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1.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 944-949, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776688

ABSTRACT

A boy aged 6 years and 3 months developed upper respiratory tract infection and pyrexia 2 months ago and was given oral administration of nimesulide by his parents according to directions. Half an hour later, the boy experienced convulsions and cardiopulmonary arrest, and emergency examination found hypoketotic hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, significant increases in serum aminotransferases and creatine kinase, and renal damage. Recovery of consciousness and vital signs was achieved after cardiopulmonary resuscitation, but severe mental and movement regression was observed. The boy had a significant reduction in free carnitine in blood and significant increases in medium- and long-chain fatty acyl carnitine, urinary glutaric acid, 3-hydroxy glutaric acid, isovalerylglycine, and ethylmalonic acid, suggesting the possibility of multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. After the treatment with vitamin B2, L-carnitine, and bezafibrate, the boy gradually improved, and reexamination after 3 months showed normal biochemical parameters. The boy had compound heterozygous mutations in the ETFDH gene, i.e., a known mutation, c.341G>A (p.R114H), from his mother and a novel mutation, c.1484C>G (p.P495R), from his father. Finally, he was diagnosed with multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Reye syndrome and sudden death symptoms were caused by nimesulide-induced acute metabolic crisis. It is concluded that inherited metabolic diseases may be main causes of Reye syndrome and sudden death, and biochemical and genetic analyses are the key to identifying underlying diseases.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Male , Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase , Administration, Oral , Carnitine , Death, Sudden , Respiratory Tract Infections , Reye Syndrome , Sulfonamides
2.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 67-71, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279895

ABSTRACT

This study reports a boy with psychomotor retardation and epilepsy due to maternal phenylketonuria (PKU). The boy was admitted at the age of 20 months because of psychomotor retardation and epilepsy. He had seizures from the age of 1 year. His development quotient was 43. He presented with microcephaly, normal skin and hair color. Brain MRI scan showed mild cerebral white matter demyelination, broadening bilateral lateral ventricle and foramen magnum stricture. Chromosome karyotype, urine organic acids, blood amino acids and acylcarnitines were normal. His mother had mental retardation from her childhood. She presented with learning difficulties and yellow hair. Her premarriage health examinations were normal. She married a healthy man at age of 26 years. When she visited us at 28 years old, PKU was found by markedly elevated blood phenylalanine (916.54 μmol/L vs normal range 20-120 μmol/L). On her phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene, a homozygous mutations c.611A>G (p.Y204C) was identified, which confirmed the diagnosis of PAH-deficient PKU. Her child carries a heterozygous mutation c.611A>G with normal blood phenylalanine. Her husband had no any mutation on PAH. It is concluded that family investigation is very important for the etiological diagnosis of the children with mental retardation and epilepsy. Carefully clinical and metabolic survey should be performed for the parents with mental problems to identify parental diseases-associated child brain damage, such as maternal PKU.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pregnancy , Epilepsy , Intellectual Disability , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase , Genetics , Phenylketonuria, Maternal
3.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 426-430, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-261215

ABSTRACT

A one-year-old girl visited the hospital due to limb torsion and developmental regression for one month after hand, foot and mouth disease. At the age of 11 months, she visited a local hospital due to fever for 5 days and skin rash with frequent convulsions for 2 days and was diagnosed with severe hand, foot and mouth disease, viral encephalitis, and status epilepticus. Brain MRI revealed symmetric abnormal signals in the bilateral basal ganglia, bilateral thalamus, cerebral peduncle, bilateral cortex, and hippocampus. She was given immunoglobulin, antiviral drugs, and anticonvulsant drugs for 2 weeks, and the effect was poor. Blood and urine screening for inherited metabolic diseases were performed to clarify the etiology. The analysis of urine organic acids showed significant increases in glutaric acid and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, which suggested glutaric aciduria type 1, but her blood glutarylcarnitine was normal, and free carnitine significantly decreased. After the treatment with low-lysine diets, L-carnitine, and baclofen for 1 month, the patient showed a significant improvement in symptoms. Hand, foot and mouth disease is a common viral infectious disease in children, and children with underlying diseases such as inherited metabolic diseases and immunodeficiency may experience serious complications. For children with hand, foot and mouth disease and unexplained encephalopathy, inherited metabolic diseases should be considered.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors , Brain Diseases, Metabolic , Developmental Disabilities , Glutaryl-CoA Dehydrogenase , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease , Torsion Abnormality
4.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 172-175, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-346189

ABSTRACT

cblB defect is a rare type of methylmalonic aciduria. In this study, a Chinese boy was diagnosed with methylmalonic aciduria cblB type and a novel mutation in the MMAB gene. The clinical presentations, blood acylcarnitines profiles, urine organic acids and genetic features of the patient were reported. The boy presented with fever, feeding difficulty and lethargy at the age of 2 months. Seven days later, he had coma, cold limb, thrombocytopenia, metabolic acidosis and liver damage. His blood propionylcarnitine and urinary methylmalonic acid levels increased significantly, but the plasma total homocysteine level was in the normal range, which supported the diagnosis of isolated methylmalonic aciduria. Gene analysis was performed by direct sequencing. No mutation in the MUT gene was found. However, a reported mutation c.577G>A (p.E193K) and a novel mutation c.562G>A (p.V188M) in the MMAB gene were identified, which confirmed the diagnosis of methylmalonic aciduria cblB type. Progressive clinical and biochemical improvement has been observed after hydroxylcobalamin injection, protein-restricted diet with the supplements of special formula and L-carnitine. He is currently 3 years and 11 months old and has a normal development condition. The phenotypes of the patients with cblB defect are nonspecific. Metabolic analysis and MMAB gene analysis are keys for the diagnosis of the disorder.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Male , Alkyl and Aryl Transferases , Genetics , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors , Genetics , Mutation
5.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 1103-1106, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279959

ABSTRACT

Methylmalonyl CoA mutase deficiency due to MUT gene defect has been known as the main cause of isolated methylmalonic acidemia in Mainland China. This study reported a patient with isolated methylmalonic aciduria (MUT type) characterized as acute brainstem encephalitis and myelitis. The previously healthy girl presented with fever, lethargy and progressive weakness in her extremities at the age of 3 years and 2 months. Three day later, she had respiratory distress and consciousness. Cranial MRI revealed bilateral symmetrical lesion of pallidum, brain stem and spinal cord, indicating acute brainstem encephalitis and myelitis. Her blood propionylcarnitine (6.83 μmol/L vs normal range 1.0 to 5.0 μmol/L) and urinary methylmalonic acid (133.22 mmol/mol creatinine vs normal range 0.2 to 3.6 mmol/mol creatinine) increased significantly. Plasma total homocysteine was normal. On her MUT gene, a reported mutation (c.1630_1631GG>TA) and a novel mutation (c.1663C>T, p.A555T) were identified, which confirmed the diagnosis of methylmalonic aciduria (MUT type). After cobalamin injection, protein-restricted diet with the supplements of special formula and L-carnitine, progressive improvement has been observed. The clinical manifestation of patients with methylmalonic aciduria is complex. Metabolic study and gene analysis are keys for the diagnosis and treatment of the disorder.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Acute Disease , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors , Brain Stem , Pathology , Encephalitis , Methylmalonyl-CoA Mutase , Genetics , Mutation , Myelitis
6.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 624-628, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-254235

ABSTRACT

Menkes disease is a rare X-linked recessive disorder characterized by multi-systemic disorder of copper deficiency caused by ATP7A gene mutation. In this study, the clinical and laboratory features of three patients with Menkes disease were analyzed. Prenatal diagnosis had been performed for a fetus of a family. Three patients were admitted at the age of 8-9 months due to severe epilepsies and marked delayed psychomotor development. Significantly light complexion, pudgy cheeks and sparse fuzzy wooly hair were observed. On their cranial MR imaging, cortical atrophy, leukoencephalopathy, basal ganglia damage and tormesity of the intracranial vessels were found. Their plasma ceruloplasmin decreased to 70.2, 73.5 and 81 mg/L, significantly lower than normal range (210-530 mg/L). c.3914A>G (p. D1305G) was detected on ATP7A gene of case 1 and 2. A novel mutation, c.3265G>T (p.G1089X) was found in case 3. Both of them were firstly found in Chinese patients of Menkes disease. The mother of case 1 was tested at 20 weeks of pregnancy. Karyotype and ATP7A gene studies of the amniocytes were performed for the prenatal diagnosis of her fetus. Normal male karyotypes without c.3914A>G mutation on ATP7A gene was showed. Postnatal genetic analysis and normal development confirmed the prenatal diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Male , Adenosine Triphosphatases , Genetics , Cation Transport Proteins , Genetics , Copper-Transporting ATPases , Menkes Kinky Hair Syndrome , Diagnosis , Genetics , Mutation , Prenatal Diagnosis
7.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 62-66, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-345610

ABSTRACT

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. It is known that MTHFR deficiency may result in hyperhomocysteinemia, but MTHFR deficiency-induced schizophrenia has been rarely reported. Here we present the clinical course, biochemical and genetic characteristics of schizophrenia resulted from MTHFR deficiency in a school-age boy. He was 13 years old. He was admitted with a two-year history of fear, auditory hallucination, learning difficulty, sleeping problems, irascibility, drowsing and giggling. At admission, he had significantly elevated plasma and urine levels of total homocysteine, significantly decreased levels of folate in serum and cerebrospinal fluid, and a normal blood concentration of methionine. Further DNA sequencing analysis showed 665C>T homozygous mutations in the MTHFR gene. The patient was diagnosed with MTHFR deficiency-associated schizophrenia and treatment with calcium folinate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, and betaine was initiated. After the treatment for 1 week, his plasma and urine levels of homocysteine were decreased to a normal range and the clinical symptoms were significantly improved. After 3 months of treatment, the patient returned to school. He is now living with normal school life. In summary, children with late-onset MTHFR deficiency and secondary cerebral folate deficiency may lead to schizophrenia. This rare condition can be early diagnosed through analyses of blood and urine total homocysteine, amino acids in blood and folate in blood and cerebral fluid and successfully treated with folinic acid, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and betaine.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Male , Base Sequence , Homocystinuria , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2) , Molecular Sequence Data , Muscle Spasticity , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Psychotic Disorders , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Schizophrenia
8.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 909-914, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-288814

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Mitochondrial disease is a group of energy metabolic disorders, characterized by involvement of multisystem with high energy requirements. Encephalomyopathies are common clinical findings of the mitochondrial diseases. However, mitochondrial cardiac damage is not rare. In this study, the clinical, biological, and genetic analyses were performed in three patients with mitochondrial cardiac damage, in order to understand the characteristics of mitochondrial diseases.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Three girls presented with arrhythmia and cardiac enlargement from the age of 3, 4 and 8 years respectively. They were admitted into the Peking University First Hospital. Infection, autoimmune diseases, aminoacidopathies, organic acidurias, mitochondrial-fatty acid oxidation defects, and lysosomal storage disease were excluded by routine laboratory examinations and metabolic analysis for blood amino acids, acylcarnitines, urinary organic acids, and lysosome activity assay. Peripheral leukocytes mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme I to V activities were measured by spectrophotometry. The entire sequence of the mitochondrial DNA was analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>In two patients (case 1 and case 3), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and grade I to grade II of cardiac function were found. One patient (case 2) was diagnosed with arrhythmia and grade I of cardiac function. Increased creatine phosphokinase and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB were observed. Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex deficiencies were indentified in the three patients. Patient 1 had combined deficiencies of complex III and V. The activity of complex I+III was 18.7 nmol/(min·mg mitochondrial protein) (control 84.4 ± 28.5). The activity of complex V was 20.4 nmol/(min·mg mitochondrial protein) (control 103.7 ± 29.2). In her mitochondrial gene, A14693G on tRNA(Glu) and T16519C on D-loop were found. Patient 2 had an isolated complex I deficiency. The activity was 22.0 nmol/(min·mg mitochondrial protein) (control 44.0 ± 5.4). A16183C, T16189C and G15043A mutations on D-loop were found. Patient 3 had a combined deficiency of complex IV and V. The activity of complex IV was 21.0 nmol/(min·mg mitochondrial protein) (control 54.1 ± 12.3). The activity of complex V was 23.2 nmol/(min·mg mitochondrial protein) (control 103.7 ± 29.2). C253T and C16187T mutations on D-loop were detected. Haplotype analysis showed that three patients belong to H2a2a. Improvement was observed after the treatment with L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10, vitamin C and E. At present, the patients are 7, 5 and 8 years old. Although excise intolerance still persists, they had a good general condition with normal school life.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The mitochondrial diseases with cardiac damage show cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia and exercise intolerance. Many kinds of mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency were observed. A14693G in mitochondrial tRNA(Glu) gene is probably one of the causes in China.</p>


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Diagnosis , Genetics , Metabolism , Biomarkers , Blood , Urine , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic , Diagnosis , Genetics , Metabolism , DNA Mutational Analysis , DNA, Mitochondrial , Genetics , Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Mitochondria, Heart , Pathology , Mitochondrial Diseases , Diagnosis , Genetics , Metabolism , Mutation
9.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 241-246, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320674

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency is a common cause of mitochondrial disease in children. This study aimed to review the clinical, enzymatic and genetic characteristics of a Chinese boy with progressive intrahepatic cholestasis due to mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I deficiency. The boy developed diarrhea from the age of 13 months, followed by progressive body weight loss, jaundice and weakness. His urine organic acids, blood amino acids and acylcarnitines profiles were normal. Mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I to V activities in peripheral leukocytes were measured using spectrophotometric assay. Complex I activity was reduced. 5821G>A mutation was indentified by gene sequencing on tRNA-cys of mitochondrial gene in the patient and his mother. Vitamin supplements, liver protection, antibiotics and plasma infusion were not effective in the patient. Unfortunately, the boy died at the age of 17 months. Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I deficiency is the most common mitochondrial respiratory chain disorder. This was the first case of intrahepatic cholestasis due to complex I deficiency confirmed by mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activity assay and gene analysis in China. It was concluded that mitochondrial hepatopathy is one of major causes of metabolic hepatopathy. Biochemical assay, mitochondrial respiratory chain complex activities assay and genetic analysis are crucial for the etiological diagnosis of metabolic hepatopathy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Male , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Electron Transport Complex I , Mitochondrial Diseases
10.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 561-566, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-353918

ABSTRACT

This study reviews a case of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I deficiency due to the 10191T>C mutation in mitochondrial ND3 gene. The previously healthy boy progressively presented with blepharoptosis, weakness, epilepsy and motor regression at age 6 years. Elevated blood lactate and pyruvate were observed. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed symmetrical lesions in the basal ganglia. Leigh syndrome was thus confirmed. The protein from the mitochondria and genomic DNA of the boy and his parents was collected from peripheral blood leucocytes for the activity test for mitochondrial complex I to V and genetic analysis. The results showed the activity of complex I (33.1 nmol /min in 1 milligram mitochondrial protein) was lower than normal reference value (44.0±5.4 nmol /min in 1 milligram mitochondrial protein). The ratio of complex I to citrate synthase (19.8%) was also lower than normal reference value (48%±11%). The activities of complexes II to V were normal. 10191T>C mutation in ND3 gene of mitochondria was identified in the boy. 10191T>C mutation and complex I deficiency were not detected in his parents. At present, he is 16 years old, and of normal intelligence with spastic paralysis in both lower extremities after treatment. It is concluded that a Chinese boy with isolated complex I deficiency due to 10191T>C mutation in ND3 gene was firstly diagnosed by peripheral leukocytes mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme assay and gene analysis. This study can provide clinical data for the nosogenesis of Leigh syndrome.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Male , Brain , Pathology , Electron Transport Complex I , Genetics , Leigh Disease , Genetics , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mitochondrial Diseases , Genetics , Mutation
11.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 410-414, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-355954

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Methylmalonic aciduria is the most common disorder of organic acidurias in the mainland of China. It is also the one of treatable metabolic disorders. The clinical spectrum of the patients varies from severe neonatal-onset forms with neonatal brain injury and high mortality to milder forms with adult-onset. The clinical manifestations of neonates with methylmalonic aciduria are non-specific. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment contribute a lot to improving the prognosis of the patients. In this study, the abnormal clinical and laboratory findings in neonatal period of 160 Chinese patients with early-onset methylmalonic aciduria were investigated.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>From 1996 to 2011, a total of 398 patients with methylmalonic aciduria were diagnosed in our hospital; 286 (71.9%) patients had early-onset before 1 year of age. Among 286 patients, 160 (55.9%) presented symptoms in neonatal period. Their urine organic acids were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Blood amino acids and acylcarnitine profiles were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Serum and urine total homocysteine were measured using a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. In some patients, gene analysis was performed. Based on the disease types and general condition, individual dietary and medical interventions were started soon after diagnosis.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Out of the 160 patients, 131 (81.9%) had combined methylmalonic aciduria and homocysteinemia. Isolated methylmalonic aciduria was found in 29 cases (18.1%). The common presentations in neonatal period were feeding difficulty, seizures, lethargy and dyspnea. Megaloblastic anemia, liver dysfunction, hyperammonemia and metabolic acidosis were the frequent findings in the routine laboratory test. The most common initial clinical diagnosis was suspected hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Even in 36 cases with abnormal family history, only 3 patients were admitted with suspected inborn errors of metabolism. Five cases (3.1%) were diagnosed by postmortem metabolic examination; 7 cases (4.4%) were detected by newborn screening. In 148 cases (92.5%), the diagnosis was much delayed to the age of one month to 8 years and 5 months (mean 13 months). Methylmalonic aciduria combined with homocysteinemia (MMACHC) gene analyses were performed in 31 cases with combined methylmalonic aciduria. CblC defect was confirmed. The patients with isolated methylmalonic aciduria were treated with protein-restricted diet, cobalamin and L-carnitine. The patients of methylmalonic aciduria combined with homocysteinemia were treated with cobalamin, L-carnitine, calcium folinate, betaine and common diet. Seven patients died without treatment. Clinical improvement was observed in 153 patients. Only 2 patients detected by newborn screening had normal mental and physical development. Mild to severe psychomotor retardation was observed in 151 cases.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>High mortality and disability rates were observed in the patients with early-onset methylmalonic aciduria. Combined methylmalonic aciduria and homocysteinemia is the common type of methylmalonic aciduria. The clinical manifestation in neonatal period of the patients with early-onset methylmalonic aciduria is complex. Feeding difficulty, seizures, lethargy and dyspnea are the common symptoms in neonatal period of the patients. Megaloblastic anemia, liver dysfunction, hyperammonemia and metabolic acidosis were the frequent laboratory findings.</p>


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors , Diagnosis , Genetics , Therapeutics , Carnitine , Therapeutic Uses , China , Epidemiology , Folic Acid , Therapeutic Uses , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Homocysteine , Blood , Urine , Hyperhomocysteinemia , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Methylmalonic Acid , Urine , Neonatal Screening , Retrospective Studies , Vitamin B 12 , Therapeutic Uses
12.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 569-572, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-339592

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II deficiency is a rare documented cause of mitochondrial diseases. This study reported a case of Leigh syndrome due to isolated complex II deficiency. A boy presented with progressive weakness, motor regression and dysphagia after fever from the age of 8 months and hospitalized at the age of 10 months. Elevated blood levels of lactate and pyruvate were observed. Brain magnetic resonance image showed symmetrical lesions in the basal ganglia. Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I-V activities in peripheral leukocytes were measured using spectrophotometric assay. Mitochondrial gene screening of common point mutations was performed. The complex II activity in the peripheral leukocytes decreased to 21.9 nmol/min per mg mitochondrial protein (control: 47.3±5.3 nmol/min per mg mitochondrial protein). The ratio of complex II activity to citrate synthase activity (22.1%) also decreased (control: 50.9%±10.7 %). No point mutation was found in mitochondrial DNA. The boy was diagnosed as Leigh syndrome due to isolated complex II deficiency. Psychomotor improvements were observed after the treatment. The patient is 22 months old and in a stable condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Male , Diagnosis, Differential , Electron Transport Complex II , Leigh Disease , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Mitochondrial Diseases
13.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 848-852, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-356361

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the clinical and enzymological characteristics of the children with mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III deficiency.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The clinical manifestations of five patients (3 males, 2 females) were summarized. Spectrophotometric assay was used for the analysis of respiratory chain complex I to V enzyme activity in peripheral blood leukocytes, after obtaining venous blood.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>(1) Five patients were hospitalized at the age of 1 month to 15 years. Three patients had Leigh syndrome with progressive motor developmental delay or regression and weakness. One had severe liver damage and intrahepatic cholestasis. One presented muscle weakness. (2) Deficient complex I + III activity was identified in five patients. Their complex I + III activities in peripheral blood leukocytes were 3.0 to 14.2 nmol/min per mg mitochondrial protein (control: 84.4 ± 28.5 nmol/min per mg mitochondrial protein). The ratio of complex I + III to citrate synthase decreased to 3.5 to 22.9% (normal control 66.1 ± 14.7%). The activities of complex III decreased to 10.4 to 49.3% of the lowest control value, while complex I, II, IV and V activities were normal. The results supported the diagnosis of isolated respiratory chain complex III deficiency.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Complex III deficiency is a kind of disorder of energy metabolism with various manifestations. The complex I + III activities and the ratio of complex I + III to citrate synthase were lower than those of the control. The activities of complex I, II, IV and V were normal.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Electron Transport Complex I , Metabolism , Electron Transport Complex II , Metabolism , Electron Transport Complex III , Metabolism , Leigh Disease , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Mitochondrial Diseases , Diagnosis , Metabolism
14.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 392-395, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-308781

ABSTRACT

3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaric aciduria is a rare disorder of organic acid metabolism caused by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A lyase deficiency. The disorder was common in neonatal or infant period. Here a case of late onset 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric aciduria complicated by leucodystrophy was reported. The patient was a 7-year-old boy. He presented with progressive headache, drowsiness and vomiting. Hepatic lesions, ketosis and leucopenia were found. Symmetrical diffused leucodystrophy was shown by MRI. Blood levels of isovalerylcarnitine and acetylcarnitine increased significantly. Urinary levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric, 3-methylglutaconic, 3-hydroxyglutaric acids and 3-methyl-crotonylglycine increased significantly. Symptoms were released by intravenous infusion of L-carnitine and glucose. After treatment for 6 months, urinary levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric aciduria decreased in the boy and his health improved.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Male , Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors , Hereditary Central Nervous System Demyelinating Diseases , Diagnosis
15.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 216-219, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-255733

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) is the most frequent disease of organic aciduria in China. Various biochemical strategies are followed for the prenatal diagnosis of MMA. However, since fetuses affected by MMA have decreased excretion of methylmalonic acid, the difficulties of prenatal biochemical diagnosis are obvious. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS/MS) have allowed us to identify the disease in affected fetuses. The aim of this study was to determine the value of analysis of organic acids and total homocysteine in amniotic fluid in prenatal diagnosis of MMA.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The clinical diagnoses and outcomes of nine probands with MMA and the prenatal diagnoses based on biochemical analysis of nine fetuses at risk for MMA were investigated. Amniotic fluid samples from pregnancies at risk for MMA and metabolically normal pregnancies were obtained at 16 - 24 weeks of gestation. Methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid were measured by GC/MS, propionylcarnitine was analyzed by ESI/MS/MS, and total homocysteine was determined by fluorescence polarization immunoassay.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In two pregnancies, high levels of methylmalonic acid, methylcitric acid, propionylcarnitine, and total homocysteine indicated combined MMA and homocysteinemia in the fetuses. One of the mothers continued pregnancy and received cobalamin supplement as prenatal treatment, and the other terminated her pregnancy. In one pregnancy, significantly elevated levels of methylmalonic acid, methylcitric acid, and propionylcarnitine, and normal level of total homocysteine was found indicating isolated MMA in the fetus; abortion was performed on this case. In the other six pregnancies, all the levels of the above mentioned metabolites were normal suggesting that the fetuses were not affected by MMA. The diagnoses were confirmed after delivery by testing urinary organic acids and plasma total homocysteine.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The metabolic abnormalities of MMA occur early in gestation. The level of total homocysteine in amniotic fluid may be an additional indicator of fetal combined MMA and homocysteinemia. Determination of total homocysteine level in amniotic fluid may become a convenient and reliable method for prenatal diagnosis of the disease.</p>


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Amniotic Fluid , Chemistry , Carnitine , Citrates , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Homocysteine , Blood , Methylmalonic Acid , Urine , Prenatal Diagnosis , Methods , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
16.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 513-517, 2007.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311800

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) is a common one of the congenital disorders of organic acids metabolism. Some of the patients with the disorder are complicated with homocysteinemia. Recently, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) has been used to diagnose MMA in China. However, the diagnosis of the patients with combined MMA and homocysteinemia is often delayed. In this study, the natural history, clinical features and outcome of 57 Chinese patients with combined MMA and homocysteinemia were investigated.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>From 1996 to 2006, 96 MMA patients from 16 provinces or cities were diagnosed in our hospital by urine organic acids analysis using GCMS. Homocysteinemia was found by serum and urine total homocysteine determination using a fluorescence polarization immunoassay.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Fifty-seven of the 96 MMA patients (59.4%, 32 males and 25 females) were found to have combined MMA and homocysteinemia. They had markedly increased urine methylmalonic acid, total serum homocysteine (81.5 to 226.5 micromol/L vs. normal range 4.5 to 12.4 micromol/L) and urine homocysteine (79.1 to 414.5 micromol/L vs. normal range 1.0 to 25.0 micromol/L). Thirteen (22.8%) of them presented with symptoms resembled hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in the neonatal period. Fourteen (24.6%) patients had the onset at the age of one month to 1 year with mental retardation, vomiting and epilepsy. Nine (15.8%) showed developmental delay, seizures, poor appetite or anemia from the age of 1 to 3 years. Eighteen (31.6%) had psycho-motor degeneration at the age of 6 to 15 years. Among them, 7 patients experienced multiple organ dysfunctions with liver dysfunction, hematuria, renal failure and peripheral neuropathy. Three (5.3%) patients developed progressive mental degeneration, motor disorders and anorexia at the ages of 16, 24 and 34 years. Eleven (19.3%) patients ultimately died; 5 (8.8%) of them were diagnosed postmortem. Forty-six (80.7%) patients were treated with vitamin B12, folic acid, L-carnitine and betaine supplementation and 11 (19.3%) of them recovered completely.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Combined MMA with homocysteinemia is a common form of MMA in China. The clinical spectrum of the patients varies from severe neonatal-onset forms with high mortality to milder forms with adult-onset. Serum or urine total homocysteine analysis is important for the deferential diagnosis of the patients with MMA.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors , Anemia , Metabolism , Carnitine , Metabolism , China , Epidemiology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Homocysteine , Blood , Metabolic Diseases , Blood , Metabolism , Methylmalonic Acid , Urine , Urologic Diseases , Metabolism , Vitamin B 12 , Pharmacology , Vitamin B Complex , Pharmacology
17.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 331-334, 2005.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-289228

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the incidences of urea cycle defects (UCDs) in the patients with hyperammonemia and study their etiology, clinical and laboratory features.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In the past 7 years, 26 cases (10.2%) of UCDs were detected from 254 patients with hyperammonemia. The etiological diagnoses were made by blood amino acids analysis, urinary organic acid analysis and blood acylcarnitine profile analysis. Three patients with citrullinemia type II were further confirmed by liver pathological analysis and gene diagnosis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among 26 cases with UCDs, 15 had ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency, 5 had citrullinemia type I, 3 had citrullinemia type II and 3 patients had arginemia. The age of onset of the patients ranged from 3 days to 13 years. Three cases (11.5%) developed hyperammonemic encephalopathy during neonatal period. Thirteen (50.0%), 7 (26.9%) and 3 (11.5%) cases developed clinical symptoms at the age of 1 to 12 months, 1 to 3 years and 6 to 13 years, respectively. Positive family history was found in 11 cases (42.3%). Among 26 patients with UCDs, 9 (34.6%) were hospitalized with the complains of seizures, psychomotor retardation, vomiting and unconsciousness, 8 (30.8%) with recurrent vomiting, headache and coma, 6 due to liver dysfunction. Intrahepatic cholestatic jaundice was found in 3 patients with citrullinemia type II. Blood ammonia ranged from 58 to 259 micromol/L on their first visit to our hospital. Twenty cases (76.9%) had liver dysfunction, 4 patients (15.4%) were diagnosed postmortem. Twenty-one patients got treatment and were followed up. Among them, 7 cases died of hyperammonemic encephalopathy or upper alimentary tract bleeding. Clinical improvement was observed in 14 cases. A boy with OTC deficiency who received a partial liver transplant from his mother showed normal general condition for two years.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>UCDs are the most frequent causes of congenital hyperammonemia. In this study, 26 patients (10.2%) with UCDs were identified from 254 patients with hyperammonemia resulting in encephalopathy and liver dysfunction. Early diagnosis and treatment can contribute a lot to improve the prognosis of the patients. Blood ammonia assay and further etiological analysis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neurological and hepatic abnormality.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Ammonia , Blood , Follow-Up Studies , Hyperammonemia , Diagnosis , Genetics , Urea , Metabolism
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