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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Virtual environments have brought the use of realistic training closer to many different fields of education. In medical education, several visualization methods for studying inside the human body have been introduced as a way to verify the structure of internal organs. However, these methods are insufficient for realistic training simulators because they do not provide photorealistic scenes or offer an intuitive perception to the user. In addition, they are used in limited environments within a classroom setting.@*METHODS@#We have developed a virtual dissection exploration system that provides realistic three-dimensional images and a virtual endoscopic experience. This system enables the user to manipulate a virtual camera through a human organ, using gesture-sensing technology. We can make a virtual dissection image of the human body using a virtual dissection simulator and then navigate inside an organ using a virtual endoscope. To improve the navigation performance during virtual endoscopy, our system warns the user about any potential collisions that may occur against the organ's wall by taking the virtual control sphere at the virtual camera position into consideration.@*RESULTS@#Experimental results show that our system efficiently provides high-quality anatomical visualization. We can simulate anatomic training using virtual dissection and endoscopic images.@*CONCLUSION@#Our training simulator would be helpful in training medical students because it provides an immersive environment.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#To help medical students learn anatomy effectively in limited hours, a regional anatomy book enhancing students' memorization was developed.@*METHODS@#Only anatomical terms essential for basic cadaver dissection are included along with schematic figures which enable memorization of complicated anatomical structures. Learning comics and comic strips that depict anatomy mnemonics and jokes were appended and sentences were written to be comfortably readable. The electronic book titled “Visually Memorable Regional Anatomy” has been distributed without payment or registration. With the help of 246 volunteer students from three Korean medical schools, the book's learning effects were evaluated.@*RESULTS@#These students' book reading led to increase in their anatomy scores, including written examination scores and tag examination scores. It was an encouraging result that almost 20% of students spontaneously read the book no matter who presented their lecture or examination. A webpage version of the book was visited by thousands of users.@*CONCLUSION@#The book with unique features may suggest a new perspective in the field of anatomy learning. After having acquaintance with essential structures from reading the book, students are able to and willing to study more from other resources.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899818

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Virtual environments have brought the use of realistic training closer to many different fields of education. In medical education, several visualization methods for studying inside the human body have been introduced as a way to verify the structure of internal organs. However, these methods are insufficient for realistic training simulators because they do not provide photorealistic scenes or offer an intuitive perception to the user. In addition, they are used in limited environments within a classroom setting.@*METHODS@#We have developed a virtual dissection exploration system that provides realistic three-dimensional images and a virtual endoscopic experience. This system enables the user to manipulate a virtual camera through a human organ, using gesture-sensing technology. We can make a virtual dissection image of the human body using a virtual dissection simulator and then navigate inside an organ using a virtual endoscope. To improve the navigation performance during virtual endoscopy, our system warns the user about any potential collisions that may occur against the organ's wall by taking the virtual control sphere at the virtual camera position into consideration.@*RESULTS@#Experimental results show that our system efficiently provides high-quality anatomical visualization. We can simulate anatomic training using virtual dissection and endoscopic images.@*CONCLUSION@#Our training simulator would be helpful in training medical students because it provides an immersive environment.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899765

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#To help medical students learn anatomy effectively in limited hours, a regional anatomy book enhancing students' memorization was developed.@*METHODS@#Only anatomical terms essential for basic cadaver dissection are included along with schematic figures which enable memorization of complicated anatomical structures. Learning comics and comic strips that depict anatomy mnemonics and jokes were appended and sentences were written to be comfortably readable. The electronic book titled “Visually Memorable Regional Anatomy” has been distributed without payment or registration. With the help of 246 volunteer students from three Korean medical schools, the book's learning effects were evaluated.@*RESULTS@#These students' book reading led to increase in their anatomy scores, including written examination scores and tag examination scores. It was an encouraging result that almost 20% of students spontaneously read the book no matter who presented their lecture or examination. A webpage version of the book was visited by thousands of users.@*CONCLUSION@#The book with unique features may suggest a new perspective in the field of anatomy learning. After having acquaintance with essential structures from reading the book, students are able to and willing to study more from other resources.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831588

ABSTRACT

Background@#A book entitled “Visually Memorable Regional Anatomy (VMRA)” consists of extremely schematic figures as well as concise anatomic knowledge. On the other hand, in the Visible Korean (VK) project, three-dimensional surface models of 297 head structures have been reconstructed. The study's objective was to verify how the coexistence of the schematic figures and realistic surface models affected anatomy learning. @*Methods@#In the portable document format (PDF) file of VMRA, 19 pages of the surface models of the head from the PDF file of VK were embedded. The resultant PDF file was utilized as a learning tool of the medical students in two universities. @*Results@#The PDF file could be downloaded free of charge from anatomy.co.kr. The PDF file has been accessed by users from multiple countries including Korea, United States, and Hungary. In the PDF file, the surface models could be selected in any combinations, magnified, freely rotated, and compared to the corresponding schematics. The number of hours that the PDF file was used by medical students and the scores of written examination on the PDF file showed a low positive correlation in a university. The students replied that the combined PDF file was helpful for understanding anatomy and for doing cadaver dissection. They were also satisfied with the convenience of comparing the surface models and schematics. @*Conclusion@#The freely obtainable PDF file would be a beneficial tool to help students learn anatomy easily, interactively, and accurately.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831486

ABSTRACT

Background@#To properly utilize the sectioned images in a Visible Monkey dataset, it is essential to segment the images into distinct structures. This segmentation allows the sectioned images to be compiled into two-dimensional or three-dimensional software packages to facilitate anatomy and radiology education, and allows them to be used in experiments involving electromagnetic radiation. The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate the potential of the sectioned images using the segmented images. @*Methods@#Using sectioned images of a monkey's entire body, 167 structures were segmented using Adobe Photoshop. The segmented images and sectioned images were packaged into the browsing software. Surface models were made from the segmented images using Mimics. Volume models were made from the sectioned images and segmented images using MRIcroGL. @*Results@#In total, 839 segmented images of 167 structures in the entire body of a monkey were produced at 0.5-mm intervals (pixel size, 0.024 mm; resolution, 8,688 × 5,792; color depth, 24-bit color; BMP format). Using the browsing software, the sectioned images and segmented images were able to be observed continuously and magnified along with the names of the structures. The surface models of PDF file were able to be handled freely using Adobe Reader. In the surface models, the space information of all segmented structures was able to be identified using Sim4Life. On MRIcroGL, the volume model was able to be browsed and sectioned at any angle with real color. @*Conclusion@#Browsing software, surface models, and volume models are able to be produced based on the segmentation of the sectioned images. These will be helpful for students and researchers studying monkey anatomy and radiology, as well as for biophysicists examining the effects of electromagnetic radiation.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810948

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To help medical students learn anatomy effectively in limited hours, a regional anatomy book enhancing students' memorization was developed.METHODS: Only anatomical terms essential for basic cadaver dissection are included along with schematic figures which enable memorization of complicated anatomical structures. Learning comics and comic strips that depict anatomy mnemonics and jokes were appended and sentences were written to be comfortably readable. The electronic book titled “Visually Memorable Regional Anatomy” has been distributed without payment or registration. With the help of 246 volunteer students from three Korean medical schools, the book's learning effects were evaluated.RESULTS: These students' book reading led to increase in their anatomy scores, including written examination scores and tag examination scores. It was an encouraging result that almost 20% of students spontaneously read the book no matter who presented their lecture or examination. A webpage version of the book was visited by thousands of users.CONCLUSION: The book with unique features may suggest a new perspective in the field of anatomy learning. After having acquaintance with essential structures from reading the book, students are able to and willing to study more from other resources.


Subject(s)
Anatomy, Regional , Books, Illustrated , Cadaver , Education , Humans , Internet , Learning , Schools, Medical , Students, Medical , Volunteers
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Virtual environments have brought the use of realistic training closer to many different fields of education. In medical education, several visualization methods for studying inside the human body have been introduced as a way to verify the structure of internal organs. However, these methods are insufficient for realistic training simulators because they do not provide photorealistic scenes or offer an intuitive perception to the user. In addition, they are used in limited environments within a classroom setting.METHODS: We have developed a virtual dissection exploration system that provides realistic three-dimensional images and a virtual endoscopic experience. This system enables the user to manipulate a virtual camera through a human organ, using gesture-sensing technology. We can make a virtual dissection image of the human body using a virtual dissection simulator and then navigate inside an organ using a virtual endoscope. To improve the navigation performance during virtual endoscopy, our system warns the user about any potential collisions that may occur against the organ's wall by taking the virtual control sphere at the virtual camera position into consideration.RESULTS: Experimental results show that our system efficiently provides high-quality anatomical visualization. We can simulate anatomic training using virtual dissection and endoscopic images.CONCLUSION: Our training simulator would be helpful in training medical students because it provides an immersive environment.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gross anatomy and sectional anatomy of a monkey should be known by students and researchers of veterinary medicine and medical research. However, materials to learn the anatomy of a monkey are scarce. Thus, the objective of this study was to produce a Visible Monkey data set containing cross sectional images, computed tomographs (CTs), and magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of a monkey whole body. METHODS: Before and after sacrifice, a female rhesus monkey was used for 3 Tesla MRI and CT scanning. The monkey was frozen and sectioned at 0.05 mm intervals for the head region and at 0.5 mm intervals for the rest of the body using a cryomacrotome. Each sectioned surface was photographed using a digital camera to obtain horizontal sectioned images. Segmentation of sectioned images was performed to elaborate three-dimensional (3D) models of the skin and brain. RESULTS: A total of 1,612 horizontal sectioned images of the head and 1,355 images of the remaining region were obtained. The small pixel size (0.024 mm × 0.024 mm) and real color (48 bits color) of these images enabled observations of minute structures. CONCLUSION: Due to small intervals of these images, continuous structures could be traced completely. Moreover, 3D models of the skin and brain could be used for virtual dissections. Sectioned images of this study will enhance the understanding of monkey anatomy and foster further studies. These images will be provided to any requesting researcher free of charge.


Subject(s)
Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Brain , Dataset , Female , Haplorhini , Head , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Primates , Skin , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Veterinary Medicine
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765058

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The sectioned images of a cadaver head made from the Visible Korean project have been used for research and educational purposes. However, the image resolution is insufficient to observe detailed structures suitable for experts. In this study, advanced sectioned images with higher resolution were produced for the identification of more detailed structures. METHODS: The head of a donated female cadaver was scanned for 3 Tesla magnetic resonance images and diffusion tensor images (DTIs). After the head was frozen, the head was sectioned serially at 0.04-mm intervals and photographed repeatedly using a digital camera. RESULTS: On the resulting 4,000 sectioned images (intervals and pixel size, 0.04 mm³; color depth, 48 bits color; a file size, 288 Mbytes), minute brain structures, which can be observed not on previous sectioned images but on microscopic slides, were observed. The voxel size of this study (0.04 mm³) was very minute compared to our previous study (0.1 mm³; resolution, 4,368 × 2,912) and Visible Human Project of the USA (0.33 mm³; resolution, 2,048 × 2,048). Furthermore, the sectioned images were combined with tractography of the DTIs to elucidate the white matter with high resolution and the actual color of the tissue. CONCLUSION: The sectioned images will be used for diverse research, including the applications for the cross sectional anatomy and three-dimensional models for virtual experiments.


Subject(s)
Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Brain , Cadaver , Diffusion , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Female , Head , Humans , White Matter
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Volume models made from magnetic resonance images on computed tomographs can produce horizontal, coronal, sagittal, and oblique planes that are used widely in clinics, although detailed structures cannot be identified. Existing real color volume models are mostly commercial and their production methods have not been released. The aim of this study was to distribute free of charge, real-color volume models produced from sectioned images with the production method. METHODS: The original voxel size of sectioned images was increased appropriately so that the volume model could be handled by typical personal computers. By using Dicom Browser and MRIcroGL, the sectioned images were processed to become the volume models. RESULTS: On the MRIcroGL, the resultant volume model with the voxel size of 0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 mm3 could be displayed and freely rotated. By adjusting variables of the software, desired oblique planes could be produced instantly. With overlay function, a model of segmented structure can be overlapped to the entire volume models. The sectioned images with high quality and the segmentation data of Visible Korean enabled the identification of detailed anatomical structures on the planes. CONCLUSION: The volume models can be used by medical students and doctors for learning sectional anatomy. Other researchers can utilize the method of this study to produce volume models from their own sectioned images.


Subject(s)
Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Computer Simulation , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Learning , Methods , Microcomputers , Students, Medical , Visible Human Projects
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-176873

ABSTRACT

The thousands of serial images used for medical pedagogy cannot be included in a printed book; they also cannot be efficiently handled by ordinary image viewer software. The purpose of this study was to provide browsing software to grasp serial medical images efficiently. The primary function of the newly programmed software was to select images using 3 types of interfaces: buttons or a horizontal scroll bar, a vertical scroll bar, and a checkbox. The secondary function was to show the names of the structures that had been outlined on the images. To confirm the functions of the software, 3 different types of image data of cadavers (sectioned and outlined images, volume models of the stomach, and photos of the dissected knees) were inputted. The browsing software was downloadable for free from the homepage (anatomy.co.kr) and available off-line. The data sets provided could be replaced by any developers for their educational achievements. We anticipate that the software will contribute to medical education by allowing users to browse a variety of images.


Subject(s)
Body Image , Cadaver , Dataset , Education, Medical , Educational Status , Hand Strength , Learning , Stomach , Teaching , Visible Human Projects
13.
Mycobiology ; : 312-317, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729658

ABSTRACT

Orchidaceous plants have symbiotic relationships with endophytic fungi, including mycorrhizal fungi, which play important roles in the seed germination and growth of the host plants. In this study, endophytic fungal communities isolated from the roots of Cephalanthera longibracteata collected from three different sites in Korea were analyzed, and it was determined whether fungal communities were preferentially correlated with the sites. The fungal isolates were identified by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions of rDNA. In total, 30 species of endophytic fungi, including two species of mycorrhizal fungi belonging to the genus Tulasnella, were identified. Leptodontidium orchidicola showed the highest frequency and was isolated from all root samples. Species diversity and richness were not significantly different among sites. However, the community structure of the endophytic fungi significantly differed among sites, suggesting that the site characteristics affected the community composition of the endophytic fungi colonizing the roots of C. longibracteata. Our findings will aid in developing methods involving the use of symbiotic fungi for orchid conservation and restoration in native habitats.


Subject(s)
Colon , DNA, Ribosomal , Ecosystem , Fungi , Germination , Korea , Mycorrhizae , Sequence Analysis
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166615

ABSTRACT

For the surgical approach to lesions around the cavernous sinus (CS), triangular spaces around CS have been devised. However, educational materials for learning the triangles were insufficient. The purpose of this study is to present educational materials about the triangles, consisting of a schematic diagram and 3-dimensional (3D) models with sectioned images. To achieve the purposes, other studies were analyzed to establish new definitions and names of the triangular spaces. Learning materials including schematic diagrams and 3D models with cadaver's sectioned images were manufactured. Our new definition was attested by observing the sectioned images and 3D models. The triangles and the four representative surgical approaches were stereoscopically indicated on the 3D models. All materials of this study were put into Portable Document Format file and were distributed freely at our homepage (anatomy.dongguk.ac.kr/triangles). By using our schematic diagram and the 3D models with sectioned images, ten triangles and the related structures could be understood and observed accurately. We expect that our data will contribute to anatomy education, surgery training, and radiologic understanding of the triangles and related structures.


Subject(s)
Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Carotid Artery, Internal , Cavernous Sinus , Education , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Learning , Microsurgery , Neuroanatomy
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100417

ABSTRACT

We intended to determine that virtual endoscopy and laparoscopy of the stomach based on serially sectioned cadaver images is beneficial. Therefore, the outlines between the gastric wall and lumen were traced using the new female data of the Visible Korean to build a volume model. While the outlines were expanded at appropriate thicknesses, the stomach was observed endoscopically and laparoscopically in comparison with a chosen sectioned image. Four layers (mucosa, submucosa, muscular layer, and serosa) of the stomach were discernible by their proper colors in the sectioned images. All layers except the submucosa were identified in the endoscopic and laparoscopic views by using consistent colors. The stepwise expansion of the outlines revealed thickness of each layer as well as whether the thickness was uniform. Our ideas and the Visible Korean images could be a robust resource of virtual reality learning for medical students and clinicians.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cadaver , Female , Gastroscopy , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Laparoscopy , Models, Anatomic , Stomach/pathology
16.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 210-216, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-66344

ABSTRACT

The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed.


Subject(s)
Anatomy, Artistic , Education, Medical , Humans , Students, Medical , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159032

ABSTRACT

In the Visible Korean project, 642 three-dimensional (3D) surface models have been built from the sectioned images of a male cadaver. It was recently discovered that popular PDF file enables users to approach the numerous surface models conveniently on Adobe Reader. Purpose of this study was to present a PDF file including systematized surface models of human body as the beneficial contents. To achieve the purpose, fitting software packages were employed in accordance with the procedures. Two-dimensional (2D) surface models including the original sectioned images were embedded into the 3D surface models. The surface models were categorized into systems and then groups. The adjusted surface models were inserted to a PDF file, where relevant multimedia data were added. The finalized PDF file containing comprehensive data of a whole body could be explored in varying manners. The PDF file, downloadable freely from the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr), is expected to be used as a satisfactory self-learning tool of anatomy. Raw data of the surface models can be extracted from the PDF file and employed for various simulations for clinical practice. The technique to organize the surface models will be applied to manufacture of other PDF files containing various multimedia contents.


Subject(s)
Cadaver , Human Body , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Male , Models, Biological , Software , User-Computer Interface
18.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 128-135, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14603

ABSTRACT

Stereoscopic surface models of human organs can be manipulated in real time. This is a significant feature of an interactive simulation system used for clinical practice. Objective surface models are obtainable from the accumulation of each structure's serial outlines, followed by surface reconstruction. The segmented images including the outlines can be divided into outlined images, white-filled images, and color-filled images. The purpose of this study was to report the benefits of the three types of segmented images for surface reconstruction. For the raw data, sectioned images of a male cadaver head were used. In the sectioned images, 91 structures were delineated for the preparation of 234 serial outlined images. The outlined images were converted into white-filled and color-filled images; the reverse conversion was also possible. The outlined images, including the original sectioned images, could be the source not only of surface models but also of volume models. The white-filled images, with a minimal file size, were preferred for separate surface reconstruction of the individual structures. The color-filled images, which allowed for recognition of the entire outlined structures simultaneously, were regarded as a good choice for the construction of several surface models. For the process, we employed a variety of software packages including those for animation, where the images were compatible. This information can be used by other investigators to build their own three-dimensional models. In addition, the surface models of detailed structures in the head, accompanied by the corresponding sectioned and segmented images, will hopefully contribute to various simulations that can be useful to clinicians.


Subject(s)
Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Cadaver , Head , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Male , Models, Anatomic , Research Personnel
19.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 151-159, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159925

ABSTRACT

Unlike volume models, surface models, which are empty three-dimensional images, have a small file size, so they can be displayed, rotated, and modified in real time. Thus, surface models of male urogenital organs can be effectively applied to an interactive computer simulation and contribute to the clinical practice of urologists. To create high-quality surface models, the urogenital organs and other neighboring structures were outlined in 464 sectioned images of the Visible Korean male using Adobe Photoshop; the outlines were interpolated on Discreet Combustion; then an almost automatic volume reconstruction followed by surface reconstruction was performed on 3D-DOCTOR. The surface models were refined and assembled in their proper positions on Maya, and a surface model was coated with actual surface texture acquired from the volume model of the structure on specially programmed software. In total, 95 surface models were prepared, particularly complete models of the urinary and genital tracts. These surface models will be distributed to encourage other investigators to develop various kinds of medical training simulations. Increasingly automated surface reconstruction technology using commercial software will enable other researchers to produce their own surface models more effectively.


Subject(s)
Computer Simulation , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Male , Research Personnel , Urogenital System , Visible Human Projects
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-37920

ABSTRACT

The sectioned images (SIs) of the pelvis from a female cadaver are the best source of realistic three-dimensional (3D) models of the female urogenital system. The purpose of this research is to present SIs and outlined images of the female pelvis with improved quality, which may be used to produce 3D models to simulate virtual dissection or surgery of the female urogenital and adjacent structures. A pelvis of Korean female cadaver which preserved buttock curve was scanned with 3T MR and CT machines. The pelvis was embedded and milled at 0.1 mm intervals. All sectioned surfaces were photographed to create horizontal SIs. On the Photoshop, 73 structures were outlined in the SIs to create outlined images. Once the structures were outlined, volume and surface models of the structures could be produced. A total of 222 MRIs and 222 CTs of a female pelvis were obtained. 2,220 SIs of the pelvis were obtained (0.1x0.1x0.1mm3-sized voxels; 48 bits color). 222 outlined images of 73 structures were prepared at 1mm intervals. Once the structures were outlined, 3D volume and surface models of the structures were produced without the help of the computer programmers using MRIcro and Maya software. We have produced high quality SIs of the female pelvis accompanied by corresponding MRI and CT images. 3D volume and surface models of the female pelvic structures have been constructed. These computerized models may serve as the basis for future realistic medical simulation programs that may enhance clinical understanding of pelvic anatomy.


Subject(s)
Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Buttocks , Cadaver , Computer Simulation , Female , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pelvis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Urogenital System
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