Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 64
Filter
1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 317-324, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927136

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The incidence of stroke and/or systemic thromboembolism (SSE) has not been properly evaluated in well-anticoagulated atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. This study investigated the incidence of SSE according to CHA2DS2-VASc score in contemporary well-anticoagulated Korean AF patients. @*Materials and Methods@#From the prospective multicenter COmparison study of Drugs for symptom control and complication prEvention of Atrial Fibrillation (CODE-AF) registry, we identified 9503 patients with non-valvular AF (mean age, 68±8 years; female 35.5%) enrolled between June 2016 and May 2020 with eligible follow-up visits. Stroke incidence in the CODE-AF registry was compared with that in an oral anticoagulant (OAC)-naïve AF cohort from the Korean National Health Insurance database. @*Results@#The usage rates of OACs and antiplatelet agents were 73.5% (non-vitamin K OACs, 56.4%; warfarin, 17.1%) and 23.8%, respectively. During a mean follow-up period of 26.3±9.6 months, 163 (0.78 per 100 person-years) patients had SSE. The incidence rate (per 100 person-years) of SSE was 0.77 in the total population, 0.26 in low-risk patients [CHA2DS2-VASc score 0 (male) or 1 (female)], and 0.88 in high-risk patients (CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2). Contemporary AF patients had a stroke rate that was about one-fifth the stroke rate reported in a Korean OAC-naïve AF cohort. In this cohort, most risk factors for CHA2DS2-VASc score showed significant associations with SSE. Female sex was not associated with an increased risk of stroke/SSE in well-anticoagulated AF patients. @*Conclusion@#Contemporary AF patients have a stroke rate about one-fifth that in OAC-naïve AF patients and exhibit different stroke risk factors.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902566

ABSTRACT

A 12-year-old, castrated male, mixed dog presented with a history of gradual abdominal distention for a year and anorexia recently, with abdominal radiographs showing a gastric pylorus distention. A solitary, pedunculated, heterogeneous mass arising from the mucosal layer in the pylorus with intact wall layers was identified during ultrasound and computed tomography. The gastric muscular layer was evenly thick. After surgical excision of the mass, histological examination confirmed hypertrophic pyloric gastropathy with polypoid growth and Helicobacter spp. infiltrating the gastric mucosal epithelium. This is the first reported diagnostic imaging case of hypertrophic pyloric gastropathy with Helicobacter spp. in a dog.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902233

ABSTRACT

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a strong risk factor for embolic stroke. In patients with AF, optimal anticoagulation therapy, administered according to the stroke risk scoring system, can effectively reduce the stroke risk. However, AF episodes are frequently asymptomatic, with a significant number of them detected after a stroke event. Therefore, the early detection of subclinical AF and the subsequent administration of optimal oral anticoagulation therapy is expected to reduce the risk of stroke. However, this strategy requires more effective screening for the detection of AF in the asymptomatic stage, which accounts for the recent research interest in silent/subclinical AF. Today, the widespread use of cardiac implantable electronic devices and wearable rhythm monitors has enabled the detection of atrial high-rate episodes/subclinical AF in a substantial number of patients. The risk of stroke appears to be related to the duration of this phenomenon. Subclinical AF increases the risk of stroke, but generally not as much as clinical AF, but whether long-term anticoagulation therapy is required in patients with subclinical AF is unclear. Here we review existing data on the epidemiology, clinical significance, and suggest guidelines on management of subclinical AF and the optimal screening strategies aimed at its detection.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875456

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Comparative occurrence of ischemic stroke for rhythm versus rate control strategy in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is still inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the rhythm control strategy is associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke compared to the rate control strategy in NVAF patients. @*Methods@#The CODE-AF registry prospectively enrolled 6,280 consecutive patients who were treated for NVAF at 10 tertiary referral centers in South Korea. Of these, 2,513 NVAF patients (age, 67 ± 10 years; male, 61.8%) were clinically followed up for over 1-year and divided into rate and rhythm control groups. @*Results@#Those treated with the rhythm control strategy were younger and had less proportions of underlying disease compared to those treated with the rate control strategy. After the propensity matching analysis, those treated with the rhythm control strategy had similar baseline characteristics including the CHA 2 DS 2 -VASC score compared to those treated with the rate control strategy.The rate of oral anticoagulation, all bleeding, and hospitalization were also similarly between the two groups. The incidence rate of ischemic stroke in the rhythm control group was significantly lower than in the rate control group (0.7 vs. 6.9 per 1,000 person-years, p = 0.011). @*Conclusions@#The rhythm control strategy demonstrated a beneficial effect to lower the risk of ischemic stroke during a 1-year follow-up compared to the rate control strategy.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898738

ABSTRACT

The therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs) have been verified in many human and animal studies. Although some tissues contain MSCs, the number of cells harvested from those tissues and rate of proliferation in vitro are not enough for continuous transplantation. In order to produce and maintain stable MSCs, many attempts are made to induce differentiation from pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into MSCs. In particular, it is also known that the paracrine action of stem cell-secreted factors could promote the regeneration and differentiation of target cells in damaged tissue. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), one of the secreted factors, are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the translation of a gene. It is known that miRNAs help communication between stem cells and their surrounding niches through exosomes to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. While studies have so far been underway targeting therapeutic miRNAs of MSDs, studies on specific miRNAs secreted from MSCs are still minimal. Hence, our ultimate goal is to obtain sufficient amounts of exosomes from iPSC-MSCs and develop them into therapeutic agents, furthermore to select specific miRNAs and provide safe cell-free clinical setting as a cell-free status with purpose of delivering them to target cells. This review article focuses on stem cell therapy on MSDs, specific microRNAs regulating MSDs and updates on novel approaches.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894862

ABSTRACT

A 12-year-old, castrated male, mixed dog presented with a history of gradual abdominal distention for a year and anorexia recently, with abdominal radiographs showing a gastric pylorus distention. A solitary, pedunculated, heterogeneous mass arising from the mucosal layer in the pylorus with intact wall layers was identified during ultrasound and computed tomography. The gastric muscular layer was evenly thick. After surgical excision of the mass, histological examination confirmed hypertrophic pyloric gastropathy with polypoid growth and Helicobacter spp. infiltrating the gastric mucosal epithelium. This is the first reported diagnostic imaging case of hypertrophic pyloric gastropathy with Helicobacter spp. in a dog.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894529

ABSTRACT

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a strong risk factor for embolic stroke. In patients with AF, optimal anticoagulation therapy, administered according to the stroke risk scoring system, can effectively reduce the stroke risk. However, AF episodes are frequently asymptomatic, with a significant number of them detected after a stroke event. Therefore, the early detection of subclinical AF and the subsequent administration of optimal oral anticoagulation therapy is expected to reduce the risk of stroke. However, this strategy requires more effective screening for the detection of AF in the asymptomatic stage, which accounts for the recent research interest in silent/subclinical AF. Today, the widespread use of cardiac implantable electronic devices and wearable rhythm monitors has enabled the detection of atrial high-rate episodes/subclinical AF in a substantial number of patients. The risk of stroke appears to be related to the duration of this phenomenon. Subclinical AF increases the risk of stroke, but generally not as much as clinical AF, but whether long-term anticoagulation therapy is required in patients with subclinical AF is unclear. Here we review existing data on the epidemiology, clinical significance, and suggest guidelines on management of subclinical AF and the optimal screening strategies aimed at its detection.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891034

ABSTRACT

The therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs) have been verified in many human and animal studies. Although some tissues contain MSCs, the number of cells harvested from those tissues and rate of proliferation in vitro are not enough for continuous transplantation. In order to produce and maintain stable MSCs, many attempts are made to induce differentiation from pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into MSCs. In particular, it is also known that the paracrine action of stem cell-secreted factors could promote the regeneration and differentiation of target cells in damaged tissue. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), one of the secreted factors, are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the translation of a gene. It is known that miRNAs help communication between stem cells and their surrounding niches through exosomes to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. While studies have so far been underway targeting therapeutic miRNAs of MSDs, studies on specific miRNAs secreted from MSCs are still minimal. Hence, our ultimate goal is to obtain sufficient amounts of exosomes from iPSC-MSCs and develop them into therapeutic agents, furthermore to select specific miRNAs and provide safe cell-free clinical setting as a cell-free status with purpose of delivering them to target cells. This review article focuses on stem cell therapy on MSDs, specific microRNAs regulating MSDs and updates on novel approaches.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901423

ABSTRACT

Tumor incidence in wild mammals is reportedly very low. Wild nutria, a large rodent, is known to carry many infectious diseases, but rarely exhibits neoplastic diseases. We necropsied a male wild nutria and found a large nodular mass in the left inguinal region, adjacent to the penis. Histopathologically, the mass was diagnosed as preputial gland adenoma. Spontaneous preputial gland adenomas are extremely rare in all animals. Moreover, reports of tumors in nutrias have been limited to adenocarcinomas of the lungs and uterus, as well as subcutaneous fibromas. Here, we describe preputial gland adenoma in a wild nutria.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831766

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Efforts to reduce stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) have focused on increasing physician adherence to oral anticoagulant (OAC) guidelines; however, the high early discontinuation rate of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) is a limitation. Although non-VKA OACs (NOACs) are more convenient to administer than warfarin, their lack of monitoring may predispose patients to nonpersistence. We compared the persistence of NOAC and VKA treatment for AF in real-world practice. @*Methods@#In a prospective observational registry (COmparison study of Drugs for symptom control and complication prEvention of Atrial Fibrillation [CODE-AF] registry), 7,013 patients with nonvalvular AF (mean age 67.2 ± 10.9 years, women 36.4%) were consecutively enrolled between June 2016 and June 2017 from 10 tertiary hospitals in Korea. This study included 3,381 patients who started OAC 30 days before enrollment (maintenance group) and 572 patients who newly started OAC (new-starter group). The persistence rate of OAC was evaluated. @*Results@#In the maintenance group, persistence to OAC declined during 6 months, to 88.3% for VKA and 95.5% for NOAC (p < 0.0001). However, the persistence rate was not different among NOACs. In the new-starter group, persistence to OAC declined during 6 months, to 78.9% for VKA and 92.1% for NOAC (p < 0.0001). The persistence rate was lower for rivaroxaban (83.7%) than apixaban (94.6%) and edoxaban (94.1%, p < 0.001). In the new-starter group, diabetes, valve disease, and cancer were related to nonpersistence of OAC. @*Conclusions@#Nonpersistence was significantly lower with NOAC than VKA in both the maintenance and new-starter groups. In only the new-starter group, apixaban or edoxaban showed higher persistence rates than rivaroxaban.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835473

ABSTRACT

Background@#Symptom burden is an important factor in determining the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). AF is frequently accompanied by heart failure (HF). This study investigated the characteristics of AF symptoms with concomitant HF. @*Methods@#A total of 4885 patients with AF were consecutively enrolled through a prospective observational registry (the Comparison Study of Drugs for Symptom Control and Complication Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation [CODE-AF] registry). Clinically diagnosed HF was divided into three categories (preserved, mid-range, and reduced ejection fraction [EF]). Symptom severity was assessed using the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) classification. @*Results@#The presence of AF-related symptoms was comparable irrespective of concomitant HF. Patients with HF with reduced EF demonstrated severe (EHRA classes 3 and 4) and atypical symptoms. HF with preserved EF was also associated with atypical symptoms. Female sex and AF type were associated with the presence of symptoms in AF without HF, and non-maintenance of sinus rhythm and increased left atrial pressure (E/e′ ≥ 15) were factors related to the presence of symptoms in AF with HF. @*Conclusion@#AF with concomitant HF presented with more severe and atypical symptoms than AF without HF. Maintaining the sinus rhythm and reducing the E/e’ ratio are important factors for reducing symptoms in AF with concomitant HF.

14.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835471

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Dose reduction of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) is indicated in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) with renal impairment. This study investigated anticoagulation patterns and outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). @*Materials and methods@#In a prospective observational registry (CODE-AF), 3445 patients with non-valvular AF including 1129 with CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤ 60 mL min−1 1.73 m−2) were identified between June 1, 2016, and July 3, 2017. @*Results@#Compared with patients with no-CKD, patients with CKD more frequently had a high stroke risk (94.9% vs. 67.0%, p < 0.001) and higher NOAC usage rate (61.1% vs. 47.8%, p < 0.001). Among 718 patients with renal indication for dose reduction (RIDR), 7.5% were potentially overdosed. Among 2587 patients with no-RIDR, 79% were potentially underdosed. Compared with patients with no-RIDR, the underdose rates of dabigatran (0% vs. 88.6%, p = 0.001) and rivaroxaban (0% vs. 79.5%, p = 0.001) were lower in patients with RIDR. However, the underdose rate of apixaban was not different (62.5% vs. 53.9%, p = 0.089). The overdose rate of dabigatran (7.5% vs. 0%) and rivaroxaban (13.7% vs. 0%) was higher in RIDR than in no-RIDR patients. Stroke/transient ischemic attack was significantly higher in CKD patients (1.4 vs. 0.6 per 100 person-years, p = 0.045). Aspirin significantly increased minor bleeding in CKD patients compared with controls (p = 0.037). @*Conclusion@#CKD patients might have a high stroke risk and NOAC usage rate. The underdose rate of NOACs decreased in CKD patients, except for apixaban. Aspirin significantly increased minor bleeding in CKD patients.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893719

ABSTRACT

Tumor incidence in wild mammals is reportedly very low. Wild nutria, a large rodent, is known to carry many infectious diseases, but rarely exhibits neoplastic diseases. We necropsied a male wild nutria and found a large nodular mass in the left inguinal region, adjacent to the penis. Histopathologically, the mass was diagnosed as preputial gland adenoma. Spontaneous preputial gland adenomas are extremely rare in all animals. Moreover, reports of tumors in nutrias have been limited to adenocarcinomas of the lungs and uterus, as well as subcutaneous fibromas. Here, we describe preputial gland adenoma in a wild nutria.

16.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 277-284, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742534

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Label adherence for non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) has not been well evaluated in Asian patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). The present study aimed to assess label adherence for NOACs in a Korean AF population and to determine risk factors of off-label prescriptions of NOACs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this COmparison study of Drugs for symptom control and complication prEvention of AF (CODE-AF) registry, patients with AF who were prescribed NOACs between June 2016 and May 2017 were included. Four NOAC doses were categorized as on- or off-label use according to Korea Food and Drug Regulations. RESULTS: We evaluated 3080 AF patients treated with NOACs (dabigatran 27.2%, rivaroxaban 23.9%, apixaban 36.9%, and edoxaban 12.0%). The mean age was 70.5±9.2 years; 56.0% were men; and the mean CHA₂DS₂-VASc score was 3.3±1.4. Only one-third of the patients (32.7%) was prescribed a standard dose of NOAC. More than one-third of the study population (n=1122, 36.4%) was prescribed an off-label reduced dose of NOAC. Compared to those with an on-label standard dosing, patients with an off-label reduced dose of NOAC were older (≥75 years), women, and had a lower body weight (≤60 kg), renal dysfunction (creatinine clearance ≤50 mL/min), previous stroke, previous bleeding, hypertension, concomitant dronedarone use, and anti-platelet use. CONCLUSION: In real-world practice, more than one-third of patients with NOAC prescriptions received an off-label reduced dose, which could result in an increased risk of stroke. Considering the high risk of stroke in these patients, on-label use of NOAC is recommended.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Asians , Atrial Fibrillation , Body Weight , Cohort Studies , Drug and Narcotic Control , Drug Labeling , Female , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hypertension , Korea , Male , Off-Label Use , Prescriptions , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Rivaroxaban , Stroke
17.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 330-342, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759950

ABSTRACT

The choice of an adequate antithrombotic regimen for atrial fibrillation patients undergoing emergent or elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) should be based on the ischemic event and on the risk of bleeding. Recent randomized controlled trials have consistently demonstrated that dual antithrombotic therapeutic regimens, using non-vitamin K anticoagulants and clopidogrel, are superior to triple or dual therapy with warfarin and aspirin. This report incorporates findings of recent notable studies to provide concrete, clinically useful details and recommendations for bleeding risk assessment and optimal antithrombotic therapeutic strategies after PCI. In addition, we introduce guidelines for antithrombotic management after structural heart disease intervention.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Aspirin , Atrial Fibrillation , Heart Diseases , Heart , Hemorrhage , Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Risk Assessment , Warfarin
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759922

ABSTRACT

Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are alternatives to vitamin K antagonists to prevent stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) and have emerged as the preferred choice. The use of NOACs is rapidly increasing in Korea after coverage by insurance since 2015. However, the rate of prescribing anticoagulants in Korean patients with AF remains low compared to other countries. Most of the NOAC anticoagulant prescriptions are issued at hospitals. As the prevalence rate of AF in Korea is expected to increase rapidly with the increase in the elderly population, the need to prescribe NOACs in primary care clinics will also increase. Therefore, The Korean Heart Rhythm Society organized the Korean Atrial Fibrillation Management Guideline Committee and analyzed all available studies based on the 2018 European Heart Rhythm Association Practical Guide on the use of NOACs for managing AF, as well as studies on Korean patients. The authors would like to introduce practical guidelines for NOAC prescriptions in Korean patients with AF.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anticoagulants , Atrial Fibrillation , Follow-Up Studies , Heart , Humans , Insurance , Korea , Prescriptions , Prevalence , Primary Health Care , Stroke , Vitamin K
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759920

ABSTRACT

Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are an alternative to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and have emerged as the treatment of choice in Korea. However, several questions remain regarding the optimal use of these agents in specific clinical situations. In this paper we discuss 1) patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and coronary artery disease, 2) avoiding confusion with NOAC dosing across indications, 3) cardioversion in a patient treated with a NOAC, 4) AF patients who present with acute stroke while on NOACs, 5) NOACs in special situations, 6) anticoagulation in AF patients with a malignancy, and 7) optimizing VKA dose adjustments.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Atrial Fibrillation , Coronary Artery Disease , Electric Countershock , Heart , Humans , Korea , Stroke , Vitamin K
20.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 110-132, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713913

ABSTRACT

Oral anticoagulants (OAC) are necessary to prevent thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). OACs used in Korea are composed of warfarin and non-vitamin K antagonist OAC. Risk stratification and selection of OACs in patients with AF is usually performed by international guidelines for AF management. However, these guidelines do not always reflect the unique characteristics of AF patients in Korea as they were established based on a small portion of the Asian population and, therefore, have limited application to Korean patients. In addition, under certain conditions, the choice of OACs and doses according to the international guidelines are unsuitable for Korean AF patients. Recently, robust clinical data of Korean AF patients have become available. The Korean AF Management Guideline Committee, as part of the Korean Heart Rhythm Society, analyzed all available studies regarding management of AF including those focusing on Korean patients. Expert consensus and guidelines for optimal management of AF patients in Korea were established following systematic reviews and intensive discussions. This article provides the appropriate choice of OACs and dose for management of Korean AF patients with various clinical conditions.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Asians , Atrial Fibrillation , Consensus , Heart , Humans , Korea , Stroke , Thromboembolism , Warfarin
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL