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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 174-181, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913832

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Assessing lymph node metastasis, tumor-derived DNA, or tumor-derived RNA has previously been studied in place of immunohistochemical assay. Because a direct reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification method (direct RT-LAMP) has been previously developed in order to rapidly identify viruses in place of RNA extraction, our team hypothesized that a direct RT-LAMP assay can be employed as a substitute in order to detect tumor involvement of lymph nodes within breast cancer patients. @*Materials and Methods@#A total amount of 92 lymph nodes removed across 40 patients possessing breast cancer were collected at Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital between the months of November 2015 and February 2016. All samples were then evaluated and contrasted via both a direct RT-LAMP assay and routine histopathologic examination. @*Results@#The sensitivity and specificity of the direct RT-LAMP assay were 85.7% and 100%, respectively. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 100% and 94.4%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Direct RT-LAMP assay is capable of facilitating the detection of sentinel lymph node metastasis within breast cancer patients intraoperatively possessing an excellent sensitivity via a cost-effective and time-saving manner.

2.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 244-252, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937753

ABSTRACT

Recently, several breast surgeons have reported a new method for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) by using indocyanine green (ICG) with infrared camera. This study aimed to determine whether the lymph nodes (LNs) with ICG uptake are true SLNs and to assess the reliability of using only ICG for SLNB. Data were prospectively collected between April and September 2021. All palpable LNs were fat-trimmed and ordered from high to low signal of the gamma detector. The degree of radioisotope uptake and brightness of ICG staining of the axillary LNs detected with a fluorescent camera were compared and associated factors were analyzed. Discordance was defined as sentinel LNs (SLNs) showing a single uptake of radioisotope or fluorescence of ICG only, or when the orders of uptake and intensity degree were different between the 2 materials. A total of 79 SLNBs were performed on 78 patients with breast cancer. The breast cancer was classified as cTis-2N0-1. The discordance rate was 14/79 (17.7%) overall and 45/270 (16.7%) of the total retrieved axillary LNs. The first SLNs showed the lowest discordance rate of 6.3%, whereas the second and third SLNs showed higher discordance rates of 27.6% and 60.0%, respectively. There were no associated clinicopathologic factors that affected the discordance between uptake of radioisotope and fluorescence intensity of ICG. The use of ICG alone for SLNB may be insufficient because of the high discordance rates between radioisotopes and ICG uptake. However, the first SLN could be cautiously regarded as a true SLN.

3.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 121-128, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891313

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In patients with locally advanced breast cancer, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is widely used. It has a distinct advantage in the downstaging of the primary tumor and provides important information about treatment response. With its increasing usage, concerns over the appropriate management of the axilla have emerged. In this study, we compared oncological outcomes of conventional axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) over axillary sampling (AS) with radiotherapy (RT) in patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. @*Methods@#In this retrospective study, we included female patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and HER2 type breast cancer who underwent breast and axillary surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy between May 2011 to December 2016. A total of 89 patients’ medical records were eligible for analysis. We defined AS as removal of at least four axillary lymph nodes located near the sentinel lymph nodes without full exposure of the axillary vein, long thoracic nerve, and thoracodorsal nerve. @*Results@#The median follow-up period was 47.00 months. The disease-free survival was 69.66 months in the AS with RT group and 69.02 months in the ALND group (p=0.280). The invasive disease-free survival was 75.16 months in the AS with RT group and 78.44 months in the ALND group (p=0.218). @*Conclusion@#AS with radiotherapy might be a feasible surgical option in patients with TNBC and HER2 type breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

4.
International Journal of Thyroidology ; : 111-117, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835517

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#This study investigated predictive risk factors for cervical nodal recurrence or metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). @*Materials and Methods@#From September 2014 to February 2015, a total of 321 PTC patients were enrolled retrospectively. Except for 154 N0 patients, the remaining 167 patients were divided into two groups as follows: Group I (n=140), central lymph node (LN) metastasis (pN1a); Group II (n=27), lateral LN metastasis (pN1b, n=23) or LN recurrence (n=4). The patients who had LN metastasis or recurrence underwent selective LN dissection or recurrent LN excision. @*Results@#Central LN metastases were found in 44.0% (142/321) of patients. Two hundred thirty patients (71.7%) were classified as being at low-risk for LN disease, as evidenced by N0 or fewer than five micrometastases. The mean size of central metastatic LNs was 0.37±0.34 cm. A total of 76 patients (46.6%) presented with micrometastasis, and ten (3.1%) presented with extranodal extension (ENE). The multiple/bilateral cancer, Extrathyroidal extension, size of metastatic LN, ENE, high risk LN disease (>5, macrometastasis, >3.0 cm) and high thyroglobulin were significant risk factors in predicting LN recurrence or lateral LN metastasis (p<0.05) in univariate analysis. Patients with ENE were 10.3 times more at risk for recurrence or metastasis than patients without ENE. @*Conclusion@#We consider the ENE was the most potent risk factors for LN recurrence or lateral LN metastasis in PTC.

5.
Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine ; : 302-307, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835407

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study evaluated the usefulness of judgment of central lymph node (LN) metastasis by surgeon’s palpation in papillary thyroid cancer. @*Methods@#This study included 127 patients who underwent thyroidectomy and central compartment node dissection between October 2014 and February 2015. The criterion for suspicious LNs was hardness. @*Results@#Of the 20.5% (28/127) of suspicious for metastatic LNs according to surgeon determination, 92.8% (26/28) were confirmed to be metastatic in the final pathological examinations. Metastatic LNs were found in 38 (38.3%) of 99 patients without suspicious LNs, 29 of whom (76.3%) had micrometastases. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the determination of LN metastasis by a surgeon were 40.6%, 96.8%, 92.9%, and 61.6%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Determination of central LN metastasis by a surgeon’s palpation may be useful to evaluate LNs owing to the high specificity and positive predictive values, especially in macrometastasis or high-risk LN disease.

6.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 121-128, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899017

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In patients with locally advanced breast cancer, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is widely used. It has a distinct advantage in the downstaging of the primary tumor and provides important information about treatment response. With its increasing usage, concerns over the appropriate management of the axilla have emerged. In this study, we compared oncological outcomes of conventional axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) over axillary sampling (AS) with radiotherapy (RT) in patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. @*Methods@#In this retrospective study, we included female patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and HER2 type breast cancer who underwent breast and axillary surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy between May 2011 to December 2016. A total of 89 patients’ medical records were eligible for analysis. We defined AS as removal of at least four axillary lymph nodes located near the sentinel lymph nodes without full exposure of the axillary vein, long thoracic nerve, and thoracodorsal nerve. @*Results@#The median follow-up period was 47.00 months. The disease-free survival was 69.66 months in the AS with RT group and 69.02 months in the ALND group (p=0.280). The invasive disease-free survival was 75.16 months in the AS with RT group and 78.44 months in the ALND group (p=0.218). @*Conclusion@#AS with radiotherapy might be a feasible surgical option in patients with TNBC and HER2 type breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

7.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 259-267, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914814

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) involving trastuzumab markedly increases pathologic complete response (pCR) rates in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer. Despite increasing pCR rates, long-term survival gains are controversial owing to distinctive biologic behavior mediated by the presence of hormonal receptors (HRs) that may interact with HER2 receptors. We, therefore, investigated the differences in relative survival gain provided by neoadjuvant trastuzumab-based chemotherapy on HR positive (HR+) status of patients. @*Methods@#We retrospectively ana Patient clinical characteristics were compared usin lyzed women with stage II or III HER2+ breast cancer who underwent NAC followed by a breast cancer surgery between 2008 and 2013. The survival benefits of adding trastuzumab to NAC were analyzed by classifying patients into HR+ and HR negative (HR−) groups. @*Results@#Of 666 patients included in the study, 374 (52.1%) were HR+ and 319 (47.9%) were HR−. In the HR+ group, trastuzumab treatment led to higher pCR rates and significantly better breast cancer specific survival (BCSS) and overall survival (OS) than no trastuzumab treatment. However, among patients with HR− breast cancer, trastuzumab treatment showed no statistically significant difference between BCSS and OS following multivariate analysis. @*Conclusion@#We found that the addition of trastuzumab to NAC improved relative survival benefit in HER2+/HR+ patients than in HER2+/HR− patients, even though the pCR rate increases were lower. Although pCR has been regarded as a surrogate marker for estimating long-term survival benefits after NAC, it alone may not translate into real long-term oncologic outcomes in particular cancer subtypes after trastuzumab-based NAC. Further longer-term evaluation of the objective survival benefit after NAC driven by a dual HER2 block according to HR status is warranted.

8.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 9-15, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764289

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although surgery is the most frequently implemented treatment modality for breast cancer, many older patients with breast cancer are under- or untreated because of their high incidence of postoperative complications. We assessed the efficacy and safety of breast surgery under procedural sedation in older patients (aged >70 years) by comparing selected clinical and oncologic factors after surgery for breast cancer under general anesthesia versus procedural sedation. METHODS: Of 79 older patients with breast cancer, 49 underwent breast-conserving surgery, 30 under general anesthesia and 19 under procedural sedation, and relevant clinical and oncologic variables were compared and analyzed between groups. RESULTS: The mean age was younger in the general anesthesia group and the mean operation time, hospital stay, and fasting time shorter in the procedural sedation group. There were no statistically significant differences in oncologic results between the two groups during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Breast surgery under procedural sedation is a safe and effective means of reducing tumor burden in older patients with breast cancer when their American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status indicates a high risk of life-threatening perioperative complications associated with general anesthesia. And we also found that the oncologic results may be not inferior to same procedure under general anesthesia.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Anesthesia, General , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Fasting , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Length of Stay , Mastectomy, Segmental , Postoperative Complications , Tumor Burden
9.
Ultrasonography ; : 272-276, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761978

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Absorbable retaining thread (ART) needle localization utilizes a guiding needle with a thread; this technique was invented to reduce patient discomfort and wire migration. We investigated the feasibility of ultrasound (US)-guided ART needle localization for nonpalpable breast lesions. METHODS: ART needle localization was performed for 26 nonpalpable breast lesions in 26 patients who were scheduled to undergo surgical excision the day after localization. Seventeen breast lesions were initially diagnosed as invasive ductal carcinoma, six as ductal carcinomas in situ, and one as fibrocystic change. The other two cases without an initial pathologic diagnosis had suspicious US features, and excision was planned concomitantly with contralateral breast cancer surgery. The primary outcome was the technical success rate of ART needle localization confirmed by US immediately after the procedure, and the secondary outcomes were the percentage of clear margins on pathology and the complication rate of ART needle localization. RESULTS: The technical success rate of ART needle localization was 96.2% (25 of 26 patients), and the ART was located 1 cm away from the mass in one patient (3.8%). The lesions were successfully removed with clear margins in all 26 patients. No significant complications related to ART needle localization were observed. CONCLUSION: ART needle localization can be an alternative to wire needle localization for nonpalpable breast lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Ductal , Diagnosis , Needles , Pathology , Surgery, Computer-Assisted , Ultrasonography
10.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 60-72, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718902

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: According to American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guidelines, breast cancer is human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive if there is HER2 protein overexpression at a 3+ level on immunohistochemistry (IHC 3+) or gene amplification (more than six copies per nucleus) on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH+). However, there have been few reports on whether outcomes differ based on diagnosis by these two techniques. In this study, we compared outcomes based on the two methods in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of HER2-positive breast cancer in 18,304 patients, including 14,652 IHC 3+ patients and 3,652 FISH+ patients from the Korean Breast Cancer Society Registry. We compared breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival based on IHC 3+ and FISH+ status with or without trastuzumab. RESULTS: Breast cancer-specific survival was significantly different between the IHC 3+ and FISH+ groups, with 5-year cumulative survival rates of 95.0% for IHC 3+ and 98.5% for FISH+ patients who did not receive trastuzumab (p=0.001) in Kaplan-Meier methods. However, there were no significant differences in breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival between IHC 3+ and FISH+ groups regardless of trastuzumab treatment in Cox proportional hazards models. CONCLUSION: The survival outcomes were not affected by the different two diagnostic methods of HER2-positive breast cancer. Further research to evaluate differences in prognosis and other characteristics according to the diagnostic methods of HER2 positivity is needed in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Diagnosis , Epidermal Growth Factor , Fluorescence , Gene Amplification , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Methods , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , ErbB Receptors , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Trastuzumab
11.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 285-294, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741962

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the necessity of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) and which regions would be at risk for recurrence, we evaluated local and regional recurrence in breast cancer patients with 1–3 positive nodes and a tumor size of <5 cm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data of 133 female breast cancer patients with 1–3 positive nodes, and a tumor size of <5 cm who were treated with mastectomy followed by adjuvant systemic therapy between 2007 and 2016. The median follow-up period was 57 months (range, 12 to 115 months). Most patients (82.7%) were treated with axillary lymph node dissection. Adjuvant chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, and trastuzumab therapy were administered to 124 patients (93.2%), 112 (84.2%), and 33 (24.8%), respectively. The most common chemotherapy regimen was anthracycline and cyclophosphamide followed by taxane (71.4%). RESULTS: Three patients (2.3%), 8 (6.0%), and 12 (9.0%) experienced local, regional, and distant failures, respectively. The 5-year cumulative risk of local recurrence, regional recurrence, distant metastasis, and disease-free survival was 3.1%, 8.0%, 11.7%, and 83.4%, respectively. There were no statistically significant clinicopathologic factors associated with local recurrence. Lymphovascular invasion (univariate p = 0.015 and multivariate p = 0.054) was associated with an increased risk of regional recurrence. CONCLUSION: Our study showed a very low local recurrence in patients with 1–3 positive nodes and tumor size of <5 cm who were treated with mastectomy and modern adjuvant systemic treatment. The PMRT volume need to be tailored for each patient’s given risk for local and regional recurrence, and possible radiation-related toxicities.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Cyclophosphamide , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Lymph Node Excision , Mastectomy , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Trastuzumab
13.
Journal of Minimally Invasive Surgery ; : 117-119, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-120525

ABSTRACT

In the bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA), the camera is inserted through the areolar incision, and this raises the concern it might be difficult to identify the lymph nodes (LN). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of the Firefly for central lymph node dissection (CLND) in robotic thyroidectomy using the BABA. This study evaluated 18 patients who underwent robotic surgery using Firefly between December 2015 and March 2016. For LN mapping, 0.05 ml of ICG was injected into the thyroid 3~4 minutes before CLND. Green-stained LN could be detected easily through a near-infrared camera. The number of retrieved LNs was 7.8±3.0 after CLND using the Firefly, which was higher than the 6.7±0.2 reported in previous surgeries. In addition, it helped to distinguish between the parathyroid and the LNs. The Firefly technology was helpful in identifying the LNs, guiding the CLND and performing a complete CLND.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fireflies , Indocyanine Green , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Thyroid Gland , Thyroidectomy
14.
Korean Journal of Endocrine Surgery ; : 36-41, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91778

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study evaluates the BRAF(V600E) test with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for lateral lymph node (LN) metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). METHODS: Ninety-one patients, including 95 lateral LNs with possible PTC metastasis, were consecutively entered into the study. We analyzed the accuracy of results for the BRAF(V600E) test and FNAC for lateral LN metastasis in PTC. RESULTS: Modified radical neck dissection was performed for 34 cases due to lateral LN metastasis. The sensitivity of FNAC was 88.2% , and the LN-BRAF(V600E) test 64.7%. The specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) were 100% for both tests. The negative predictive values (NPV) were FNAC, 93.8%, and LN-BRAF(V600E), 83.6%. For samples positive with either the BRAF(V600E) test or FNAC, the sensitivity was 94.1%, specificity 100%, PPV value 100%, and NPV 96.8%. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the complementary LN-BRAF(V600E) test with FNAC is a supportive diagnostic method for PTC patients with indeterminate or non-diagnostic suspicious lateral LNs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Lymph Nodes , Methods , Neck Dissection , Neoplasm Metastasis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
15.
Korean Journal of Endocrine Surgery ; : 34-40, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-206803

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to investigate whether parathyroid score can predict hypocalcemia after total thyroidectomy with central lymph node dissection (CLND) and to determine clinical value of parathyroid score for treatment of hypocalcemia. METHODS: A prospective review of 209 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with CLND for papillary thyroid cancer from January to December 2012 was conducted. Parathyroid score was designed based on the number and color of parathyroid preservation (Save and intact color of a parathyroid was 2; Save but mild discoloration was 1.5; Not identification was 1.2; Autotransplantation was 1.0; Sacrifice was -1). RESULTS: The mean numbers of parathyroid glands were as follows: save & intact color was 2.0; save & mild discoloration was 0.8; not identification was 0.8; autotransplantation was 0.4. The average parathyroid score was 6.54+/-0.69 (range 3.4~8.0). The average PTH was 16.3 at the 1st POD. Transient and permanent hypocalcemia were 33.4% (70/209) and 0.9% (2/209), respectively. Parathyroid score was 6.78+/-0.54 in patients without transient hypocalcemia, 5.93+/-0.67 with hypocalcemia, parathyroid score was significantly lower in transient hypocalcemia, abnormal PTH at the 1st POD (P<0.001, P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Parathyroid score may predict patients at risk of developing transient hypocalcemia after total thyroidectomy with CLND.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autografts , Hypocalcemia , Lymph Node Excision , Parathyroid Glands , Parathyroid Hormone , Prospective Studies , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy
16.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 73-79, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173790

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of our study was to evaluate the risk of malignancy and to determine which clinical variables differentiate between benign and malignant focal breast lesions found incidentally on 18F-flourodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (FDG PET/CT). METHODS: From March 2005 to October 2011, 21,224 women with no history of breast cancer underwent FDG PET/CT at three university-affiliated hospitals. We retrospectively identified 214 patients with incidental focal hypermetabolic breast lesions and grouped them into benign and malignant lesion groups. Of the 214 patients, 82 patients with 91 lesions were included in this study. All lesions were confirmed histologically or were assessed by follow-up imaging for greater than 2 years. The patient age, maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), lesion size on ultrasonography (US), and Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category on US in conjunction with mammography were compared between the groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent factors associated with malignancy. RESULTS: The risk of malignancy was 29.7% (27/91) in breast incidentalomas detected by FDG PET/CT. The univariate analysis showed that the patient age, SUVmax, tumor size, and BI-RADS category differed significantly between the malignant and benign groups. The multivariate analysis showed that the BI-RADS category was the only significant factor differentiating benign from malignant lesions (p=0.002). CONCLUSION: BIRADS category based on US in conjunction with mammography was the only useful tool to differentiate between malignant and benign lesions in breast incidentalomas on FDG PET/CT.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Follow-Up Studies , Information Systems , Logistic Models , Mammography , Multivariate Analysis , Positron-Emission Tomography , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography
17.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 129-135, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110224

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Mutations in BRCA genes are the main cause of hereditary breast cancer in Korea. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of breast cancers involving BRCA1 (BRCA1 group) and BRCA2 (BRCA2 group) mutations. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with BRCA1 (BRCA1 group) or BRCA2 (BRCA2 group) mutation positive breast cancer from multiple centers and compared the data to that of the Korean Breast Cancer Society registry (registry group). RESULTS: The patients of the BRCA1 group were diagnosed at a younger age (median age, 37 years) and had tumors of higher histological (61.3% with histological grade 3) and nuclear (37.5% with nuclear grade 3) grade than those of the registry group. In addition, the frequency of ductal carcinoma in situ in the BRCA1 group was lower (3.7%) than in the registry group, and the BRCA1 group were more likely to be triple-negative breast cancer (61.3%). Patients in the BRCA2 group were also younger at diagnosis (mean age, 41 years) and were more likely to have involvement of the axillary node than the registry group (45.5% vs. 33.5%, p=0.002). The BRCA1 and BRCA2 groups did not show a correlation between tumor size and axillary node involvement. CONCLUSION: We report the characteristics of BRCA mutation positive breast cancer patients in the Korean population through multicenter data and nation-wide breast cancer registry study. However, BRCA-mutated breast cancers appear highly complex, and further research on their molecular basis is needed in Korea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Diagnosis , Genes, BRCA1 , Genes, BRCA2 , Korea , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
18.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 393-396, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51126

ABSTRACT

Ectopic breast tissue can occur anywhere along the incompletely regressed mammary ridge. Among the various types of breast choristoma, ectopic breast tissue, which has only glandular tissue without a nipple or areola, is most commonly detected in axillary areas. However, ectopic breast cancer is often not detected until significant clinical symptoms have been revealed, or diagnosis is delayed. Furthermore, an examination of ectopic breast tissue tends to be omitted from a screening mammography. Especially, the microcalcifications of ectopic breast tissue are difficult to delineate on mammography. Herein, the authors report a case of ectopic breast carcinoma that showed clustered microcalcifications on screening mammography, and discuss the interpretation and implications of microcalcification in ectopic breast tissue.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Ductal , Choristoma , Diagnosis , Mammography , Mass Screening , Nipples
19.
Korean Journal of Endocrine Surgery ; : 150-155, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-170801

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common malignant tumor of the thyroid and BRAFV600E mutation is the most frequent genetic alteration in PTC. BRAFV600E mutation has been demonstrated as a prognostic biomarker for prediction of poor clinicopathological outcomes, such as increased incidence of extrathyroidal extension, lymph node metastasis, and advanced stage. However, there is conflicting literature regarding the association of BRAFV600E mutation and aggressive clinicopathological features. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of BRAFV600E mutation in PTC and determined the association of BRAF mutation with indicators of poor prognosis for PTC. METHODS: We reviewed 1009 patients with PTC, who underwent thyroid surgery at Kyungpook National University Hospital between January 2013 and March 2014. BRAFV600E mutation analysis was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction based amplification of DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded tumor specimens. RESULTS: BRAFV600E mutation was detected in 863 (85.5%) patients. In univariate analysis, histologic subtype, extrathyroidal extension, and advanced stage showed significant association with BRAFV600E mutation. In addition, concurrent Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed an association with low prevalence of BRAFV600E mutation. However, no statistically significant association was observed for age, gender, multifocal or bilateral tumor, and lymph node metastasis. Multivariate analysis showed an independent association of extrathyroidal extension with BRAFV600E mutation. CONCLUSION: In this study, extrathyroidal extension of PTC is an independent prognostic factor associated with BRAFV600E mutation status. However, conduct of further large scale studies with long term follow up is required before the BRAF mutation can be conclusively recommended as a prognostic biomarker.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA , Incidence , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prevalence , Prognosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroiditis
20.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 91-97, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70428

ABSTRACT

This report describes a case of a 40-year-old female patient with concurrent invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and malignant follicular lymphoma, initially suspected to be metastatic breast cancer. During the initial evaluation of invasive ductal carcinoma of right breast, multiple lymphadenopathies were noted throughout the body on ultrasonography and positron emission tomography/computed tomography images. Clinically, metastatic breast cancer was suggested, and the patient was administered chemotherapy, including hormonal therapy. The breast cancer improved slightly, but the lymphadenopathies progressed and excisional biopsy of a cervical lymph node revealed malignant follicular lymphoma.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Biopsy , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Ductal , Drug Therapy , Electrons , Lymph Nodes , Lymphoma, Follicular , Ultrasonography
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