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1.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 76-80, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002375

ABSTRACT

Clearance of a difficult biliary stone can be obtained using various interventional techniques such as endoscopic sphincterotomy followed by endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation, mechanical lithotripsy, peroral cholangioscopy-assisted intraductal electrohydraulic/laser lithotripsy, temporary plastic stent insertion, percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy-guided lithotripsy, and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. We hereby describe the successful endoscopic treatment using various currently available interventional techniques in a case with multiple difficult common bile duct stones. Furthermore, we discuss the countermeasures to overcome the hurdles of each procedure.

2.
The Journal of the Korean Orthopaedic Association ; : 265-269, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938327

ABSTRACT

A bilateral facet dislocation after anterior cervical fusion with a plate in distraction-flexion injury without significant instability in plain radiography is very rare. This paper reports a case with a confirmed injury status (C6–7 and C7–T1) by magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography with no visible fractures or displacement on plain radiography. Anterior cervical fusion (C6–T1) was performed with a cage and plate. On the other hand, three days later, C6–7 bilateral facet dislocation developed with severe neck and radiating pain, and posterior decompression and fusion were performed.

3.
Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery ; : 14-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969122

ABSTRACT

Background@#Peripheral nerve injury is one of the most common injuries that might occur in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of FK506 loaded with collagen membrane and fibrin glue on the promotion of nerve regeneration after traction nerve injury in a rat model. @*Methods@#Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: group A (n = 10), a sham group whose sciatic nerve was exposed without any injury; and groups B (n = 10) and C (n = 10), which underwent traction nerve injury using 200 g of traction force for 1 min. The injured nerve in group C was covered with a collagen membrane soaked with FK506 (0.5 mg/0.1 mL) and fibrin glue. Functional analysis and microscopic evaluation were performed at 2 and 4 weeks after injury. @*Results@#The sciatic function index was − 5.78 ± 3.07 for group A, − 20.69 ± 5.22 for group B, and − 12.01 ± 4.20 for group C at 2 weeks after injury. However, at 4 weeks, the sciatic function index was − 5.58 ± 2.45 for group A, − 19.69 ± 4.81 for group B, and − 11.95 ± 1.94 for group C. In both periods, statistically significant differences were found among the groups (p<0.017). Histomorphometric evaluation revealed improved nerve regeneration in group C compared to that in group B. However, no statistical differences in axonal density were found among the three groups (p < 0.017). @*Conclusion@#Localized FK506 with collagen membrane and fibrin glue could promote axonal regeneration in a rat model of traction nerve injury.

4.
Gut and Liver ; : 468-476, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833129

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Adequate bowel preparation is important for successful colonoscopy. We aimed to evaluate the clinical feasibility and effectiveness of abdominal vibration stimulation in bowel preparation before therapeutic colonoscopy. @*Methods@#A single center, prospective, randomized, investigator-blinded study was performed between January 2016 and December 2016. Patients for therapeutic colonoscopy were prospectively enrolled and assigned to either the vibrator group or walking group. Patients who refused to participate in this study as part of the experimental group consented to register in the control group instead. During the preparation period, patients assigned to the walking group walked ≥3,000 steps, whereas those assigned to the vibrator group received abdominal vibrator stimulation and restricted walking. All patients received the same colon cleansing regimen: 4-L split-dose polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution. @*Results@#Three hundred patients who received PEG solution for therapeutic colonoscopy were finally enrolled in this study (n=100 per group). Bowel cleansing with abdominal vibration stimulation showed almost similar results to that with walking exercise (Boston Bowel Preparation Scale score for the entire colon: vibrator vs walking vs control, 7.38±1.55 vs 7.39±1.55 vs 6.17±1.15, p<0.001). There were no significant differences between the vibrator group and walking group regarding instances of diarrhea after taking PEG, time to first diarrhea after taking PEG, total procedure time, and patient satisfaction. @*Conclusions@#This study indicates that, compared with conventional walking exercise, abdominal vibration stimulation achieved similar rates of bowel cleansing adequacy and colonoscopy success without compromising safety or patient satisfaction.

5.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1094-1103, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831923

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The negative effects on the eradication success of Helicobacter pylori infection after previous exposure to macrolides, including clarithromycin on clarithromycin-based first-line therapy have been demonstrated. However,whether this is true for metronidazole-based second-line quadruple therapy remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between past administration of metronidazole and the failure of metronidazole-based second-line quadruple therapy in patients with H. pylori infection. Methods: Patients over 20 years of age who were diagnosed with H. pylori infection between January 1998 and March 2016 were enrolled in this study. The relationship between the clinical parameters and the results of a C13-urea breath test after metronidazole-based second-line quadruple therapy was analyzed in patients for whom clarithromycin-based triple therapy failed to eradicate H. pylori . @*Results@#The H. pylori eradication failure rate was significantly higher in patients with a history of metronidazole use than in patients without a history of metronidazole use ( p = 0.011). Multivariable analysis showed that the odds ratio of previous metronidazole use for eradication failure was 3.468 (95% confidence interval,1.391 to 8.649; p = 0.008). In the subgroup analysis of patients with a history of metronidazole use, the duration of metronidazole use and interval between its use and eradication therapy did not significantly affect H. pylori eradication failure. @*Conclusions@#Previous exposure to metronidazole was a significant risk factor for treatment failure of metronidazole-based second-line quadruple therapy; therefore, this should be considered when establishing a treatment strategy for patients with H. pylori infection.

6.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 174-176, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762468

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Primary Myelofibrosis
7.
Journal of Korean Society of Spine Surgery ; : 125-130, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900246

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#To analyze the usefulness of flexion-extension radiographs in the diagnosis of degenerative cervical disease.Summary of Literature ReviewThere is little information about the efficacy of flexion-extension radiographs in the diagnosis of degenerative cervical disease. @*Methods@#and MaterialsWe analyzed 1,062 patients with cervical degenerative disease who underwent flexion-extension radiographs and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The range of motion of the cervical joints was measured. Segmental instability was evaluated using the sagittal translation (≥3.5 mm) between C2 and T1, the sagittal angulation (≥3.5°), the vertebral slip angle (≥ 10°), and the dynamic spinal canal stenosis (≤12 mm). The relationship between canal compromise on CT or MRI and radiological instability was also evaluated. @*Results@#Cervical range of motion was 36.45°±17.63° (range, 2.1°–106.6°). Segmental instability was observed in 484 patients (nine cases of sagittal translation, 79 cases of sagittal plane rotation, 415 cases of a vertical slip angle, and 21 cases of dynamic spinal stenosis). Segmental instability was related with pathology in 218 patients with available CT or MRI (42%, including five cases of sagittal translation, 32 cases of sagittal plane rotation, 171 cases of vertical slip angle, and 10 cases of dynamic spinal stenosis. @*Conclusions@#Flexion-extension radiographs of the cervical spine were useful in diagnosing and evaluating subaxial segmental instability.

8.
Journal of Korean Society of Spine Surgery ; : 125-130, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892542

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#To analyze the usefulness of flexion-extension radiographs in the diagnosis of degenerative cervical disease.Summary of Literature ReviewThere is little information about the efficacy of flexion-extension radiographs in the diagnosis of degenerative cervical disease. @*Methods@#and MaterialsWe analyzed 1,062 patients with cervical degenerative disease who underwent flexion-extension radiographs and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The range of motion of the cervical joints was measured. Segmental instability was evaluated using the sagittal translation (≥3.5 mm) between C2 and T1, the sagittal angulation (≥3.5°), the vertebral slip angle (≥ 10°), and the dynamic spinal canal stenosis (≤12 mm). The relationship between canal compromise on CT or MRI and radiological instability was also evaluated. @*Results@#Cervical range of motion was 36.45°±17.63° (range, 2.1°–106.6°). Segmental instability was observed in 484 patients (nine cases of sagittal translation, 79 cases of sagittal plane rotation, 415 cases of a vertical slip angle, and 21 cases of dynamic spinal stenosis). Segmental instability was related with pathology in 218 patients with available CT or MRI (42%, including five cases of sagittal translation, 32 cases of sagittal plane rotation, 171 cases of vertical slip angle, and 10 cases of dynamic spinal stenosis. @*Conclusions@#Flexion-extension radiographs of the cervical spine were useful in diagnosing and evaluating subaxial segmental instability.

9.
Gut and Liver ; : 557-568, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763870

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) C stage demonstrates considerable heterogeneity because it includes patients with either symptomatic tumors (performance status [PS], 1–2) or with an invasive tumoral pattern reflected by the presence of vascular invasion (VI) or extrahepatic spread (EHS). This study aimed to derive a more relevant staging system by modification of the BCLC system considering the prognostic implication of PS. METHODS: A total of 7,501 subjects who were registered in the Korean multicenter hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) registry database from 2008 to 2013 were analyzed. The relative goodness-of-fit between staging systems was compared using the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and integrated area under the curve (IAUC). Three modified BCLC (m-BCLC) systems (#1, #2, and #3) were devised by reducing the role of PS. RESULTS: As a result, the BCLC C stage, which includes patients with PS 1–2 without VI/EHS, was reassigned to stage 0, A, or B according to their tumor burden in the m-BCLC #2 model. This model was identified as the most explanatory and desirable model for HCC staging by demonstrating the smallest AIC (AIC=70,088.01) and the largest IAUC (IAUC=0.722), while the original BCLC showed the largest AIC (AIC=70,697.17) and the smallest IAUC (IAUC=0.705). The m-BCLC #2 stage C was further subclassified into C1, C2, C3, and C4 according to the Child-Pugh score, PS, presence of EHS, and tumor extent. The C1 to C4 subgroups showed significantly different overall survival distribution between groups (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: An accurate and relevant staging system for patients with HCC was derived though modification of the BCLC system based on PS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , Liver , Population Characteristics , Tumor Burden
10.
Gut and Liver ; : 440-449, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Little evidence is available about the effect of change in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) status on risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) development. In this study, we tried to analyze the DM risk according to change in NAFLD status over time. METHODS: Among a total of 10,141 individuals for whom routine healthcare assessment was performed, 2,726 subjects were selected according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria. NAFLD status change was determined by using serial abdominal ultrasonography and fatty liver index (FLI) during the follow-up period. RESULTS: Subjects were categorized according to change in NAFLD status as follows: 670 subjects in the persistent NAFLD group, 155 subjects in the resolved NAFLD group, 498 subjects in the incident NAFLD group, and 1,403 subjects in the no NAFLD group. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that incident NAFLD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 3.50; p=0.026) and persistent NAFLD (HR, 3.59; 95% CI, 2.05 to 6.27; p<0.001) were independent risk factors for predicting DM development, whereas the risk with resolved NAFLD was not significantly different from that with no NAFLD. FLI could reproduce the results acquired by ultrasonography. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that future DM risk could be influenced by changes in NAFLD status over time. Resolution of NAFLD could reduce the risk of future DM development, while the development of new NAFLD could increase the risk of DM development.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fatty Liver , Follow-Up Studies , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Obesity , Risk Factors , Ultrasonography
11.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 607-609, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718319

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Korea , Otitis Media , Otitis
12.
Gut and Liver ; : 722-727, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although endoscopic bilateral stent-in-stent placement is challenging, many recent studies have reported promising outcomes regarding technical success and endoscopic re-intervention. This study aimed to evaluate the technical accessibility of stent-in-stent placement using large cell-type stents in patients with inoperable malignant hilar biliary obstruction. METHODS: Forty-three patients with inoperable malignant hilar biliary obstruction from four academic centers were prospectively enrolled from March 2013 to June 2015. RESULTS: Bilateral stent-in-stent placement using two large cell-type stents was successfully performed in 88.4% of the patients (38/43). In four of the five cases with technical failure, the delivery sheath of the second stent became caught in the hook-cross-type vertex of the large cell of the first stent, and subsequent attempts to pass a guidewire and stent assembly through the mesh failed. Functional success was achieved in all cases of technical success. Stent occlusion occurred in 63.2% of the patients (24/38), with a median patient survival of 300 days. The median stent patency was 198 days. The stent patency rate was 82.9%, 63.1%, and 32.1% at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, respectively. Endoscopic re-intervention was performed in 14 patients, whereas 10 underwent percutaneous drainage. CONCLUSIONS: Large cell-type stents for endoscopic bilateral stent-in-stent placement had acceptable functional success and stent patency when technically successful. However, the technical difficulty associated with the entanglement of the second stent delivery sheath in the hook-cross-type vertex of the first stent may preclude large cell-type stents from being considered as a dedicated standard tool for stent-in-stent placement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic , Drainage , Klatskin Tumor , Prospective Studies , Self Expandable Metallic Stents , Stents
13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1814-1819, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225691

ABSTRACT

Early post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP) prediction may allow safe same-day outpatients discharge after ERCP and earlier proper management. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of the 4-hour post-ERCP serum amylase and lipase levels for PEP early prediction and to investigate predictive cut-off values for 4-hour post-ERCP serum amylase and lipase levels for safe discharge and urgent initiation of resuscitation. The data of 516 consecutive patients with native papilla who underwent ERCP between January 2013 and August 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Serum amylase and lipase levels were measured before, and 4 and 24 hours after ERCP. PEP occurred in 16 (3.1%) patients. The receiver-operator characteristic curve for 4-hour post-ERCP serum amylase and lipase levels showed that the areas under the curve were 0.919 and 0.933, respectively, demonstrating good test performances as predictors for PEP (both P values 1.5 × the upper limit of reference (ULR) was found useful for PEP exclusion with a sensitivity of 93.8%, while 4 × ULR was found useful to guide preventive therapy with the best specificity of 93.2%. Similarly, the lipase level 2 × ULR showed best sensitivity, while 8 × ULR had the best specificity. Logistic regression analysis showed that 4-hour post-ERCP amylase level > 4 × ULR, lipase level > 8 × ULR, precut sphincterotomy, and pancreatic sphincterotomy were significant predictors for PEP. In conclusion, 4-hour post-ERCP amylase and lipase levels are useful early predictors of PEP that can ensure safe discharge or prompt resuscitation after ERCP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amylases , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Lipase , Logistic Models , Outpatients , Pancreatitis , Resuscitation , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 359-362, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165095

ABSTRACT

In patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections could aggravate the course of IBD but it is difficult to distinguish CMV infection from IBD exacerbation endoscopically. Usually, CMV tends to localize to the colon and other organic involvements were reported very rare in the IBD patients. Herein, we report a case that CMV gastric ulcer complicated with pyloric obstruction in a patient with ulcerative colitis during ganciclovir therapy, which was resolved by surgical gastrojejunostomy with review of literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colitis, Ulcerative , Colon , Cytomegalovirus , Ganciclovir , Gastric Bypass , Gastric Outlet Obstruction , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Stomach Ulcer , Ulcer
15.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine ; : 826-834, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-196569

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on balance function in patients with chronic stroke. METHODS: Thirty participants with chronic stroke were enrolled in this study. High frequency (10 Hz) rTMS was delivered with butterfly-coil on trunk motor spot. Each patient received both real and sham rTMS in a random sequence. The rTMS cycles (real or sham) were composed of 10 sessions each, administered over two weeks, and separated by a 4-week washout period. Balance function was measured by Berg Balance Scale and computerized dynamic posturography to determine the effect of rTMS before and one day after the end of each treatment period, as well as at a 1-month follow-up. RESULTS: The balance function was significantly improved after high frequency rTMS as compared with that after sham rTMS (p<0.05). There was no serious adverse effect in patients during the treatment period. CONCLUSION: In the chronic stroke patients, high frequency rTMS to the trunk motor area seems to be a helpful way to improve balance function without any specific adverse effects. Further studies are needed to identify the underlying mechanism and generate a detailed protocol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Follow-Up Studies , Hemiplegia , Motor Cortex , Postural Balance , Stroke , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
16.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 421-426, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-96324

ABSTRACT

Hemosuccus pancreaticus, defined as bleeding from the papilla of Vater via the pancreatic duct, is a rare cause of recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We report the case of a 67-year-old man with recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding, who was subsequently diagnosed with hemosuccus pancreaticus caused by rupture of a true splenic artery aneurysm. The patient had chronic pancreatitis after considerable delay and unnecessary surgical small bowel exploration. The patient was cured with distal pancreatectomy because concomitant arcuate ligament syndrome precluded the angiographic approach via the celiac trunk, and tortuous dilatation of the distal pancreatic duct could not exclude the main duct type of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). In the surgical specimen, the pancreatic duct contained a hematoma and was lined by normal epithelium, indicating rupture of the splenic artery aneurysm that bled into the pancreatic duct.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Aneurysm , Dilatation , Epithelium , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Hematoma , Hemorrhage , Ligaments , Mucins , Pancreatectomy , Pancreatic Ducts , Pancreatitis, Chronic , Rupture , Splenic Artery
17.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 113-123, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72957

ABSTRACT

Stenting in the gastrointestinal tract is a common procedure used for palliation of obstruction in the enteral and biliary tract. Today, stenting of malignant and benign strictures is performed at almost every major tertiary hospital in Korea. Moreover, Korea has become a major global supplier of cutting edge technology in the field of self-expanding metal stents. However, the history of stenting in Korea is relatively short and was far behind that of other nations such as Japan and Germany. The authors are humbled and gratified to have been able to observe the development and application of these stents in Korea, first hand. In this article, the authors review the overall history of stenting with a specific focus on the development of stenting in Korea. The development of esophageal, gastroduodenal, biliary, and colonic stents in Korea are reviewed in this article from a chronological and historical point of view, and a personal account of some of the significant moments of stent development in Korea are described.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biliary Tract , Colon , Constriction, Pathologic , Gastrointestinal Tract , Germany , Hand , Japan , Korea , Stents , Tertiary Care Centers
18.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 87-91, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23588

ABSTRACT

Gangliocytic paraganglioma (GP) is an extremely rare tumor that mostly occurs in the periampullary area of the duodenum. It is characterized by benign behavior and favorable outcomes, but sometimes shows regional lymph node dissemination. GP consist of three characteristic histological components: epithelioid, spindle, and ganglion cells. Therefore, it is often misdiagnosed as a neuroendocrine tumor when only endoscopic forceps biopsy is performed. The clinical management of GP has not yet been standardized. This case report describes an asymptomatic patient who was initially diagnosed with a grade-1 neuroendocrine tumor, but was confirmed as having benign GP after endoscopic papillectomy. Complete en-bloc resection was performed for this patient, without any significant adverse events. At a 6-month follow-up assessment, the patient remained asymptomatic and there was no evidence of recurrence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ampulla of Vater , Biopsy , Duodenum , Follow-Up Studies , Ganglion Cysts , Lymph Nodes , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Paraganglioma , Recurrence , Surgical Instruments
19.
Gut and Liver ; : 547-555, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149093

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cholecystectomy is necessary for the treatment of symptomatic or complicated gallbladder (GB) stones, but oral litholysis with bile acids is an attractive alternative therapeutic option for asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of magnesium trihydrate of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) on gallstone dissolution and to investigate improvements in gallstone-related symptoms. METHODS: A prospective, multicenter, phase 4 clinical study to determine the efficacy of orally administered magnesium trihydrate of UDCA and CDCA was performed from January 2011 to June 2013. The inclusion criteria were GB stone diameter or =50%, radiolucency on plain X-ray, and asymptomatic/mildly symptomatic patients. The patients were prescribed one capsule of magnesium trihydrate of UDCA and CDCA at breakfast and two capsules at bedtime for 6 months. The dissolution rate, response rate, and change in symptom score were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 237 subjects were enrolled, and 195 subjects completed the treatment. The dissolution rate was 45.1% and the response rate was 47.2% (92/195) after 6 months of administration of magnesium trihydrate of UDCA and CDCA. Only the stone diameter was significantly associated with the response rate. Both the symptom score and the number of patients with symptoms significantly decreased regardless of stone dissolution. Adverse events necessitating discontinuation of the drug, surgery, or endoscopic management occurred in 2.5% (6/237) of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Magnesium trihydrate of UDCA and CDCA is a well-tolerated bile acid that showed similar efficacy for gallstone dissolution and improvement of gallstone-related symptoms as that shown in previous studies.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antacids/administration & dosage , Chenodeoxycholic Acid/administration & dosage , Cholagogues and Choleretics/administration & dosage , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Combinations , Gallstones/drug therapy , Magnesium Hydroxide/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Solubility/drug effects , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/administration & dosage
20.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine ; : 616-623, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-181220

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the dose-related effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: Seventy-five subjects were recruited, 60 of which met the inclusion criteria. The patients were randomly classified into two groups: group L, which was a low-energy group (n=30; 1,000 shocks/session; energy flux density [EFD], 0.040 mJ/mm2) and group M, which was a medium-energy group (n=30; 1,000 shocks/session; EFD, 0.093 mJ/mm2). For each group, 1,000 shock waves were delivered to the medial tibial plateau area, once a week, for 3 weeks. The main outcome measures were the visual analogue scale (VAS), the Roles and Maudsley (RM) score, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score, and the Lequesne index. Each assessment was performed at the baseline and at 1, 4, and 12 weeks after ESWT. RESULTS: In both groups, the VAS, the RM and WOMAC scores, and the Lequesne index were significantly improved over time (p<0.001), and group M showed greater improvement over group L at the 1, 4 and 12 weeks assessments. CONCLUSION: In this study, medium-energy group (group M) showed greater improvement in regard to relieving pain and restoring functional outcome than the low-energy group (group L). Therefore, EFD can be considered to have significant influence when treating with ESWT for knee osteoarthritis.


Subject(s)
Humans , High-Energy Shock Waves , Knee , Ontario , Osteoarthritis , Osteoarthritis, Knee , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Shock , Treatment Outcome
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