion.

20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-211215

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the pathological and clinical effects of preoperative chemoradiation (CCRT) in cases of locally advanced rectal cancer and to determine the predictive factors for tumor downstaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March 2004 to August 2008, 33 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were treated with preoperative CCRT. Twenty-eight patients (84.8%) were treated using a concomitant boost technique while five (15.2%) patients were treated using a cone down boost technique. All patients received 50.4 Gy of irradiation and concurrent chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil. The median follow-up duration was 24.2 months (range, 9.8 to 64.7 months). RESULTS: Thirty-one (93.9%) patients underwent surgery. Twenty-four patients (72.7%) underwent anal sphincter-preserving surgery. The 3-year disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival rates were 63.4% and 78.8%, respectively. Post-operative factors were more important for DFS. Pathologic N stage, margin status, and pathologic differentiation were significant prognostic factors (p=0.001, 0.029, 0.030). Tumor size and lymphovascular invasion were also associated with marginal significance (p=0.081, 0.073). However, only pre-treatment T stage was a significant pre-operative factor (p=0.018). The complete pathological response rate was 9.1%. T-downstaging was observed in ten (30.3%) patients, whereas N-downstaging was found in 24 (72.7%) patients. Pre-treatment T stage and the interval between CCRT and operation were the predictive factors for downstaging in a univariate analysis (p=0.029, 0.027). Pre-treatment carcinoembryogenic antigen was also associated with marginal significance (p=0.068). CONCLUSION: The survival of rectal cancer patients can be better determined based on post-operative findings. Therefore, pre-operative CCRT for downstaging of the tumor seems to be important. Pre-treatment T stage and the interval between CCRT and operation can be used to predict downstaging.


Subject(s)
Disease-Free Survival , Fluorouracil , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Rectal Neoplasms , Survival Rate
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