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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e328-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001206

ABSTRACT

Background@#Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare hematologic disorder characterized by uncontrolled terminal complement activation. Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody C5 inhibitor was introduced in Korea in 2009 and has been the standard treatment option for PNH. @*Methods@#This study assessed the long-term efficacy/safety of eculizumab in PNH using real-world data from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Eighty patients who initiated eculizumab from 2009–2020 were enrolled. @*Results@#At eculizumab initiation, the median age was 51.5 years, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) 6.8 × upper limit of normal, and granulocyte clone size 93.0%. All patients had at least one PNH-related complication before eculizumab initiation, including renal failure (n = 36), smooth muscle spasm (n = 24), thromboembolism (n = 20), and pulmonary hypertension (n = 15). The median (range) duration of eculizumab treatment was 52.7 (1.0, 127.3) months (338.6 total treated patient-years). Despite high disease activity in the study population before treatment initiation, overall survival was 96.2% and LDH levels were stabilized in most patients during treatment. PNH-related complications at treatment initiation were resolved in 44.4% of patients with renal failure, 95.8% with smooth muscle spasm, 70.0% with thromboembolism, and 26.7% with pulmonary hypertension. Extravascular hemolysis occurred in 28.8% of patients (n = 23; 0.09 per patient-year) and breakthrough hemolysis in 18.8% (n = 15; 0.06 per patient-year). No treatment discontinuation cases related to eculizumab were observed. @*Conclusion@#These data provided evidence for the long-term efficacy and safety of eculizumab in Korean PNH patients with high disease burdens.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1355-1362, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999832

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This phase II, open-label, multicenter study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of a rituximab intensification for the 1st cycle with every 21-day of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP-21) among patients with previously untreated advanced-stage or bulky diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). @*Materials and Methods@#Ninety-two patients with stage III/IV or bulky DLBCL from 21 institutions were administered 8 cycles of R-CHOP-21 with an additional one dose of rituximab intensification on day 0 of the 1st cycle (RR-CHOP). The primary endpoint was a complete response (CR) rate after 3 cycles of chemotherapy. @*Results@#Among the 92 DLBCL patients assessed herein, the response rate after 3 cycles of chemotherapy was 88.0% (38.0% CR+50.0% partial response [PR]). After the completion of 8 cycles of chemotherapy, the overall response rate was observed for 68.4% (58.7% CR+9.8% PR). The 3-year progression-free survival rate was 64.0%, and the 3-year overall survival rate was 70.4%. Febrile neutropenia was one of the most frequent grade 3 adverse events (40.0%) and 5 treatment-related deaths occurred. Compared with the clinical outcomes of patients who received R-CHOP chemotherapy as a historical control, the interim CR rate was higher in male patients with RR-CHOP (20.5% vs. 48.8%, p=0.016). @*Conclusion@#Rituximab intensification on days 0 to the 1st cycle of the standard 8 cycles R-CHOP-21 for advanced DLBCL yielded favorable response rates after the 3 cycles of chemotherapy and acceptable toxicities, especially for male patients. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01054781.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 693-703, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976718

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#A three-drug combination of cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (CVD) shows significant efficacy and manageable toxicity as induction therapy in patients with multiple myeloma. @*Materials and Methods@#In this phase II study, we enrolled 45 patients who achieved a very good partial response (VGPR) or partial response (PR) after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of CVD consolidation. CVD consolidation comprised three cycles of cyclophosphamide 300 mg/m2 orally on days 1, 8, and 15, and bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 subcutaneously on days 1, 8, 15, and 22, along with dexamethasone 20 mg orally or intravenously on days 1 and 2, 8 and 9, 15 and 16, and 22 and 23. @*Results@#At enrollment, 39 patients (86.7%) showed VGPR, and nine (13.3%) presented with PR. Nineteen patients (45.2%) achieved a complete response or better as their best response after the end of consolidation. Overall, 22 of 42 patients (52.4%) experienced an improved response status with CVD consolidation. Three-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 89.0% and 42.7%, respectively. The most common non-hematologic toxicities were peripheral neuropathy and infection (20.5%), with no grade ≥ 3 neuropathy observed. @*Conclusion@#These results showed that CVD consolidation therapy improved the response with reasonable toxicity in patients with residual disease after ASCT. This trial was registered with the Clinical Research Information Service, Republic of Korea (KCT0001327).

4.
Journal of Rheumatic Diseases ; : 106-115, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967677

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study investigated the incidence and patterns of the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) after AAV diagnosis and searched for the predictors of ACS in a single-centre cohort of Korean patients diagnosed with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). @*Methods@#A total of 262 patients with AAV were included in this study. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI (NSTEMI), and unstable angina (UA) were defined as ACS in this study. Only ACS that occurred during or after AAV diagnosis was counted. @*Results@#The incidence of ACS in patients with AAV was 2.7% (7 patients), and the most common type of ACS was NSTEMI regardless of the affected site or the number of coronary arteries. Five patients with ACS were diagnosed with microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and all of them had myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA (or perinuclear [P]-ANCA), whereas the remaining two patients were diagnosed with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). Of the seven patients, 2 patients experienced ACS within the first year after AAV diagnosis, and 2 experienced ACS 5 years after AAV diagnosis. Among clinical variables, only the male sex was a predictor of ACS during the follow-up period in patients diagnosed with AAV. @*Conclusion@#The incidence of ACS was 2.7%, and the most common type of ACS was NSTEMI in Korean patients with AAV.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 325-333, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966481

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common hematologic malignancy worldwide. Although substantial improvement has been achieved by the frontline rituximab-based chemoimmunotherapy, up to 40%-50% of patients will eventually have relapsed or refractory disease, whose prognosis is extremely dismal. @*Materials and Methods@#We have carried out two prospective cohort studies that include over 1,500 DLBCL patients treated with rituximab plus CHOP (#NCT01202448 and #NCT02474550). In the current report, we describe the outcomes of refractory DLBCL patients. Patients were defined to have refractory DLBCL if they met one of the followings, not achieving at least partial response after 4 or more cycles of R-CHOP; not achieving at least partial response after 2 or more cycles of salvage therapy; progressive disease within 12 months after autologous stem cell transplantation. @*Results@#Among 1,581 patients, a total of 260 patients met the criteria for the refractory disease after a median time to progression of 9.1 months. The objective response rate of salvage treatment was 26.4%, and the complete response rate was 9.6%. The median overall survival (OS) was 7.5 months (95% confidence interval, 6.4 to 8.6), and the 2-year survival rate was 22.1%±2.8%. The median OS for each refractory category was not significantly different (p=0.529). @*Conclusion@#In line with the previous studies, the outcomes of refractory DLBCL patients were extremely poor, which necessitates novel approaches for this population.

6.
Blood Research ; : 36-41, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966441

ABSTRACT

Background@#The PLASMIC score is a convenient tool for predicting ADAMTS13 activity of <10%.Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is widely used as a marker of haemolysis in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) monitoring, and could be used as a replacement marker for lysis. We aimed to validate the PLASMIC score in a multi-centre Asia Pacific region, and to explore whether LDH could be used as a replacement marker for lysis. @*Methods@#Records of patients with thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) were reviewed. Patients’ ADAMTS13 activity levels were obtained, along with clinical/laboratory findings relevant to the PLASMIC score. Both PLASMIC scores and PLASMIC-LDH scores, in which LDH replaced traditional lysis markers, were calculated. We generated a receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve and compared the area under the curve values (AUC) to determine the predictive ability of each score. @*Results@#46 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, of which 34 had ADAMTS13 activity levels of <10%. When the patients were divided into intermediate-to-high risk (scores 5‒7) and low risk (scores 0‒4), the PLASMIC score showed a sensitivity of 97.1% and specificity of 58.3%, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 86.8% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 87.5%. The PLASMIC-LDH score had a sensitivity of 97.1% and specificity of 33.3%, with a PPV of 80.5% and NPV of 80.0%. @*Conclusion@#Our study validated the utility of the PLASMIC score, and demonstrated PLASMIC-LDH as a reasonable alternative in the absence of traditional lysis markers, to help identify high-risk patients for treatment via plasma exchange.

7.
Korean Journal of Blood Transfusion ; : 32-38, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926586

ABSTRACT

The Rh blood group system has C, D, E, c, and e as the main antigens, but ce(f) has been reported as a compound antigen. Anti-f(ce) is an unexpected antibody (Ab) against the ce(f) compound antigen. This paper reports a case with anti-f(ce) and anti-M Abs in a patient with liver cirrhosis. A 47-year-old male patient was repeatedly admitted to hospital due to recurrent hepatic encephalopathy. He showed disorientation and was admitted. A packed red blood cells (pRBCs) transfusion was required, and Ab identification test identified anti-f(ce) and anti-M Abs. Anti-f(ce) Ab can cause fetal neonatal hemolytic disease and a clinically serious hemolytic transfusion reaction (HTR), and anti-M Ab can cause a HTR when it reacts at 37℃. RBCs with Rh haplotype of CDe and negative for M antigen were transfused to the patient. There was no HTR. The possibility of an anti-f(ce) Ab was not considered when an unexpected Ab screening/identification test was performed. It was simply reported as an ‘unknown alloantibody’. Therefore, laboratory physicians should consider Abs to the Rh compound antigen when Abs to Rh antigens are identified, and efforts should be made to identify them to gain basic knowledge about Abs against Rh compound antigens.

8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 613-620, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925674

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Event-free survival at 24 months (EFS24) is known to be a surrogate marker for overall survival (OS) for patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). We examined the role of EFS24 in PTCL compared to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and then assessed the clinical predictive factors of achieving EFS24. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients with newly diagnosed PTCL treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy were included. Subsequent OS was defined as the time elapsed from 24 months after diagnosis until death from any cause in those who achieved EFS24. @*Results@#Overall, 153 patients were evaluated, and 51 patients (33.3%) achieved EFS24. Patients who achieved EFS24 showed superior OS compared to patients who did not (p < 0.001). EFS24 could stratify the subsequent OS although it did not reach to that of the general population. After matching the PTCL group to the DLBCL group based on the international prognostic index, the subsequent OS in patients who achieved EFS24 was similar between the two groups (p=0.094). Advanced stage was a significant factor to predict the failing EFS24 by multivariable analysis (p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#Patients with PTCL who achieve EFS24 could have a favorable subsequent OS. Since advanced disease stage is a predictor of EFS24 failure, future efforts should focus on developing novel therapeutic strategies for PTCL patients presenting with advanced disease.

9.
Blood Research ; : 20-28, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925647

ABSTRACT

Despite the availability of therapies to treat patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), there is currently little data from randomized trials to assist clinicians in managing patients. The evidence-based guidelines of the Korean Society of Hematology Aplastic Anemia Working Party (KSHAAWP) are intended to support patients and physicians in the management of ITP. Experts from the KSHAAWP discussed and described this guideline according to the current treatment situation for ITP in Korea and finalized the guidelines. The expert panel recommended the management of ITP in adult and pediatric patients with newly diagnosed, persistent, and chronic disease refractory to first-line therapy with minor bleeding. Management approaches include observation and administration of corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, anti-D immunoglobulin, and thrombopoietin receptor agonists. Currently, evidence supporting strong recommendations for various management approaches is lacking. Therefore, a large focus was placed on shared decision-making, especially regarding second-line treatment.

10.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1181-1189, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903727

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Febrile neutropenia (FN) interferes with the proper chemotherapy dose density or intensity in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) patients. Chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) ± rituximab has an intermediate FN risk. Prophylactic granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) support is recommended for patients with other host-related risk factors. @*Methods@#We evaluated the risk factors for FN-related admission in NHL patients who have received primary G-CSF (lenograstim) prophylaxis. @*Results@#Data from 148 patients were analyzed. The incidence of neutropenic fever was 96 events (12.2%), and the median period was 3.85 days (range, 0 to 5.9); the median duration of neutropenia was 4.21 days (range, 3.3 to 5.07). Eighty-three FN-related admissions were reported. Advanced age (> 60 years), female sex, a low albumin level, and prednisone use were associated with FN-related admission in multivariable analysis (p = 0.010, p < 0.001, and p = 0.010, respectively). A comparison between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with R-CHOP and pegylated G-CSF and those treated with R-CHOP and lenograstim did not reveal significant differences in the FN-related admission rate between the two groups, although the lenograstim-treated group had a higher incidence of severe neutropenia. @*Conclusions@#Elderly patients, female patients, and patients with low albumin levels need to be actively followed-up for FN even when primary prophylaxis with G-CSF has been used.

11.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 866-874, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901665

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#It is crucial to understand the exact public health burden of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) cases; this is presently unknown since sufficient episodes are not reported in registry studies. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiologic features and outcomes of non-traumatic OHCA. @*Methods@#During January 2008 to December 2017, we enrolled 387,665 patients who had been assigned a code for sudden cardiac arrest or had undergone cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the emergency room using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Those whose arrest was of non-cardiac origin were excluded. @*Results@#The incidence of OHCA per 100,000 patients increased steadily from 48.2 in 2008 to, 53.8 in 2011, 60.1 in 2014, and 66.7 in 2017, with a 1-year survival rate of 8.2%. Age and sex-adjusted mortality rates showed a decreasing trend. The hazard ratio was 1.0015 in 2009, 0.9865 in 2012, 0.9769 in 2015, and 0.9629 in 2017 (p for trend <0.0001), with coronary artery disease-related OHCA accounting for 59.8% of the total. Subgroups with coronary artery disease-related OHCA were more likely to be older and have a higher prevalence of all related comorbidities, excluding malignancy, than those with non-coronary artery disease-related OHCA. @*Conclusions@#This nationwide population-based study showed that the incidence of OHCA in Korea had increased during the last decade. The post OHCA 1-year mortality rate showed a poor outcome but improved gradually.

12.
Blood Research ; : 243-251, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913728

ABSTRACT

Background@#Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common type of adult leukemia in Western countries but is rare in the East Asian countries. Due to its rarity and the lack of feasible novel agents and laboratory prognostic tools, there are limited data on the clinical outcomes of this disease in Asia. To clarify the current treatment status, we performed a multicenter retrospective analysis of patients with CLL in Korea. @*Methods@#The medical records of 192 eligible patients between 2008 and 2019 were reviewed for clinical characteristics, treatment courses, and outcomes. The first-line treatment regimens of the patients included in this analysis were as follows: fludarabine/cyclophosphamide/rituximab (FCR) (N=117, 52.7%), obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil (GC) (N=30, 13.5%), and chlorambucil monotherapy (N=24, 10.8%). @*Results@#The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 55.6 months, and the average 2-year PFS rate was 80.3%. PFS was not significantly different between the patients receiving FCR and those receiving GC; however, chlorambucil treatment was associated with significantly inferior PFS (P <0.001). The median overall survival was 136.3 months, and the average 5- and 10-year OS rates were 82.0% and 57.4%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#This is one of the largest studies involving Korean patients with CLL. Although the patients had been treated with less favored treatment regimens, the outcomes were not different from those reported in Western studies.

13.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : S245-S252, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875504

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although the use of surveillance 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is discouraged in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, its usefulness in different subtypes has not been thoroughly investigated. @*Methods@#We retrospectively evaluated 157 patients who showed positive results on surveillance FDG-PET/CT every 6 months following complete response for up to 5 years. All of the patients also underwent biopsies. @*Results@#Seventy-eight (49.6%) of 157 patients had true positive results; the remaining 79 (50.3%), including eight (5.1%) with secondary malignancies, were confirmed to yield false positive results. Among the 78 patients with true positive results, the disease in seven (8.9%) had transformed to a different subtype. The positive predictive value (PPV) of FDG-PET/CT for aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) was lower than that for indolent B-cell or aggressive T-cell NHL (p = 0.003 and p = 0.018, respectively), especially in patients with a low/low-intermediate international prognostic index (IPI) upon a positive PET/CT finding. On the other hand, indolent B-cell and aggressive T-cell NHL patients showed PPVs of > 60%, including those with low/low-intermediate secondary IPIs. @*Conclusions@#The role of FDG-PET/CT surveillance is limited, and differs according to the lymphoma subtype. FDG-PET/CT may be useful in detecting early relapse in patients with aggressive T-cell NHL, including those with low/low-intermediate risk secondary IPI; as already known, FDG-PET/CT has no role in aggressive B-cell NHL. Repeat biopsy should be performed to discriminate relapse or transformation from false positive findings in patients with positive surveillance FDG-PET/CT results.

14.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : S90-S98, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875491

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We investigated the impact of obesity on the clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). @*Methods@#We included South Koreans aged > 20 years who underwent the Korean National Health Screening assessment between 2009 and 2012. Obesity was defined using the body mass index (BMI), according to the World Health Organization’s recommendations. Abdominal obesity was defined using the waist circumference (WC), as defined by the Korean Society for Obesity. The odds and hazard ratios in all-cause mortality were calculated after adjustment for multiple covariates. Patients were followed up to the end of 2017. @*Results@#Among 130,490 subjects who underwent PCI, the mean age negatively correlated with BMI. WC, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels correlated with the increased BMI. The mortality rates were higher in the lower BMI and WC groups than the higher BMI and WC groups. The non-obese with abdominal obesity group showed a mortality rate of 2.11 per 1,000 person-years. Obese with no abdominal obesity group had the lowest mortality rate (0.88 per 1,000 person-years). The mortality showed U-shaped curve with a cut-off value of 29 in case of BMI and 78 cm of WC. @*Conclusions@#The mortality showed U-shaped curve and the cut-off value of lowest mortality was 29 in case of BMI and 78 cm of WC. The abdominal obesity may be associated with poor prognosis in Korean patients who underwent PCI.

15.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 194-204, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875447

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Compared with Western countries, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) rarely occurs in Asia and has different clinical characteristics. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes, and prognostic significance of Korean patients with CLL. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 90 patients with CLL who had received chemotherapy at 6 centers in Korea between 2000 and 2012. @*Results@#Compared with Western patients with CLL, Korean patients with CLL express lambda (42.0%) and atypical markers such as CD22 and FMC7 (76.7% and 40.0%, respectively) more frequently. First-line chemotherapy regimens included chlorambucil (n = 43), fludarabine and cyclophosphamide (FC) (n = 20), fludarabine (n = 13), rituximab-FC (n = 4). The remaining patients were treated with other various regimens (n = 10). The 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 79.3% and 28.1%, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that hyperleukocytosis (≥ 100 × 103/μL), extranodal involvement, and the Binet C stage were significant negative prognostic factors for OS (hazard ratio [HR] 4.75, p = 0.039; HR 21.6, p = 0.002; and HR 4.35, p = 0.034, respectively). Cytogenetic abnormalities including complex karyotypes (≥ 3), del(11q), and del(17) had a significantly adverse impact on both OS and PFS (p < 0.001 and p = 0.010, respectively). @*Conclusions@#Initial hyperleukocytosis, extranodal involvement, complex karyotype, del(17) and del(11q) need to be considered in the risk stratification system for CLL.

16.
Blood Research ; : 6-16, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874333

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis, is a condition characterized by abnormal blood clot formation in the pulmonary arteries and the deep venous vasculature. It is often serious and sometimes even fatal if not promptly and appropriately treated. Moreover, the later consequences of VTE may result in reduced quality of life. The treatment of VTE depends on various factors, including the type, cause, and patient comorbidities. Furthermore, bleeding may occur as a side effect of VTE treatment. Thus, it is necessary to carefully weigh the benefits versus the risks of VTE treatment and to actively monitor patients undergoing treatment. Asian populations are known to have lower VTE incidences than Western populations, but recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence of VTE in Asia. A variety of treatment options are currently available owing to the introduction of direct oral anticoagulants.The current VTE treatment recommendation is based on evidence from previous studies, but it should be applied with careful consideration of the racial, genetic, and social characteristics in the Korean population.

17.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1181-1189, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896023

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Febrile neutropenia (FN) interferes with the proper chemotherapy dose density or intensity in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) patients. Chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) ± rituximab has an intermediate FN risk. Prophylactic granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) support is recommended for patients with other host-related risk factors. @*Methods@#We evaluated the risk factors for FN-related admission in NHL patients who have received primary G-CSF (lenograstim) prophylaxis. @*Results@#Data from 148 patients were analyzed. The incidence of neutropenic fever was 96 events (12.2%), and the median period was 3.85 days (range, 0 to 5.9); the median duration of neutropenia was 4.21 days (range, 3.3 to 5.07). Eighty-three FN-related admissions were reported. Advanced age (> 60 years), female sex, a low albumin level, and prednisone use were associated with FN-related admission in multivariable analysis (p = 0.010, p < 0.001, and p = 0.010, respectively). A comparison between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with R-CHOP and pegylated G-CSF and those treated with R-CHOP and lenograstim did not reveal significant differences in the FN-related admission rate between the two groups, although the lenograstim-treated group had a higher incidence of severe neutropenia. @*Conclusions@#Elderly patients, female patients, and patients with low albumin levels need to be actively followed-up for FN even when primary prophylaxis with G-CSF has been used.

18.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 866-874, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893961

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#It is crucial to understand the exact public health burden of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) cases; this is presently unknown since sufficient episodes are not reported in registry studies. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiologic features and outcomes of non-traumatic OHCA. @*Methods@#During January 2008 to December 2017, we enrolled 387,665 patients who had been assigned a code for sudden cardiac arrest or had undergone cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the emergency room using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Those whose arrest was of non-cardiac origin were excluded. @*Results@#The incidence of OHCA per 100,000 patients increased steadily from 48.2 in 2008 to, 53.8 in 2011, 60.1 in 2014, and 66.7 in 2017, with a 1-year survival rate of 8.2%. Age and sex-adjusted mortality rates showed a decreasing trend. The hazard ratio was 1.0015 in 2009, 0.9865 in 2012, 0.9769 in 2015, and 0.9629 in 2017 (p for trend <0.0001), with coronary artery disease-related OHCA accounting for 59.8% of the total. Subgroups with coronary artery disease-related OHCA were more likely to be older and have a higher prevalence of all related comorbidities, excluding malignancy, than those with non-coronary artery disease-related OHCA. @*Conclusions@#This nationwide population-based study showed that the incidence of OHCA in Korea had increased during the last decade. The post OHCA 1-year mortality rate showed a poor outcome but improved gradually.

19.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 371-381, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938658

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal gammopathy (MG) encompasses a diverse group of disorders characterized by the secretion of monoclonal immunoglobulins or their light-chain components. The incidence of multiple myeloma (MM) in South Korea is rapidly increasing, and it is important to be aware of its initial clinical presentations and the most efficient laboratory algorithms for early detection. Serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) and urine protein electrophoresis (UPE) are the primary screening tests for patients with clinically suspected MM or amyloid light-chain amyloidosis; these tests are reimbursed in South Korea. We reviewed clinical studies that applied national and international guidelines to evaluate test panels for early detection of MGs, including MM. The serum free light chain (sFLC) with SPE panel is recommended for the initial work up for diagnosis of MGs. In the case of a normal SPE, sFLC should be measured subsequently, so as not to miss the presence of M-protein. Use of this screening panel avoids medical expenses related to delayed diagnosis. Guidelines and recommendations suggest that no single method (SPE, serum immunofixation electrophoresis, sFLC, or UPE) should be used to exclude a diagnosis of MM. We believe that a screening test panel comprising SPE plus sFLC will increase the rate of early and accurate diagnosis of MM and related disorders.

20.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 330-333, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902673

ABSTRACT

Hu5F9-G4, an immunoglobulin 4 (IgG4) monoclonal humanized antibody targeting CD47, is under active clinical trials as a novel immunotherapeutic for hematologic and solid malignancies and can cause pretransfusion testing interference. In this study, we demonstrate our first experience of Hu5F9-G4 interference with serologic testing and mitigate this interference through multiple platelet alloadsorption. A 69-year-old woman with a history of ureter cancer presented with anemia. On routine blood group typing, the patient showed strong agglutination (4+) with anti-A, A, and B cells. Unexpectedly, antibody screening and identification showed panreactivity to all panel cells, although the autocontrol result was negative. Medical records revealed that she was enrolled in an anti-CD47 clinical trial. To eliminate interference by the drug, we attempted alloadsorption using pooled platelets that were prepared from segments of random single donor platelets. After seven alloadsorption sessions using pooled allogeneic platelets, the ABO discrepancy and panreactivity was resolved. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of anti-CD47 interference elimination in Korea.

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