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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874804

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Infection is one of most devastating complications in ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery. Preoperative hair removal has traditionally been performed to reduce infectious complications. We performed VP shunt surgeries and evaluated the prevalence of infection in patients who were shaved and those who were unshaven. @*Methods@#: A retrospective analysis was conducted of 82 patients with hydrocephalus of various pathologies who underwent VP shunt surgery, with or without having the head shaved, between March 2010 and March 2017. For patients in the non-shaved group (n=36), absorbable suture materials were used for wound closure, and Nylon sutures or staples were used in the shaved group (n=46). We evaluated the infection outcomes of patients in the two groups. @*Results@#: There was no difference in the average age of patients in the two groups. In the non-shaved group, there were no infections, while two patients in the shaved group required revision because of shunt infection. @*Conclusion@#: Non-shaved shunt surgery may be safe and effective, with no increase of infection rate. We recommend that shunt procedures could be performed without shaving the hair, which may increase patients’ satisfaction without increasing infection risk.

2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 976-980, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833381

ABSTRACT

Cavernous hemangiomas occur very rarely in the cavernous sinus. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) on cavernous sinus cavernous hemangioma (CSCH) and to analyze the temporal volume change. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 26 CSCH patients who were treated with GKS between 2001 and 2017. Before GKS, 11 patients (42.3%) had cranial neuropathies and 5 patients (19.2%) complained of headache, whereas 10 patients (38.5%) were initially asymptomatic. The mean pre-GKS mass volume was 9.3 mL (range, 0.5–31.6 mL), and the margin dose ranged from 13 to 15 Gy according to the mass volume and the proximity to the optic pathway. All cranial neuropathy patients and half of headache patients showed clinical improvement. All 26 patients achieved mass control; remarkable responses (less than 1/3 of the initial mass volume) were shown in 19 patients (73.1%) and moderate responses (more than 1/3 and less than 2/3) in 7 patients (26.9%). The mean final mass volume after GKS was 1.8 mL (range, 0–12.6 mL). The mean mass volume at 6 months after GKS was 45% (range, 5–80%) compared to the mass volume before GKS and 21% (range, 0–70%) at 12 months. The higher radiation dose tended to induce more rapid and greater volume reduction. No treatment-related complication was observed during the follow-up period.GKS could be an effective and safe therapeutic strategy for CSCH. GKS induced very rapid volume reduction compared to other benign brain tumors.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831026

ABSTRACT

Background@#: The Guideline Working Group of the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO)conducted a nationwide questionnaire survey for diverse queries faced in the treatment of brain tumors.As part I of the survey, the aim of this study is to evaluate national patterns of clinical practiceabout antiepileptic drug (AED) and steroid usage for management of brain tumors. @*Methods@#: A web-based survey was sent to all members of the KSNO by email. The survey included9 questions of AED usage and 5 questions of steroid usage for brain tumor patients. All questionswere developed by consensus of the Guideline Working Group. @*Results@#: The overall response rate was 12.8% (54/423). Regarding AED usage, the majority ofrespondents (95.2%) routinely prescribed prophylactic AEDs for patients with seizure at the peri/postoperativeperiod. However, as many as 72.8% of respondents prescribed AED routinely for seizure-naïvepatients, and others prescribed AED as the case may be. The duration of AED prophylaxis showedwide variance according to the epilepsy status and the location of tumor. Levetiracetam (82.9%) wasthe most preferred AED for epilepsy prophylaxis. Regarding steroid usage, 90.5% of respondents usesteroids in perioperative period, including 34.2% of them as a routine manner. Presence of peritumoraledema (90.9%) was considered as the most important factor determining steroid usage followed bydegree of clinical symptoms (60.6%). More than half of respondents (51.2%) replied to discontinue thesteroids within a week after surgery if there are no specific medical conditions, while 7.3% preferredslow tapering up to a month after surgery. @*Conclusion@#: The survey demonstrated the prevailing practice patterns on AED and steroid usagein neuro-oncologic field among members of the KSNO. This information provides a point of referencefor establishing a practical guideline in the management of brain tumor patients.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831025

ABSTRACT

Background@#: The Guideline Working Group of the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO)conducted a nationwide questionnaire survey for diverse queries faced in the treatment of brain tumors.As part II of the survey, the aim of this study is to evaluate the national patterns of clinical practicefor patients with diffuse midline glioma and meningioma. @*Methods@#: A web-based survey was sent to all members of the KSNO by email. The survey included4 questions of diffuse midline glioma and 6 questions of meningioma (including 2 case scenarios).All questions were developed by consensus of the Guideline Working Group. @*Results@#: In the survey about diffuse midline glioma, 76% respondents performed histologicconfirmation to identify H3K27M mutation on immunohistochemical staining or sequencing methods.For treatment of diffuse midline glioma, respondents preferred concurrent chemoradiotherapy withtemozolomide (TMZ) and adjuvant TMZ (63.8%) than radiotherapy alone (34.0%). In the surveyabout meningioma, respondents prefer wait-and-see policy for the asymptomatic small meningiomawithout peritumoral edema. However, a greater number of respondents had chosen surgical resectionas the first choice for all large size meningiomas without exception, and small size meningiomaswith either peritumoral edema or eloquent location. There was no single opinion with major consensuson long-term follow-up plans for asymptomatic meningioma with observation policy. As many as68.1% of respondents answered that they would not add any adjuvant therapies for World Health Organizationgrade II meningiomas if the tumor was totally resected including dura. @*Conclusion@#: The survey demonstrates the prevailing clinical practice patterns for patients with diffusemidline glioma and meningioma among members of the KSNO. This information provides a pointof reference for establishing a practical guideline in the management of diffuse midline glioma andmeningioma.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831024

ABSTRACT

Background@#: The Guideline Working Group of the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO)conducted the nationwide questionnaire survey for diverse queries facing to treat patients with braintumor. As part III of the survey, the aim of this study is to evaluate the national patterns of clinical practicefor patients with brain metastasis and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). @*Methods@#: A web-based survey was sent to all members of the KSNO by email. The survey included7 questions of brain metastasis and 5 questions of PCNSL, focused on the management strategiesin specific situations. All questions were developed by consensus of the Guideline WorkingGroup. @*Results@#" In the survey about brain metastasis, respondents preferred surgical resection withadjuvant treatment for patients with a surgically accessible single brain metastatic lesion less than 3cm in size without extracranial systemic lesions. However, most respondents considered radiosurgeryfor surgically inaccessible lesions. As the preferred treatment of multiple brain metastases according tothe number of brain lesions, respondents tended to choose radiotherapy with increasing number of lesions.Radiosurgery was mostly chosen for the brain metastases of less than or equal to 4. In the surveyabout PCNSL, a half of respondents choose high-dose methotrexate-based polychemotherapy asthe first-line induction therapy for PCNSL. The consolidation and salvage therapy showed a little variationamong respondents. For PCNSL patients with cerebrospinal fluid dissemination, intrathecal chemotherapywas most preferred. @*Conclusion@#: The survey demonstrates the prevailing clinical practice patterns for patients withbrain metastasis and PCNSL among members of the KSNO. This information provides a point of referencefor establishing a practical guideline in the management of brain metastasis and PCNSL.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167779

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The LiquoGuard® system is a new ventricular-type monitoring device that facilitates intracranial pressure (ICP)-controlled or volume-controlled drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The purpose of this study is to report the authors' experience with the LiquoGuard® ICP monitoring system, as well as the clinical safety, usefulness, and limitations of this device in the management of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Intraventricular ICP monitoring was performed on 10 patients with TBI using the LiquoGuard® monitoring system. ICP measurements, volume of drained CSF, and clinical outcomes were analyzed and discussed. RESULTS: ICP monitoring was performed on 10 patients for a mean duration of 6.9 days. With a mean 82,718 records per patient, the mean initial ICP was 16.4 mm Hg and the average ICP across the total duration of monitoring was 15.5 mm Hg. The mean volume of drained CSF was 29.2 cc/day, with no CSF drained in 4 patients. Seven of 10 patients showed 1 or 2 episodes of abnormal ICP measurements. No patient exhibited complications associated with ICP monitoring. CONCLUSION: The LiquoGuard® system is a versatile tool in the management of TBI patients. Its use is both reliable and feasible for ICP monitoring and therapeutic drainage of CSF. However, episodes of abnormal ICP measurements were frequently observed in patients with slit ventricles, and further study may be needed to overcome this issue.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Drainage , Humans , Injections, Intraventricular , Intracranial Pressure , Monitoring, Physiologic
7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 388-396, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210026

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although conventional neuro-navigation is a useful tool for image-guided glioma surgery, there are some limitations, such as brain shift. We introduced our methods using an identifiable marker, a "tailed bullet", to overcome the limitation of conventional neuro-navigation. A tailed bullet is an identifiable tumor location marker that determines the extent of a resection and we have introduced our technique and reviewed the clinical results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have developed and used "tailed bullets" for brain tumor surgery. They were inserted into the brain parenchyma or the tumor itself to help identify the margin of tumor. We retrospectively reviewed surgically resected glioma cases using "tailed bullet". Total 110 gliomas included in this study and it contains WHO grade 2, 3, and 4 glioma was 14, 36, and 60 cases, respectively. RESULTS: Gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in 71 patients (64.5%), subtotal resection in 36 patients (32.7%), and partial resection in 3 patients (2.7%). The overall survival (OS) duration of grade 3 and 4 gliomas were 20.9 (range, 1.2-82.4) and 13.6 months (range, 1.4-173.4), respectively. Extent of resection (GTR), younger age, and higher initial Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score were related to longer OS for grade-4 gliomas. There was no significant adverse event directly related to the use of tailed bullets. CONCLUSION: Considering the limitations of conventional neuro-navigation methods, the tailed bullets could be helpful during glioma resection. We believe this simple method is an easily accessible technique and overcomes the limitation of the brain shift from the conventional neuro-navigation. Further studies are needed to verify the clinical benefits of using tailed bullets.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Brain/pathology , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Female , Glioma/pathology , Humans , Karnofsky Performance Status , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Interventional , Male , Middle Aged , Neuronavigation/methods , Retrospective Studies , Surgery, Computer-Assisted/methods , Survival Rate , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114567

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Helicopter ambulance transport (HAT) is a highly resource-intensive facility that is a well-established part of the trauma transport system in many developed countries. Here, we review the benefit of HAT for neurosurgical patients in Korea. METHODS: This retrospective study followed neurotrauma patients who were transferred by HAT to a single emergency trauma center over a period of 2 years. The clinical benefits of HAT were measured according to the necessity of emergency surgical intervention and the differences in the time taken to transport patients by ground ambulance transport (GAT) and HAT. RESULTS: Ninety-nine patients were transferred to a single university hospital using HAT, of whom 32 were taken to the neurosurgery department. Of these 32 patients, 10 (31.3%) needed neurosurgical intervention, 14 (43.8%) needed non-neurosurgical intervention, 3 (9.4%) required both, and 11 (34.4%) did not require any intervention. The transfer time was faster using HAT than the estimated time needed for GAT, although for a relatively close distance (<50 km) without ground obstacles (mountain or sea) HAT did not improve transfer time. The cost comparison showed that HAT was more expensive than GAT (3,292,000 vs. 84,000 KRW, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: In this Korean-based study, we found that HAT has a clinical benefit for neurotrauma cases involving a transfer from a distant site or an isolated area. A more precise triage for using HAT should be considered to prevent overuse of this expensive transport method.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances , Ambulances , Developed Countries , Emergencies , Humans , Korea , Neurosurgery , Retrospective Studies , Trauma Centers , Triage
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114094

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a group of diseases that are observed in patients who had experienced a serious trauma or accident. However, some experienced it even after only a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), and they are easily ignored due to the relatively favorable course of mild TBI. Herein, the authors investigated the incidence of PTSD in mild TBI using brief neuropsychological screening test (PTSD checklist, PCL). METHODS: This study was conducted on patients with mild TBI (Glasgow coma scale > or =13) who were admitted from January 2012 to December 2012. As for PCL, it was done on patients who showed no difficulties in communication upon admission and agreed to participate in this study. By using sum of PCL, the patients were divided into high-risk group and low-risk group. PTSD was diagnosed as the three major symptoms of PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth-edifion. RESULTS: A total of 314 TBI patients were admitted and 71 of them met the criteria and were included in this study. The mean age was 52.9 years-old (range: 15-94). The mean PCL score was 28.8 (range: 17-68), and 10 patients were classified as high-risk group. During follow-up, 2 patients (2.7%) of high risk group, were confirmed as PTSD and there was no patient who was suspected of PTSD in the low-risk group (p=0.017). CONCLUSION: PTSD is observed 2.8% in mild TBI. Although PTSD after mild TBI is rare, PCL could be considered as a useful tool for screening of PTSD after mild TBI.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , Checklist , Coma , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Mass Screening , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic
10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1303-1309, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210329

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To achieve maximal safe resection during brain tumor surgery, functional image-merged neuronavigation is widely used. We retrospectively reviewed our cases in which diffusion tensor image (DTI)-merged functional neuronavigation was performed during surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between November 2008 and May 2010, 123 patients underwent surgery utilizing DTI-merged neuronavigation. Anatomical magnetic resonance images (MRI) were obtained preoperatively and fused with DTI of major white matter tracts, such as the corticospinal tract, optic radiation, or arcuate fasciculus. We used this fused image for functional neuronavigation during brain tumor surgery of eloquent areas. We checked the DTI images together with postoperative MRI images and evaluated the integrity of white matter tracts. RESULTS: A single white matter tract was inspected in 78 patients, and two or more white matter tracts were checked in 45 patients. Among the 123 patients, a grossly total resection was achieved in 90 patients (73.2%), subtotal resection in 29 patients (23.6%), and partial resection in 4 patients (3.3%). Postoperative neurologic outcomes, compared with preoperative function, included the following: 100 patients (81.3%) displayed improvement of neurologic symptoms or no change, 7 patients (5.7%) experienced postoperative permanent neurologic deterioration (additional or aggravated neurologic symptoms), and 16 patients (13.0%) demonstrated transient worsening. CONCLUSION: DTI-merged functional neuronavigation could be a useful tool in brain tumor surgery for maximal safe resection. However, there are still limitations, including white matter tract shift, during surgery and in DTI itself. Further studies should be conducted to overcome these limitations.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Neuronavigation , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Postoperative Period , Preoperative Period , Retrospective Studies
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-32512

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The beneficial effect of decompressive craniectomy in the treatment of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is controversial, but there is no debate that decompression should be performed before irreversible neurological deficit occurs. The aim of our study was to assess the value of ultra-early decompressive craniectomy in patients with severe TBI. METHODS: Total of 127 patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy from January 2007 to December 2013 was included in this study. Among them, 60 patients had underwent ultra-early (within 4 hours from injury) emergent operation for relief of increased intracranial pressure. Initial Glasgow coma scale, brain computed tomography (CT) scan features by Marshall CT classification, and time interval between injury and craniectomy were evaluated retrospectively. Clinical outcome was evaluated, using the modified Rankin score. RESULTS: The outcomes of ultra-early decompressive craniectomy group were not better than those in the comparison group (p=0.809). The overall mortality rate was 68.5% (87 patients). Six of all patients (4.7%) showed good outcomes, and 34 patients (26.8%) remained in a severely disabled or vegetative state. Forty of sixty patients (66.7%) had died, and two patients (3.3%) showed good outcomes at last follow-up. CONCLUSION: Ultra-early decompressive craniectomy for intracranial hypertension did not improve patient outcome when compared with "early or late" decompressive craniectomy for managing severe TBI.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , Brain , Classification , Decompression , Decompressive Craniectomy , Follow-Up Studies , Glasgow Coma Scale , Humans , Intracranial Hypertension , Intracranial Pressure , Mortality , Persistent Vegetative State , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101030

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Intracranial pressure (ICP) is one of the critical parameter for the patients of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) to determine the treatment modalities and predict clinical outcomes. Hence, the ICP monitoring with accuracy and safety is essential for the TBI patients. The purpose of this study is to compare its safety and clinical usefulness of intraventricular ICP monitoring method to the parenchymal type. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and imaging data of 18 severe TBI patients. We used intraventricular ICP monitoring in 10 patients and parenchymal 8 patients. We compared the clinical findings of the two type ICP monitoring methods including procedure time, neurological status, outcome, complications and mortality. RESULTS: The initial Glasgow Coma Scale of intraventricular ICP monitoring and parenchymal ICP monitoring patients were 5.8 (range: 4-7) and 6.5 (range: 3-7) respectively. The Glasgow Outcome Scale after 6 months was a little higher in intraventricular monitoring patients than parenchymal monitoring patients (2.8 vs. 2.0, p=0.25). We could not find any intraventricular catheter related complication in intraventricular ICP monitoring patients. There was no difference in mortality in both groups (p=0.56). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that intraventricular catheter insertion for ICP monitoring is relatively a safe procedure in the severe TBI patients. We could not demonstrate the significant benefit of intraventricular type ICP monitoring compared with parenchymal type ICP monitoring. Considering intraventricular type ICP monitoring have advantages of the accuracy and extraventricular drainage, intraventricular type ICP monitoring could be considered for severe TBI patients, regardless of hydrocephalus.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , Catheters , Drainage , Glasgow Coma Scale , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Intracranial Pressure , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-15062

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effects of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) in patients with multiple brain metastases and to investigate prognostic factors related to treatment outcome. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed clinico-radiological and dosimetric data of 36 patients with 4-14 brain metastases who underwent GKRS for 264 lesions between August 2008 and April 2011. The most common primary tumor site was the lung (n=22), followed by breast (n=7). At GKRS, the median Karnofsky performance scale score was 90 and the mean tumor volume was 1.2 cc (0.002-12.6). The mean prescription dose of 17.8 Gy was delivered to the mean 61.1% isodose line. Among 264 metastases, 175 lesions were assessed for treatment response by at least one imaging follow-up. RESULTS: The overall median survival after GKRS was 9.1+/-1.7 months. Among various factors, primary tumor control was a significant prognostic factor (11.1+/-1.3 months vs. 3.3+/-2.4 months, p=0.031). The calculated local tumor control rate at 6 and 9 months after GKRS were 87.9% and 84.2%, respectively. Paddick's conformity index (>0.75) was significantly related to local tumor control. The actuarial peritumoral edema reduction rate was 22.4% at 6 months. CONCLUSION: According to our results, GKRS can provide beneficial effect for the patients with multiple (4 or more) brain metastases, when systemic cancer is controlled. And, careful dosimetry is essential for local tumor control. Therefore, GKRS can be considered as one of the treatment modalities for multiple brain metastase.


Subject(s)
Brain Edema , Brain , Breast , Edema , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prescriptions , Radiosurgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Burden
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-102135

ABSTRACT

The extraaxial presentation of medulloblastoma is a rare phenomenon. This article describes the case of 19-year old woman who presented with mild headache and nausea and was diagnosed with medulloblastoma. The tumor arose from the right cerebellar cortex, and it was misdiagnosed meningioma on the basis of radiological examination. We review the literature and discuss the such atypical presentation of medulloblastoma.


Subject(s)
Cerebellar Cortex , Female , Headache , Humans , Medulloblastoma , Meningioma , Nausea , Young Adult
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-87695

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We report an outcome of surgical treatment of the elderly patients with spinal stenosis, managed by a bilateral narrowed spinal canal widening technique through unilateral approach. METHODS: The operations were performed in 16 patients who diagnosed with spinal stenosis. All individuals had been presented with low-back pain, neurogenic claudication or radiculopathy and unresponsive to conservative treatment over six months. We perfomed hemi-laminectomy at the appropriate levels on the most symptomatic side preserving the facet joint. And the ligamentum flavum, as well as the cortical bone on the ventral surface of the contralateral laminae were removed. The spinous process was left as possible as we can, and the contralateral side of the spinal canal was decompressed completely. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 71 years. The mean operation time was 73 minutes. Despite of old age, the patients were able to walk in three days after the surgery. The significant pain scale improvement(7.73 to 2.68) and widening of the spinal canal diameter(7.60+/-1.75 to 17.77+/-1.47mm) were noted after the operation. No patient was presented spinal instability on their follow-up period over 24 months. CONCLUSION: The bilateral canal widening technique through the unilateral approach, minimizes the damage to the inter-spinous ligament and the inter-spinous muscle, and saves the operation time because it is not necessary to use the instruments which prevent spinal instability, despite spinal canal was sufficiently enlarged.


Subject(s)
Aged , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Ligaments , Ligamentum Flavum , Radiculopathy , Spinal Canal , Spinal Stenosis , Zygapophyseal Joint
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