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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905840

ABSTRACT

Objective:To quickly analyze and identify the components in raw and wine-processed products of <italic>Polygonatum cyrtonema</italic> (PC) dried rhizomes by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), and then find out the differential components before and after processing. Method:The ACQUITY UPLC BEH C<sub>18</sub> column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 μm) was used with 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution-acetonitrile as the mobile phase for gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.25 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>. Electrospray ionization was selected for collection and detection in positive and negative ion modes, and the data were analyzed by PeakView 1.2.0.3. According to the retention time, accurate relative molecular weight and fragmentation ion information provided by MS, and combined with the reference substance and literature, the components were identified. After normalized treatment, the MS data of each sample were analyzed with principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), and then the differential components before and after processing were screened according to the principle that variable importance in the projection (VIP) value was >1. Result:A total of 38 components were identified from raw and wine-processed products of PC dried rhizomes, including 15 steroidal saponins, 6 alkaloids, 3 flavonoids, 2 amino acids, 2 organic acids and 10 others. The results of PCA and OPLS-DA showed that there were significant differences in the contents of components in PC dried rhizomes before and after processing, and 16 differential components such as kingianoside Z, disporopsin and linoleic acid were screened. Conclusion:UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technique can accurately and comprehensively identify the components in PC dried rhizomes, these components are mainly steroidal saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids. It takes a great difference in the contents of components before and after processing, and transformation of the same category components is the main reason for the differences of raw and wine-processed products, which will provide reference for the researches on material basis and processing chemistry of PC dried rhizomes.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888004

ABSTRACT

Bufonis Venenum,the dried secretion of Bufo bufo gargarizans or B. melanostictus,is toxic and hard with the efficacy of removing toxicity for detumescence and relieving pain. The processing of Bufonis Venenum dates back to the Song dynasty. In addition to the wine-processing,milk-processing and talcum powder-processing,there were some other kinds of processing methods in ancient times,such as baking,calcining,water-soaking and vinegar-processing. Modern studies have shown that the Bufonis Venenum has the main chemical components of bufadienolides,indole alkaloids sterols,and other compounds. It has the pharmacological effects of antitumor,cardiac,antibacterial,and analgesic activities,local anesthesia,and so on. This paper reviews the processing evolution,chemical components and pharmacological effects of Bufonis Venenum,providing references for its special processing and modern research as well as the theoretical basis for the research on its processing mechanism and quality control.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bufanolides/pharmacology , Bufonidae , Quality Control
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879141

ABSTRACT

To investigate the potential molecular mechanism of the combination of Platycodonis Radix and Lilii Bulbus with the homology of medicine and food in the treatment of pneumonia by means of network pharmacology and in vitro verification experiment. Under the condition of bioavailability(OB)≥30% and drug-like(DL)≥0.18, the active components of Platycodonis Radix and Lilii Bulbus were screened in TCMSP database; the prediction targets of active components were searched from TCMSP, DrugBank and other databases, and the potential targets of pneumonia were obtained through GeneCards and OMIM database. The common targets were obtained by the intersection of drug and disease targets. The PPI network of common targets was constructed by STRING 11.0, and the core targets were obtained by topological analysis. Then the core targets received GO and KEGG analysis with use of WebGestalt and Metascape. The "component-target-pathway" network was constructed with the help of Cytoscape 3.7.1 software, and the component-target molecular docking verification was carried out with Discovery Studio 2016 software. Finally, the core targets and pathways were preliminarily verified in vitro. In this study, 12 active components were screened, 225 drug prediction targets and 420 potential diseases targets were obtained based on data mining method, and 14 core targets were obtained by topological analysis, including TNF, MMP9, AKT1, IL4 and IL2. The enrichment results of GO and KEGG showed that "Platycodonis Radix and Lilii Bulbus" drug pair may regulate inflammation, cell growth and metabolism by acting on 20 key signaling pathways such as TNF and IL-17, thereby exerting anti-pneumonia effects. The results of molecular docking showed that 12 active components had good binding ability with 14 core targets. In vitro experiment results showed that the core components of "Platycodonis Radix and Lilii Bulbus" drug pair could inhibit the expression of MMP9 and TNF-α by regulating TNF signal pathway. This study confirmed the scientificity and reliability of the prediction results of network pharmacology, and preliminarily revealed the potential molecular mechanism of the compatibility of Platycodonis Radix and Lilii Bulbus in the treatment of pneumonia. It provides a novel insight on systematically exploring the mechanism of the compatible use of Platycodonis Radix and Lilii Bulbus, and has a certain reference value for the research, development and application of new drugs.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Reproducibility of Results
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873066

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the effects of different processing techniques on the chemical constituents of Aurantii Fructus for screening the dominant decoction pieces. Method:UPLC-Q/TOF-MS was used to detect the chemical constituents of Aurantii Fructus, chromatography separation was achieved on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm), and gradient elution was performed with 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (A)-0.1% formic acid acetonitrile solution (B) as mobile phase (0-10 min, 5%-35%B; 10-18 min, 35%-75%B; 18-21 min, 75%-100%B; 21-24 min, 100%B; 24-24.1 min, 100%-5%B; 24.1-28 min, 5%B). Data acquisition was carried out in electrospray ionization (ESI) under the positive ion mode, the scanning range was m/z 50-1 200. The chemical constituents in methanol extract of Aurantii Fructus were identified according to reference substance, relative molecular weight, mass spectrometric cleavage rule and literature information. SIMCA-P 13.0 software was used to establish principal component analysis (PCA) model and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model of Aurantii Fructus processed products, PCA score plot, PLS-DA loading plot and variable importance in the protection (VIP) values were obtained to screen the material basis for the main differences before and after processing of Aurantii Fructus. Result:A total of 54 chemical components were identified by UPLC-Q/TOF-MS. PCA indicated that there were significant differences among different groups of Aurantii Fructus processed by different methods. A total of 14 chemical components with VIP value >1 were screened by PLS-DA as the main chemical markers for the differences before and after processing, including hesperidin, poncirin, narirutin, etc. The comprehensive weighted score showed that the content of effective components in Aurantii Fructus processed with honey bran was the highest. Conclusion:The contents of chemical constituents in Aurantii Fructus before and after processing are significantly changed. Flavonoids are the most important compounds to distinguish different processed products of Aurantii Fructus. Aurantii Fructus processed with honey bran is the dominant variety.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872835

ABSTRACT

Objective:To optimize the processing technology of salt-processed products of Plantaginis Semen with the specific process parameters, and verify the obtained processing technology by pharmacodynamic research, so as to provide experimental basis for the standardized production and quality control of this decoction pieces. Method:Taking composite score of appearance character score, dry extract yield and contents of three components (geniposidic acid, acteoside and isoacteoside) as index, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP)-criteria importance through intercrieria correlation (CRITIC) mixed weighting method was used to determine the weight coefficient of each index. Based on single factor tests, the response surface method was used to investigate the effects of frying time, frying temperature, salt amount and water amount on the processing technology of salt-processed products of Plantaginis Semen, and the processing technology was verified by diuretic experiment with furosemide tablets as the positive drug (administration dose of 0.01 g·kg-1). Result:The weight coefficients of geniposidic acid content, acteoside content, appearance character score, isoacteoside content and dry extract yield were 0.319, 0.193, 0.207, 0.273 and 0.008, respectively. The optimal process parameters were as following:fried at 150-180 ℃ for 10 min (obtained from the single factor tests), 100 g of Plantaginis Semen sprayed evenly with 2 g of salt (2 g of salt dissolved in 20 mL of water), and fried at 150-180 ℃ for 15 min. Compared with the blank group, both of the raw products group and the salt-processed products group could significantly increase the secretion of urine volume (P<0.01), but the excretion of Na+ in the urine of rats in the salt-processed products group was significantly higher than that in the raw products group (P<0.05). Conclusion:The optimized processing technology is simple and feasible, which can provide reference for standardizing the industrial production of salt-processed products of Plantaginis Semen. At the same time, combined with inherent quality and appearance of the salt-processed products, and verified by pharmacodynamic test, the obtained results are reasonable and reliable, which can be used for quality control of this decoction pieces.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872810

ABSTRACT

Platycodonis Radix, which was first recorded in the Agriculture God's Canon of Materia Medica. It is a multi-functional drug with a wide range of applications. The processing of Platycodonis Radix has been recorded as early as in the Jin dynasty, and has a long history of processing. Today, in addition to the washing, cutting and stir-frying with honey, there have also been more than 20 kinds of processing methods, such as stir-frying with wine, stir-frying with bran, stir-frying with Lilii Bulbus juice and so on. The ancients believed that Platycodonis Radix could enhance the effect of diffusing the lung, promoting pharynx and relieving cough by processing. In terms of the chemical compositions in Platycodonis Radix, more than 100 compositions, like triterpenoid saponins, flavonoids, phenols, sterols, polysaccharides and polyacetylenes, have been isolated and identified from it. Among them, triterpenoid saponins are the essential compositions. In addition, Platycodonis Radix has the pharmacological effects of expectorant, antitussive, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, etc. The medicinal ingredients of Platycodonis Radix are mainly triterpenoid saponins and polysaccharides. Among them, triterpenoid saponins have diverse biological activities, which lead it to be one of the hotspots of current researches. Platycodonis Radix has a good role in promoting lung and removing phlegm. After being processed, its medicinal effects are enhanced. It is complex and diverse in compositions of Platycodonis Radix so that has rich pharmacological activities. On the basis of sorting out the literature, this paper discusses the processing history, chemical composition and pharmacological effect of Platycodonis Radix, in order to provide reference for the special processing and modern research of Platycodonis Radix. Furtherly, it provides a theoretical basis for the research of its processing mechanism and quality control.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801886

ABSTRACT

The processing of Aurantii Fructus has a long history and many methods. In addition to the current mainstream varieties of raw products and stir-fried products with bran of Aurantii Fructus, other 17 processing methods, such as stir-fried with rice, processed with salt, honey and medicinal juice, are recorded in the literature of past dynasties. Through a comprehensive review and sorting out of ancient and modern literature, this paper clarifies the historical evolution of the processing of Aurantii Fructus, through clarifying the historical evolution of processing and analyzing the present situation of modern research on Aurantii Fructus, summarizes the modern research progress on processing in production place, processing technology, chemical compositions and pharmacological effects before and after being processed, and puts forward some ideas for the follow-up research on processing of Aurantii Fructus, in order to provide reference for screening the dominant varieties, standardizing the processing technology, explaining the scientific connotation of processing, and improving the utilization ratio of medicinal resources of Aurantii Fructus.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-851846

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish an HPLC method for simultaneous determination of 7-hydroxycoumarin, narirutin, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, nobiletin, 3,5,6,7,8,(3,4)-heptamethoxyflavone, tangeretin, and auraptene from Aurantii Fructus, determinate and compare the content of various chemical components from Aurantii Fructus with different perimeters. Methods: The HPLC system consisted of a diamon C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm), the mobile phase was methanol (A)-water (adjusted pH 3.0 with phosphorous acid). The gradient elution conditions: 0-25 min, 30%-50% A; 25-35 min, 50%-70% A; 35-40 min, 70%-75% A; 40-55 min, 75%-100% A. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the column temperature was 30 ℃. The detection wavelength was 320 nm and the injection volume was 20 μL. Results: The calibration curves of 7-hydroxycoumarin, narirutin, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, 3,5,6,7,8,(3,4)-heptamethoxyflavone, nobiletin, tangeretin, and auraptene had good linear relationship in the ranges of 0.002 18-0.07 μg (r = 0.999 8), 0.021 8-0.70 μg (r = 0.999 9), 0.242 5-7.76 μg (r = 0.999 8), 0.024 38-0.78 μg (r = 0.999 4), 0.523 76-16.76 μg (r = 0.999 3), 0.003 13-0.10 μg (r = 0.999 3), 0.004 13-0.132 μg (r = 0.999 6), 0.002 75-0.088 μg (r = 0.999 6), and 0.000 93-0.03 μg (r = 0.999 3); And the average recoveries (n = 6) of the nine components were 98.50%, 98.80%, 99.51%, 98.43%, 99.64%, 99.21%, 100.03%, 98.75%, and 101.11%, respectively. Conclusion: This method can be applied to determinating the components from Aurantii Fructus, including 7-hydroxycoumarin and 3,5,6,7,8,(3,4)-heptamethoxyflavone, etc.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-346828

ABSTRACT

Agarwood is a precious traditional Chinese medicine with the efficacy of promoting qi circulation and relieving pain, warming middle-jiao, controlling nausea and vomiting, governing inspiration and relieving asthma, therefore it is widely applied in the clinic. Meanwhile, agarwood is also a precious spice. Aquilaria sinensis is the only source of agarwood production in China. Under natural conditions, a healthy A. sinensis tree produces no agarwood. Only if being wounded or infected with fungus can it synthetize and accumulate agarwood. It takes a decade or even several decades to produce agarwood, thus natural agarwood can not meet market demands. The essay summarizes historical records of agarwood production method and modern agarwood production method, in order to provide basis and reference for large-scale production of agarwood.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Metabolism , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Methods , Thymelaeaceae , Metabolism
10.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 354-358, 2007.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304905

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of retroviral vector containing shRNA targeting rat angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) gene (Ad5-AT1R-shRNA) on blood pressure and AT1R mRNA expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Retroviral vector containing shRNA targeting rat AT1R gene was constructed and propagated further in 293 cells. SHR rats were randomly divided into SHR + Ad5-AT1R-shRNA (1.7 x 10(9) TCID(50)/ml) group and SHR (Ad5-EGFP, 7.9 x 10(9) TCID(50)/ml, n = 11 each) and 11 male Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) serve as normal controls (Ad5-EGFP, 7.9 x 10(9) TCID(50)/ml). Systolic blood pressure was measured before and after single intravenous injection of Ad5-AT1R-shRNA or Ad5-EGFP. Heart, liver, kidney, aorta and adrenal gland were removed after blood pressure measurement. Tissue Ad5-AT1R-shRNA expression was detected with fluorescence microscope and AT1R mRNA in liver, kidney and aorta was measured by fluorescence quantitative PCR.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Ad5-AT1R-shRNA significantly reduced blood pressure compared with controls (-29 mm Hg, 1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa, P < 0.05) 24 hours after single injection and this antihypertensive effect could last for 5 to 7 days. Ad5-AT1R-shRNA expression detected with fluorescence microscope was significantly increased in heart, liver, kidney, aorta and adrenal gland post Ad5-AT1R-shRNA injection. AT1R mRNA in kidney and aorta (0.086 +/- 0.014, 0.051 +/- 0.023) were significantly decreased in Ad5-AT1R-shRNA treated rats compared with SHR control rats (0.362 +/- 0.042, 0.463 +/- 0.045, P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The results indicate that Ad5-AT1R-shRNA could inhibit the tissue AT1R mRNA expression and produce prolonged antihypertensive effects in SHR rats.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Animals , Blood Pressure , Genetic Vectors , Heart Rate , Hypertension , Genetics , Metabolism , Male , RNA Interference , RNA, Messenger , Metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering , Genetics , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Inbred WKY , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 , Genetics , Metabolism
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