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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827236

ABSTRACT

Ephedra herb is a traditional Chinese medicine with a long history. Conventionally, it was used as a folk phytomedicine in many ancient medical books and traditional prescriptions. Up to date, a variety of specific ingredients have been found in Ephedra herb, mainly including alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, polysaccharides, organic acids, volatile oils, and many other active compounds. These components from Ephedra herb account for its use as the accurate treatment of cold, cough, cardiovascular and immune system disease, cancer, microbial infection, and other diseases. Moreover, with the fast development of novel chemistry and medicine technology, new chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Ephedra herb are increasingly identified, demonstrating their great potential for various diseases treatment. Therefore, further detailed understanding and investigation of this ancient herb will offer new opportunities to develop novel therapeutics. This study systematically reviews its progress of phytochemistry, traditional and modern pharmacology based on research data that have been reported, aiming at providing useful insight for commercial exploitation, further study and precision medication of Ephedra herb in future.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905614

ABSTRACT

Objective:To understand the development of professional reasoning of occupational therapy (OT) in China from 1986 to 2006. Methods:A search of all OT papers published from 1986 to 2006 in the Chinese Academic Journals database yielded 1,308 papers. Among them, 52 papers were selected for further analysis of professional reasoning. Each was reviewed by three researchers. Thematic analysis was conducted using an interpretive approach. Results:Two themes were identified: ongoing changes and sustaining contexts. Theme one consisted of three changes: from OT being an approach used by various healthcare providers to becoming a separate profession; from simple and superficial (e.g., upper limb exercise) to in-depth and complex professional reasoning (e.g., occupation-based models); and from relying on overseas experience to building on local practice experience. Theme two covered three sustaining practice contexts: insufficient supply of qualified OT, misconceptions of the roles and functions of OT and scope confined to hospital-based rehabilitation for people with physical disability. Conclusion:This paper reported the historical development of professional reasoning in China from 1986 to 2006. Professional issues in early days have continued to influence current practice. We need to work together to sustain the spirit of OT and improve OT professional reasoning in China.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2122-2128, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780096

ABSTRACT

The development and metabolism of medicinal plant is affected by many factors, among which the effect from endophytic fungi has been noticed recently and has become one of hot fields. In order to explore the effect of endophytic fungi on gene expression in R. crenulata, RNA-sequencing was used to find genes involved in metabolic pathways, and the differential genes were verified by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The method of 2-△△Ct was used to analyze the relative expression levels of genes in related metabolic pathways, which was used to verify the result of transcriptomics sequencing. The results showed that the endophytic fungus, P. fortinii, could up-regulate the gene expression in lipid metabolic pathway of R. crenulata. In signal transduction pathway, the genes were influenced at different level but the gene expressions were significantly increased under control of Notch signaling pathway, which was 34 times of that in control. The gene expressions of environmental adaption pathway were up-regulated in R. crenulata after inoculation of P. fortinii. This study could provide help for further understanding on mechanism of plant-fungus interaction, root cause of geoherbalism of medicinal plant and exploring bio-function of endophytic fungi.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 214-221, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779581

ABSTRACT

Research of plant development and metabolism has drawn lots of attention with the fast development of science of mycorrhizal biology, molecular biology and metabonomics technology. It has become one of hot fields in the study of endophytes and plant, which would affect plant's metabolite composition. This would provide opportunity for appraising and modifying traits to medicinal plant, and would also perfect the tranditional standpoint on forming reason of medicinal plant genuineness. Here we provide a review of theory and mechanism, research and application of interaction between plant and endophyte. This review may enhance understanding of medicinal plant, and evaluating the quality of herbs in production.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1920-2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779352

ABSTRACT

One strain of endophytic fungus ZPRa-R-1 was obtained for the capacity of promoting production of salidroside in Rhodiola crenulata. To explain the mechanism of salidroside biosynthesis in host plant, eight housekeeping genes were evaluated, and the evaluation method was created for the expression activities of four key enzyme genes PAL (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase), TyDC (tyrosine decarboxylase), TAT (tyrosine transaminase), UDPGT (UDP-glucosyltransferase) referenced double reference genes in biosynthesis pathway of salidroside in R. crenulata. Stabilities of housekeeping genes were confirmed by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR technology and three softwares including geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper, then relative expressions of key enzyme genes were analysized by the 2-ΔΔCt method. The results showed that the most stable gene was GAPDH, followed by PCS, and the most appropriate reference of internal genes were combination with two genes in R. crenulata inoculated with endophytic fungus ZPRa-R-1. Under symbiosis conditions, regularity changes of key enzyme genes affected by endophytic fungus ZPRa-R-1 were as follows:the relative expression activity of PAL attached to peak value, which was 4.9 times as that of control group when inoculated ten days. The relative expression of TyDC reached the maximum value, which was 2.8 times of that control after inoculating 12 days. The relative expression of UDPGT actually reach 17.1 times than that of control after inoculating 8 days. However, the relative expression of TAT was not affected by this fungus. The changes of four key enzyme genes are positively correlated with the changes of salidroside content in R. crenulata.

6.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; (24): 230-233, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-859226

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To establish a method for simultaneous determination of five components in wild and tissue-culture materials of Rhodiola crenulata. METHODS: The determination was performed on a Thermo-C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with mobile phase composed of methanol-water (32:68) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL·min-1. The injection volume was 10 μL, column temperature was set at 30℃, and the detection wavelength was set at 277 nm at 0-13 min and 250 nm at 13-60 min. RESULTS: There were linear relationships between the peak areas and contents of salidroside, p-tyrosol, rosarin, rosavin and rosin in the ranges of 2.80-280.00 (r=0.9998), 2.80-280.00 (r=0.9997), 1.20-120.00 (r=0.9996), 1.60-160.00 (r=0.9997) and 1.20-120.00 μg·mL-1 (r=0.9997), respectively. The extraction recoveries varied from 99. 32% to 100.45%. CONCLUSION: The established method is simple and accurate for quality control of wild and tissue-culture materials of Rhodiola.

7.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; (24): 1711-1714, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-860187

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the basic characteristics of three bioactive fungi, the interrelationship of three fungi and the relationship between three fungi and their host, thus to provide data for the theoretical research and the application practice. METHODS: The colonial morphology and microscopic characteristics were studied by light microscopy, and the relationships were studied by agar diffusion method. RESULTS: The basic characteristics of three bioactive fungi were obtained, and the relationships under in vitro conditions were clarified. CONCLUSION: The results of this study will be of great value to the studies and use of the fungi, and it will provide important data for research on the mechanism of fungi inducing Aquilaria sinensis to produce Agilawood.

8.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; (24): 335-338, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-860798

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To screen the fungi which can induce Aquilaria sinensis to produce active substance. METHODS: Fungus was inoculated in the stem of A. sinensis under natural conditions. The penetration and planting of fungus in stem of A. sinensis as well as the interaction of the two organisms were studied by microscope and scanning electron microscopy, and the main ingredients of the volatile oil in induced agilawood were analysed by GC-MS. RESULTS: Three active strains inducing the formation of agilawood were obtained, which was reported for the first time in the world. The main ingredients of the volatile oil were similar between the induced agilawood and the natural materials. CONCLUSION: It is very important for us to use the fungus in the induction of agilawood and in the sustainable utilization of this special medicinal material. Copyright 2012 by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

9.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; (24): 1357-1361, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-860626

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To optimize the solid culture condition of three fungi which can induce Aquilaria sinensis to produce agilawood, thus to provide data for the production and application of the fungi. METHODS: Single factor experiment method was applied in the study. RESULTS: The optimal solid culture medium formula, temperature, pH value, moisture, the density of materials and illumination conditions for three fungi were obtained. CONCLUSION: The optimized method can provide high quality fungi for prompting Aquilaria sinensis to produce agilawood at larger scales. Copyright 2012 by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

10.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; (24): 1614-1617, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-860587

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of utilizing three fungi YNAS04, YNAS06 and YNAS08 to induce the formation of agilawood from Aquilaria sinensis in field and laboratory, respectively. METHODS: Agarwood was obtained by inoculating the fungus in the stem of A. sinensis under natural conditions, and the main ingredients of the volatile oil from induced agilawood were analyzed by GC-MS. The authenticity of the used fungi was detected by the method of morphology and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer. RESULTS: The weights of the induced materials from YNAS04, YNAS06 and YNAS08 were (1.786±0.473), (2964±0.492) and (3.615±0.591) g after six months, which were heavier than blank control (1.325±0.407) g and negative control (1.462±0.417) g, respectively. The fungus inoculated in the stem of A. sinensis and became the dominant fungi in the tissue under natural conditions. Sesquterpenoids and chromone analogues were detected from three fungi inducing materials of six months old. CONCLUSION: Utilizing fungi to induce the formation of agilawood from Aquilaria sinensis has the advantages of spending less time and producing high-quality secondary metabolites. This method has important application foreground in large-scale agilawood production.

11.
Microbiology ; (12)1992.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-686210

ABSTRACT

Eighty-five endophytic fungal strains were isolated from the roots、stems and leaves of Polygala tenuifolia Willd, among which, fifty-two from natural plants and thirty-three from cultivated ones. Sev-enty-six strains were classified as twenty-three fungal genera. The inhibitory activity screening to fourteen microbe were conducted research. The results showed that some endophytic fungi had remarkble inhibitory activities to Bacillus subtilis, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Fusarium kyrushuense and they were all belonged to Fusarium, Alternaria, Aphanocladium respectively. All of the endophytic fungi isolated from Polygala tenuifolia showed no inhibitory activities to Staphyloccocus aureus, Salmonel-lae enteritis, Bibrio parahemolyticus.

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