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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898119

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890415

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adequate suppression of bone turnover rate is important to decrease fracture risk without mineralization defect due to oversuppression. This study was performed to determine reference intervals (RIs) for 2 bone turnover markers, serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and osteocalcin, in Korean women.METHODS: A total of 461 Korean women (287 premenopausal and 174 postmenopausal) without any disease or drug history affecting bone metabolism was included. Serum CTX and osteocalcin were measured after overnight fasting. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the 1st to 4th lumbar vertebra using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects with normal spinal BMD (T-score ≥−1.0) were included in this study.RESULTS: After stable concentrations were maintained, both CTX and osteocalcin were abruptly increased in 50 to 59 years, and then decreased with increasing age. Median levels and interquartile range of serum CTX and osteocalcin in all subjects were 0.322 (0.212–0.461) ng/mL and 15.68 (11.38–19.91) ng/mL. RIs for serum CTX and osteocalcin in all subjects were 0.115 to 0.861 ng/mL and 6.46 to 36.76 ng/mL. Those were higher in postmenopausal women (CTX, 0.124–1.020 ng/mL, osteocalcin, 5.42–41.57 ng/mL) than in premenopausal women (CTX, 0.101–0.632 ng/mL, osteocalcin, 6.73–24.27 ng/mL). If we use target reference levels as lower half of premenopausal 30 to 45 years in patients with antiresorptive drugs, those were 0.101 to 0.251 ng/mL and 6.40 to 13.36 ng/mL.CONCLUSIONS: We established RIs for serum CTX and osteocalcin in healthy Korean women with normal lumbar spine BMD. Premenopausal RIs for serum CTX and osteocalcin would be useful to monitor patients with low bone mass using osteoporosis drugs.


Subject(s)
Absorptiometry, Photon , Biomarkers , Bone Density , Bone Density Conservation Agents , Bone Remodeling , Collagen Type I , Fasting , Female , Humans , Metabolism , Miners , Osteocalcin , Osteoporosis , Reference Values , Spine
4.
Asian Nursing Research ; : 249-256, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897165

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aims of this study were to develop a new instrument for measuring self-management with a hierarchical structure [the Diabetes Self-Management Scale (DSMS)] in patients with type 2 diabetes, and evaluate its psychometric properties. @*Methods@#The DSMS instrument was developed in three phases: (1) conceptualization and item generation; (2) content validity and pilot testing; and (3) field testing of its psychometric properties. A convenience sample of 473 participants was recruited in three university hospitals and one regional health center, South Korea. @*Results@#Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded two second-order component models explaining the common variance among six first-order factors. Principal axis factoring with a varimax rotation accounted for 60.88% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis of the hierarchical structure revealed the following fit indices: χ2/df = 1.373, standardized root-mean-square residual = .050, goodness-of-fit index = .935, incremental fit index = .975, comparative fit index = .974, and root-mean-square error of approximation = .039. All Cronbach' α values for internal consistency exceeded the criterion of .70. All of the intraclass correlation coefficients for test–retest reliability exceeded .70 except that for the taking-medication subscale. The components of the DSMS were moderately correlated with the comparator measures of self-efficacy and health literacy administered for convergent validity. @*Conclusion@#The DSMS is a new instrument for measuring the complex nature of self-management in patients with type 2 diabetes, comprising 17 items scored on a five-point Likert scale. The DSMS exhibits satisfactory psychometric properties for five reliability and validity metrics, and so is a suitable instrument to apply in both research and clinical practices.

5.
Asian Nursing Research ; : 249-256, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889461

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aims of this study were to develop a new instrument for measuring self-management with a hierarchical structure [the Diabetes Self-Management Scale (DSMS)] in patients with type 2 diabetes, and evaluate its psychometric properties. @*Methods@#The DSMS instrument was developed in three phases: (1) conceptualization and item generation; (2) content validity and pilot testing; and (3) field testing of its psychometric properties. A convenience sample of 473 participants was recruited in three university hospitals and one regional health center, South Korea. @*Results@#Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded two second-order component models explaining the common variance among six first-order factors. Principal axis factoring with a varimax rotation accounted for 60.88% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis of the hierarchical structure revealed the following fit indices: χ2/df = 1.373, standardized root-mean-square residual = .050, goodness-of-fit index = .935, incremental fit index = .975, comparative fit index = .974, and root-mean-square error of approximation = .039. All Cronbach' α values for internal consistency exceeded the criterion of .70. All of the intraclass correlation coefficients for test–retest reliability exceeded .70 except that for the taking-medication subscale. The components of the DSMS were moderately correlated with the comparator measures of self-efficacy and health literacy administered for convergent validity. @*Conclusion@#The DSMS is a new instrument for measuring the complex nature of self-management in patients with type 2 diabetes, comprising 17 items scored on a five-point Likert scale. The DSMS exhibits satisfactory psychometric properties for five reliability and validity metrics, and so is a suitable instrument to apply in both research and clinical practices.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to identify the demographic and clinical factors associated with positive breath-test results and to assess the relationship between hydrogen and methane production in patients with suspected irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).METHODS: The demographic and clinical factors of 268 patients with suspected IBS, who had undergone a lactulose breath test, were analyzed.RESULTS: Of 268 patients included in this study, 143 (53.4%) were females. The median age and BMI of the patients was 58.0 years (range, 18.0–80.0 years) and 22.5 kg/m² (range, 14.4–34.3 kg/m²), respectively. A weak positive correlation was observed between the BMI and baseline hydrogen level (rho=0.134, p=0.031). Women were significantly more likely to show a ≥20 ppm increase in hydrogen within 90 min (early hydrogen increase, p=0.049), a ≥10 ppm increase in methane within 90 min (early methane increase, p=0.001), and a ≥10 ppm increase in methane between 90 min and 180 min (late methane increase, p=0.002) compared to men. The baseline hydrogen level was related to the baseline methane level (rho=0.592, p<0.001) and the maximal hydrogen level within 90 min was related to maximal methane level within 90 min (rho=0.721, p<0.001). Patients with an early hydrogen increase (43.8%) were more likely to show a positive result for an early methane increase compared to patients without an early increase in hydrogen (0%, p<0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Women were associated with high rates of positive lactulose breath-test results. In addition, methane production was correlated with hydrogen production.


Subject(s)
Breath Tests , Female , Humans , Hydrogen , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Lactulose , Male , Methane , Sex Characteristics
7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832341

ABSTRACT

Background@#Only few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#From March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated. @*Results@#In total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9± 14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, –1.1%±1.2%; P<0.001). The number of patients with HbA1c <7% increased significantly from 5 to 68 (P<0.005). In addition, lipid profiles and liver enzyme levels were also improved whereas no changes in body weight. There was no significant safety issue in patients treated with quadruple OHA therapy. @*Conclusion@#This study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Delayed gastric emptying (GE) is associated with high morbidity and mortality in subjects with diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between GE time and the major cardiovascular events (coronary heart diseases and ischemic stroke) in diabetic subjects with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) symptoms. METHODS: Among 259 subjects with chronic UGI symptoms who underwent gastric emptying study (GES) over 13 years, 122 diabetic subjects without gastric surgery and/or rapid GE were enrolled in this study. We also gathered data about baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, estimated GE half-time (GE T(1/2)) and incidence of cardiovascular events following GES. RESULTS: The mean age of subjects was 64.0 ± 17.4 years. There were 86 women and 104 subjects with type 2 diabetes. There were 52 (42.6%) subjects with normal GE, 50 (41.0.%) subjects with mild delayed GE, and 20 (16.4%) subjects with marked delayed GE. During follow-up (median, 207 weeks), cardiovascular events occurred in 7 (13.5%) subjects with normal GE, 4 (8.0%) subjects with mild delayed GE and 7 (35.0%) subjects with marked GE (P = 0.015). Univariate analysis showed that GE T(1/2) was significantly associated with incidence of cardiovascular events (crude OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.12–2.69; P = 0.014). In a multivariate model, association between GE T(1/2) and incidence of cardiovascular events remained statistically significant after adjustment for baseline characteristics and comorbidities (adjusted OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.21–3.12; P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: A delay of GE was associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular events in diabetic subjects with chronic UGI symptoms.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease , Demography , Diabetes Mellitus , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gastric Emptying , Heart Diseases , Humans , Incidence , Mortality , Stroke
9.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 249-255, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158828

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to determine the proportion of cancers presenting with parathyroid hormone (PTH) related protein (PTHrP)-mediated hypercalcemia, examine the clinical and biochemical characteristics, identify predictive factors for survival. And we also compared those characteristics between solid organ and hematologic malignancy groups. METHODS: Cancer patients with PTHrP-mediated hypercalcemia who were treated at Chonnam National University Hospital in Korea from January 2005 to January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Of all 115 patients, solid organ malignancies were the most common etiology (98 cases, 85.2%), with squamous cell carcinoma (50 cases, 43.4%), adenocarcinoma (27 cases, 23.4%). Interestingly, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; 18 cases, 15.7%) and cholangiocarcinoma (11 cases, 9.6%) were much more common causes than other previous reports. Hematologic malignancy was less common (17 cases, 14.8%), with multiple myeloma (9 cases, 7.8%) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (5 cases, 4.3%). Overall median survival was only 37 days. There was significant difference in median survival between two groups (35 days for solid organ malignancy and 72 days for hematologic malignancy; P=0.015). Cox regression analysis identified age, the type of malignancy and the time interval of developing hypercalcemia after cancer diagnosis as independent predictive factors for survival time. CONCLUSIONS: PTHrP-mediated hypercalcemia was most frequently caused by solid organ malignancy. However, HCC and cholangiocarcinoma were important causes of PTHrP-mediated hypercalcemia may be due to geographic differences in cancer incidence in Korean population. Age, the type of malignancy and the time interval of developing hypercalcemia after cancer diagnosis were independent poor predictive factors for survival time.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cholangiocarcinoma , Diagnosis , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , Hypercalcemia , Incidence , Korea , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Multiple Myeloma , Parathyroid Hormone , Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein , Retrospective Studies
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-154211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of obesity in Korean men with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) and the associated risk factors for obesity and hyperglycemia. METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively from medical records from 11 university hospitals in Korea between 1994 and 2014. Subjects aged ≥18 years with newly diagnosed KS were enrolled. The following parameters were recorded at baseline before treatment: chief complaint, height, weight, fasting glucose level, lipid panel, blood pressure, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, karyotyping patterns, and history of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. RESULTS: Data were analyzed from 376 of 544 initially enrolled patients. The rate of the 47 XXY chromosomal pattern was 94.1%. The prevalence of obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m²) in Korean men with KS was 42.6%. The testosterone level was an independent risk factor for obesity and hyperglycemia. CONCLUSION: Obesity is common in Korean men with KS. Hypogonadism in patients with KS was associated with obesity and hyperglycemia.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Dyslipidemias , Fasting , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Glucose , Hospitals, University , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Hypertension , Hypogonadism , Karyotyping , Klinefelter Syndrome , Korea , Luteinizing Hormone , Male , Medical Records , Obesity , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Testosterone
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30806

ABSTRACT

The simultaneous occurrence of renovascular hypertension and an aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma is a rare entity. Here, we report the case of a 52-year-old female who had a coexisting aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma and ipsilateral renal artery stenosis. She was diagnosed with the aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma and then underwent a laparoscopic left adrenalectomy. Her blood pressure was uncontrolled after the adrenalectomy. Selective renal angiography showed left renal artery stenosis; thus, she underwent balloon angioplasty at the same sitting. Subsequently, her blood pressure returned to normal after administration of a single antihypertensive drug. This case suggests that it is important to recognize the possible coexistence of renal artery stenosis in a patient with an aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Adrenalectomy , Adrenocortical Adenoma , Angiography , Angioplasty, Balloon , Blood Pressure , Female , Humans , Hyperaldosteronism , Hypertension, Renovascular , Middle Aged , Renal Artery Obstruction
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36356

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated the prevalence of electrolyte imbalance and the relationship between serum electrolyte and anterior pituitary hormone levels in patients with Sheehan's syndrome. METHODS: In a retrospective study, we investigated 78 patients with Sheehan's syndrome. We also included 95 normal control subjects who underwent a combined anterior pituitary hormone stimulation test and showed normal hormonal responses. RESULTS: In patients with Sheehan's syndrome, the serum levels of sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, magnesium, and inorganic phosphate were significantly lower than those in control subjects. The prevalence of hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypophosphatemia in patients with Sheehan's syndrome was 59.0% (n=46), 26.9% (n=21), 35.9% (n=28), 47.4% (n=37), and 23.1% (n=18), respectively. Levels of sodium and ionized calcium in serum were positively correlated with levels of all anterior pituitary hormones (all P<0.05). Levels of potassium in serum were positively correlated with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and growth hormone (GH) levels (all P<0.05). Levels of inorganic phosphate in serum were positively correlated with levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and GH (all P<0.05), and levels of magnesium in serum were positively correlated with delta ACTH (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Electrolyte imbalance was common in patients with Sheehan's syndrome. Furthermore, the degree of anterior pituitary hormone deficiency relates to the degree of electrolyte disturbance in patients with this disease.


Subject(s)
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Calcium , Electrolytes , Growth Hormone , Humans , Hypocalcemia , Hypokalemia , Hyponatremia , Hypophosphatemia , Hypopituitarism , Magnesium , Pituitary Hormones, Anterior , Potassium , Prevalence , Prolactin , Retrospective Studies , Sodium , Thyrotropin
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195165

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Many studies have demonstrated an association between hemoglobin levels and cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between hemoglobin concentrations and various clinical parameters, including metabolic factors, plasma C-peptide response after a meal tolerance test, and microvascular complications, in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In total, 337 male patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited. All subjects were subjected to a meal tolerance test and underwent assessment of hemoglobin levels, fasting and postprandial beta-cell responsiveness, and microvascular complications. RESULTS: Patients with lower hemoglobin concentrations had a longer duration of diabetes, a lower body mass index, and lower concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. They also had lower levels of postprandial C-peptide, Delta C-peptide, and postprandial beta-cell responsiveness. They had a higher prevalence of retinopathy and nephropathy. In multivariate analyses, there was a significant association between nephropathy and hemoglobin concentration. Also, hemoglobin concentrations were independently associated with Delta C-peptide levels and postprandial beta-cell responsiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Hemoglobin concentrations are associated with postprandial C-peptide responses and diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/metabolism , C-Peptide/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetic Nephropathies/blood , Diabetic Retinopathy/blood , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Humans , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Linear Models , Lipids/blood , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Postprandial Period , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-181915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: We investigated the associations among body mass index (BMI), insulin resistance, and beta-cell function in Korean patients newly presenting with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In total, 132 patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus were investigated. A standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed, and the indices of insulin secretion and insulin resistance were calculated. RESULTS: A higher BMI was associated with higher homeostasis model assessment values for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), homeostasis model assessment of beta-cell function (HOMA-beta), and insulinogenic index as well as lower levels of insulin sensitivity index composite (ISIcomp) and disposition index (DI). In multiple regression models, BMI had independent positive associations with HOMA-IR, ISIcomp, and HOMA-beta and inverse associations with the DI. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that BMI had independent positive associations with indices of insulin resistance and an inverse association with beta-cell function adjusted for insulin resistance in Korean patients newly presenting with type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
Asians , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Body Mass Index , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Female , Glucose Tolerance Test , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Humans , Insulin/blood , Insulin Resistance/ethnology , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Linear Models , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-190959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk is higher among people with diabetic nephropathy than among those with normal renal function. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality in type 2 diabetic patients. However, the relationship between carotid IMT and diabetic nephropathy is not well known. The aim of our study was to elucidate whether carotid IMT is associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: We recruited a total of 354 type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy. Renal function was evaluated by serum creatinine levels, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR). Carotid IMT was assessed using B-mode ultrasound by measuring generally used parameters. Baseline-to-study end changes in eGFR were calculated, and the yearly change of eGFR (mL/min/yr) was computed. RESULTS: Age, diabetes duration, ACR, and eGFR were significantly correlated with mean or maximal carotid IMT; however, lipid profiles, HbA1c, and blood pressure were not correlated. The mean yearly eGFR change was -4.9 +/- 5.3 mL/min/yr. The yearly eGFR change was negatively correlated with mean and maximal carotid IMT. After adjusting for age and diabetes duration, the mean IMT is an independent predictor of yearly eGFR change. CONCLUSION: Carotid IMT may be a predictor of diabetic nephropathy progression in patients with type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Creatinine , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Nephropathies , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-127853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but high cardiovascular risk in diabetes mellitus patients is not completely explained by clustering traditional risk factors. Recently, associations between diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) and macrovasculopathy have been suggested. We aimed to assess associations between DPN and cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: Microvascular and cardiovascular complications were evaluated in 1,041 type 2 diabetic patients. RESULTS: In patients with DPN, the age, prevalence of hypertension, diabetes duration, systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and hemoglobin glycation (HbA1c) levels were significantly higher, while the high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were lower than in those without DPN. The prevalence of CVD was higher in patients with DPN. In multivariate analysis, DPN was independently associated with CVD (odds ratio, 1.801; 95% confidence interval, 1.009 to 3.214). CONCLUSION: Our results showed that DPN was associated with a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients, but further studies are needed to investigate the causative nature of associations between DPN and CVD.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, HDL , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Neuropathies , Hemoglobins , Humans , Hypertension , Lipoproteins , Multivariate Analysis , NAD , Prevalence , Risk Factors
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-84333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Albuminuria is an early indicator of renal damage in type 2 diabetes mellitus, and has been recognized as a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The aim of this study was to assess the association between albuminuria and PAD in Korean type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: Our retrospective study included 390 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The ankle-brachial index (ABI) and toe-brachial index (TBI) were used to assess PAD. The urinary albumin-creatinine excretion ratio (UAE) was evaluated by determining the albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) in the first voided morning urine sample. RESULTS: Duration of diabetes, serum creatinine levels, and UAE were significantly higher in patients with low ABI scores ( or = 0.9). Age, duration of diabetes, and UAE were significantly higher in patients with low TBI scores ( or = 0.6). Albuminuria was independently associated with low ABI (OR = 1.980, 95% CI = 1.001-3.918). It was also independently associated with low TBI and normal ABI (OR = 3.149, 95% CI = 1.260-7.871). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that albuminuria may be associated with PAD, including in arteries distal to the ankle joint.


Subject(s)
Albuminuria , Ankle Brachial Index , Ankle Joint , Arteries , Creatinine , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Peripheral Vascular Diseases , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760747

ABSTRACT

The bone mass is known to be decreased in patients with type 1 diabetes, and this is primarily due to osteoblastic dysfunction. A number of epidemiologic studies have consistently shown a significantly higher risk of fractures in type 1 diabetic patients as compared to that of healthy subjects. The data on bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with type 2 diabetes has been inconsistent. However, many recent epidemiologic studies have shown that the osteoporotic fracture risk, and especially at the hip, is also increased in patients with type 2 diabetes, and even in patients with normal or higher BMD. Meanwhile, several studies have shown higher bone mass and a lower fracture risk in subjects with recent onset type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance with hyperinsulinemia. Poor bone quality and an increased risk of falling are thought to be important contributing factors for the higher fracture risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. Collagen overglycosylation by accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) is thought to be one of the possible mechanisms underlying poor bone quality. The risk of falling in patients with diabetes is increased due to hypoglycemia, visual impairment from retinopathy and cataracts, altered balance, gait problems due to neuropathy and foot ulcers, associated cardiovascular diseases and medication use. Insulin-sensitizing agents, such as thiazolidinediones, are also associated with a higher fracture risk through an increase in bone marrow adiposity and a decrease in osteoblastogenesis. Because diabetes and osteoporosis are highly prevalent chronic diseases in the aging population and the incidences are increasing worldwide, understanding the risk factors that predispose patients to such conditions is very important. On considering the potential mechanisms associated with bone metabolism, adequate glycemic control while minimizing the episodes of hypoglycemia is the most important first step in the medical management to prevent osteoporotic fractures in patients with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Adiposity , Aging , Bone Density , Bone Marrow , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cataract , Chronic Disease , Collagen , Diabetes Mellitus , Foot Ulcer , Gait , Glucose , Glycation End Products, Advanced , Hip , Humans , Hyperinsulinism , Hypoglycemia , Incidence , Osteoblasts , Osteoporosis , Osteoporotic Fractures , Resin Cements , Risk Factors , Thiazolidinediones , Vision Disorders
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 974-977, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-204144

ABSTRACT

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy with poor prognosis, and it can be classified as either a functional or nonfunctional tumor. Affected patients usually present with abdominal pain or with symptoms related to the mass effect or hormonal activity of the tumor. Several cases of spontaneously ruptured nonfunctional adrenocortical carcinoma have been reported, but no case of a spontaneous rupture of functioning adrenocortical carcinoma has been described. We report a functioning adrenocortical carcinoma that spontaneously ruptured during a work-up.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms/complications , Adult , Biopsy , Carcinoma/complications , Cushing Syndrome/diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Female , Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Hormones/metabolism , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Rupture, Spontaneous , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome
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