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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874372

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) and targeted small-molecule drugs are mainstay elements of lung cancer chemotherapy. However, they are associated with development of pneumonitis, a rare, but potentially life-threatening event. We analyzed lung cancer patients treated with ICI to evaluate the effect of sequential therapeutic administration on the incidence of pneumonitis. @*Materials and Methods@#In this retrospective study, 242 patients were included. Serial radiologic findings taken during and immediately after ICI treatment were reviewed. Factors that increased pneumonitis and the relationship between peri-ICI chemotherapy and the development of pneumonitis were evaluated. @*Results@#Pneumonitis developed in 23 patients (9.5%); severe pneumonitis (grade ≥ 3) occurred in 13 of 23 patients (56%); pneumonitis-related death occurred in six. High-dose thoracic radiation (≥ 6,000 cGy) revealed a tendency toward high risk of pneumonitis (odds ratio, 2.642; 95% confidence interval, 0.932 to 7.490; p=0.068). Among 149 patients followed for ≥ 8 weeks after the final ICI dose, more patients who received targeted agents within 8-weeks post-ICI experienced pneumonitis (3/16, 18.8%) compared with patients who received cytotoxic agents (4/54, 7.4%) or no chemotherapy (4/79, 5.1%) (p=0.162). Targeted therapy was associated with earlier-onset pneumonitis than treatment with cytotoxic agents (35 vs. 62 days post-ICI, p=0.007); the resulting pneumonitis was more severe (grade ≥ 3, 100% vs. 0%, p=0.031). @*Conclusion@#Sequential administration of small-molecule targeted agents immediately after ICI may increase the risk of severe pneumonitis. The sequence of chemotherapy regimens that include ICI and targeted agents should be carefully planned to reduce the risk of pneumonitis in lung cancer patients.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874368

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Squamous cell carcinomas (SqCC) of the lung often express high levels of thymidylate synthase (TS), which is associated with primary resistance to pemetrexed. We explored the efficacy of pemetrexed in a selected population of patients with lung SqCC with low TS expression. @*Materials and Methods@#In this single-arm phase II trial, we enrolled 32 previously-treated patients with advanced lung SqCC exhibiting low immunohistochemical staining for TS (i.e., in 10% or less of tumor cells). The primary endpoint was 12-week progression-free survival (PFS) rate. @*Results@#Of 32 patients, eight patients (25%) had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2, and seven patients (22%) had previously received three or more lines of chemotherapy. The disease control rate from pemetrexed treatment was 30%, and no objective response was observed. The 12-week PFS rate was 24.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.0 to 46.1). Median PFS was 1.3 months (95% CI, 1.3 to 2.7), and median overall survival was 11.8 months (95% CI, 8.1 to not applicable). Most of adverse events were grade 1 or 2. @*Conclusion@#Pemetrexed demonstrated modest activity as a salvage chemotherapy in patients with advanced lung SqCC with low TS expression, although its toxicity was generally manageable.

3.
Journal of Stroke ; : 185-202, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834661

ABSTRACT

The benefit of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to large vessel intracranial occlusions is directly related to the technical success of the procedures in achieving fast and complete reperfusion. While a precise definition of refractoriness is lacking in the literature, it may be considered when there is reperfusion failure, long procedural times, or high number of passes with the MT devices. Detailed knowledge about the causes for refractory MT in AIS is limited; however, it is most likely a multifaceted problem including factors related to the vascular anatomy and the underlying nature of the occlusive lesion amongst other factors. We aim to review the impact of several key unfavorable anatomical factors that may be encountered during endovascular AIS treatment and discuss potential bail-out strategies to these challenging situations.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832451

ABSTRACT

Many previous studies have shown reduced glucose uptake in the ischemic brain. In contrast, in a permanent unilateral common carotid artery occlusion (UCCAO) mouse model, our pilot experiments using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) revealed that a subset of mice exhibited conspicuously high uptake of glucose in the ipsilateral hemisphere at 1 week post-occlusion (asymmetric group), whereas other mice showed symmetric uptake in both hemispheres (symmetric group). Thus, we aimed to understand the discrepancy between the two groups. Cerebral blood flow and histological/metabolic changes were analyzed using laser Doppler flowmetry and immunohistochemistry/Western blotting, respectively. Contrary to the increased glucose uptake observed in the ischemic cerebral hemisphere on FDG PET (p<0.001), cerebral blood flow tended to be lower in the asymmetric group than in the symmetric group (right to left ratio [%], 36.4±21.8 vs. 58.0±24.8, p=0.059). Neuronal death was observed only in the ischemic hemisphere of the asymmetric group. In contrast, astrocytes were more activated in the asymmetric group than in the symmetric group (p<0.05). Glucose transporter-1, and monocarboxylate transporter-1 were also upregulated in the asymmetric group, compared with the symmetric group (p<0.05, respectively). These results suggest that the increased FDG uptake was associated with relatively severe ischemia, and glucose transporter-1 upregulation and astrocyte activation. Glucose metabolism may thus be a compensatory mechanism in the moderately severe ischemic brain.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831573

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly spreading around the world, causing much morbidity and mortality everywhere. However, effective treatments or vaccines are still not available. Although convalescent plasma (CP) therapy can be useful in the treatment of COVID-19, it has not been widely used in Korea because of the concerns about adverse effects and the difficulty in matching patients to donors. The use of ABO-incompatible plasma is not contraindicated in treatment, but can be hesitated due to the lack of experience of physicians. Here, we describe a 68-year old man with COVID-19 who was treated ABO-incompatible plasma therapy; additionally, we comment on the acute side effects associated with ABO mismatch transfusion. To overcome the obstacles of donor-recipient connections (schedule and distance), we propose the storage of frozen plasma, modification of the current Blood Management Law, and the establishment of a CP bank. We suggest that experience gained in CP therapy will be useful for not only the treatment of COVID-19, but also for coping with new emerging infectious diseases.

6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1112-1119, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831143

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors represents a major advance in the treatment of lung cancer, allowing sustained recovery in a significant proportion of patients. Nivolumab is a monoclonal anti–programmed death cell protein 1 antibody licensed for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after prior chemotherapy. In this study, we describe the demographic and clinical outcomes of patients with advanced NSCLC treated with nivolumab in the Korean expanded access program. @*Materials and Methods@#Previously treated patients with advanced non-squamous and squamous NSCLC patients received nivolumab at 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks up to 36 months. Efficacy data including investigator-assessed tumor response, progression data, survival, and safety data were collected. @*Results@#Two hundred ninety-nine patients were treated across 36 Korean centers. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 18% and 49%, respectively; the median progression-free survival was 2.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.87 to 3.45), and the overall survival (OS) was 13.2 months (95% CI, 10.6 to 18.9). Patients with smoking history and patients who experienced immune-related adverse events showed a prolonged OS. Cox regression analysis identified smoking history, presence of immune-related adverse events as positive factors associated with OS, while liver metastasis was a negative factor associated with OS. The safety profile was generally comparable to previously reported data. @*Conclusion@#This real-world analysis supports the use of nivolumab for pretreated NSCLC patients, including those with an older age.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke patients with malignant infarct cores were primarily treated with neurocritical care based on reperfusion and hypothermia. We evaluated the predictors for malignant progression and functional outcomes. METHODS: From January 2010 to March 2015 ischemic stroke patients with large vessel occlusion of the anterior circulation with infarct volume >82 mL on baseline diffusion weighted image (DWI) within 6 hours from onset, with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≥15 were included. All patients were managed with intent for reperfusion and neurocritical care. Malignant progression was defined as clinical signs of progressive herniation. Predictive factors for malignant progression and outcomes of decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC) were evaluated. RESULTS: In total, 49 patients were included in the study. Among them, 33 (67.3%) could be managed with neurocritical care and malignant progression was observed in the remainder. Decompressive surgery was performed in nine patients (18.4%). Factors predictive of malignant progression were initial DWI volumes (odds ratio [OR], 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 1.02; P=0.046) and parenchymal hematoma (OR, 6.77; 95% CI, 1.50 to 30.53; P=0.013) on computed tomography taken at Day 1. Infarct volume of >210 mL predicted malignant progression with 56.3% sensitivity and 90.9% specificity. Among the malignant progressors, 77.7% resulted in grave outcomes even with DHC, while all patients who declined surgery died. CONCLUSION: Acute ischemic stroke patients with malignant cores between 82 to 209 mL can be primarily treated with neurocritical care based on reperfusion and hypothermia with feasible results. In patients undergoing surgical decompression due to malignant progression, the functional outcomes were not satisfactory.


Subject(s)
Brain Edema , Critical Care , Decompression, Surgical , Decompressive Craniectomy , Diffusion , Hematoma , Humans , Hypothermia , Hypothermia, Induced , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Reperfusion , Sensitivity and Specificity , Stroke , Thrombectomy
8.
Neurointervention ; : 107-115, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760596

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Emergent intracranial occlusions causing acute ischemic stroke are often related to extracranial atherosclerotic stenosis. This study aimed to investigate the association between post-procedure intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and emergent extracranial artery stenting and assess their effects on clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients undergoing hyperacute endovascular treatment for cervicocephalic vascular occlusion in three Korean hospitals between January 2011 and February 2016. Patients who had extracranial artery involvement and were treated from 24 hours of symptom onset to puncture were included in this study, and they were divided into the extracranial stenting (ES) and non-ES groups. Any type of petechial hemorrhages and parenchymal hematoma was defined as ICH for the current study. RESULTS: In total, 76 patients were included in this study. Among them, 56 patients underwent ES, and 20 patients did not. Baseline characteristics, risk factors, laboratory data, treatment methods, successful reperfusion rates, and baseline stenotic degrees of extracranial internal carotid artery did not differ between these two groups. However, atrial fibrillation was more frequent in patients without than with ES (P=0.002), and post-procedure ICH was more frequent in patients with than without ES (P=0.035). Logistic regression models revealed that ES was independently associated with post-procedure ICH (odds ratio [OR], 7.807; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.213–50.248; P=0.031), and ICH was independently associated with poor clinical outcomes (OR, 0.202; 95% CI, 0.054–0.759; P=0.018); however, ES itself was not associated with clinical outcomes (OR, 0.530; 95% CI, 0.117–2.395; P=0.409). Notably, ICH and ES had interaction for predicting good outcomes (P=0.041). CONCLUSION: Post-procedure ICH was associated with ES and poor clinical outcomes. Therefore, ES should be cautiously considered in patients with hyperacute stroke.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Atrial Fibrillation , Carotid Artery, Internal , Carotid Stenosis , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Cerebral Infarction , Constriction, Pathologic , Endovascular Procedures , Hematoma , Hemorrhage , Humans , Logistic Models , Punctures , Reperfusion , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stents , Stroke
9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1488-1499, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763212

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is widely used for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. However, evidence of its usefulness for re-biopsy in treated lung cancer, especially according to the previous treatment, is limited. We evaluated the role of EBUS-TBNA for re-biopsy and its diagnostic values in patients with different treatment histories. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA for re-biopsy of suspicious recurrent or progressive lesions between January 2006 and December 2016 at the National Cancer Center in South Korea. Patients were categorized into three groups based on the previous treatment modalities: surgery, radiation, and palliation. RESULTS: Among the 367 patients (surgery, n=192; radiation, n=40; palliation, n=135) who underwent EBUS-TBNA for re-biopsy, the overall sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA in detecting malignancy were 95.6%, 82.7%, and 96.3%, respectively. The sensitivity was lower in the radiation group (83.3%) when compared with the surgery (95.7%, p=0.042) and palliation (97.7%, p=0.012) groups. The NPV was lower in the palliation group (50.0%) than in the surgery group (88.5%, p=0.042). The sample adequacy of EBUS-TBNA specimens was lower in the radiation group (80.3%) than in the surgery (95.4%, p < 0.001) or palliation (97.8%, p < 0.001) groups. EGFR mutation analysis was feasible in 94.6% of the 92 cases, in which mutation analysis was requested. There were no major complications. Minor complications were reported in 12 patients (3.3%). CONCLUSION: EBUS-TBNA showed high diagnostic values and high suitability for EGFR mutation analysis with regard to re-biopsy in patients with previously treated lung cancer. The sensitivity was lower in the radiation group and NPV was lower in the palliation group. The complication rate was low.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Diagnosis , Humans , Korea , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Medical Records , Needles
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761758

ABSTRACT

In malaria, splenic rupture is a serious complication potentially leading to death. Subcapsular hemorrhage of spleen is thought to be an impending sign of splenic rupture; however, the characteristics of subcapsular hemorrhage are not well known. We report 3 cases of subcapsular hemorrhage of the spleen in vivax malaria, with varying degrees of severity. Case 1 showed subcapsular hemorrhage without splenic rupture, was treated by antimalarial drug without any procedure. The healing process of the patient's spleen was monitored through 6 computed tomography follow-up examinations, over 118 days. Case 2 presented subcapsular hemorrhage with splenic rupture, treated only with an antimalarial drug. Case 3 showed subcapsular hemorrhage with splenic rupture and hypotension, treated using splenic artery embolization. They all recovered from subcapsular hemorrhage without any other complications. These 3 cases reveal the process of subcapsular hemorrhage leading to rupture and a potentially fatal outcome. The treatment plan of subcapsular hemorrhage should be determined carefully considering the vital signs, changes in hemoglobin, and bleeding tendency.


Subject(s)
Fatal Outcome , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Hypotension , Malaria , Malaria, Vivax , Plasmodium vivax , Rupture , Spleen , Splenic Artery , Splenic Rupture , Vital Signs
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pre-travel medical consultation is essential to reduce health impairment during travel. Yellow fever vaccination (YFV) is mandatory to enter some endemic countries. In this study, we evaluated the factors that affect compliance with appropriate prevention of infectious diseases in travelers who visited clinic for YFV. METHODS: For this retrospective study, chart reviews for 658 patients who visited a travel clinic for YFV before travel were conducted. The period of this study was from January 2016 to September 2018. The associations between appropriate vaccination and factors such as travel duration, destination, time of visiting clinic before departure, and purpose of travel were analyzed. RESULTS: Among 658 patients who got YFV during the study period, 344 patients (52.3%) received additional vaccination or malaria prophylaxis following a physician's recommendation. Travelers who visited the clinic more than 21 days before departure were more compliant than those who visited 14 days or fewer before departure (odds ratio [OR], 1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23–2.93; P = 0.004). Travelers visiting Africa were more compliant than were those traveling to South and Central America (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.34–2.90; P = 0.001). Travelers in age groups of 40-49 years and over 70 years were less compliant than the 18–29 years old population (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.28–0.93; P = 0.027 and OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.04–0.84; P = 0.03, respectively). Also, those who traveled for tour or to visit friends or relatives were more compliant than those who departed for business (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 1.03–3.56; P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: For appropriate vaccination, pre-travel consultation at least 3 weeks before departure is crucial. Travelers should be aware of required vaccination and malaria prophylaxis before visiting South and Central America and Asia. Plans to enhance compliance of the elderly and business travelers should be contrived.


Subject(s)
Africa , Aged , Asia , Central America , Commerce , Communicable Diseases , Compliance , Friends , Humans , Malaria , Patient Compliance , Retrospective Studies , Travel Medicine , Vaccination , Yellow Fever , Yellow Fever Vaccine
12.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2018023-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786850

ABSTRACT

The number of persons infected by HIV/AIDS has consistently increased in Korea since the first case of HIV/AIDS infection in 1985 and reached 15,208 by 2016. About 1,100 new patients with HIV/ AIDS infections have emerged every year since 2013. In Korea, the Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study was established for the evidenced-based prevention, treatment, and effective management of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in December 2006. This study monitored 1,438 patients, who accounted for about 10% of all patients with HIV/AIDS in Korea, for 10 years with the following aims: (1) to develop an administrative system for the establishment of a HIV/AIDS cohort-based study; (2) to standardize methodologies and the case report forms; and (3) to standardize multi-cohort data and develop a data cleaning method. This study aims to monitor at least 1,000 patients (excluding those for whom investigation had been completed) per year (estimated number of patients who can be monitored by January 2018: 939). By December 2016, the sex distribution was 93.3% for men, and 6.7% for women (gender ratio, 13.9:1.0), and 98.9% of all participants were Korean. More than 50.0% of the participants were confirmed as HIV positive after 2006. This study reports competitive, long-term research that aimed to develop policies for the prevention of chronic infectious diseases for patients with HIV. The data collected over the last decade will be used to develop indices for HIV treatment and health promotion.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Communicable Diseases , Female , Health Promotion , HIV , Humans , Korea , Male , Methods , Sex Distribution , Sexually Transmitted Diseases
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715830

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Because of growing concerns about lung cancer in female never smokers, chest low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening is often performed although it has never shown clinical benefits. We examinewhether or not female never smokers really need annual LDCT screening when the initial LDCT showed negative findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 4,365 female never smokers aged 40 to 79 years who performed initial LDCT from Aug 2002 to Dec 2007. Lung cancer diagnosis was identified from the Korea Central Cancer Registry Database registered until December 31, 2013. We calculated the incidence, cumulative probability, and standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of lung cancer by Lung Imaging Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS) categories showed on initial LDCT. RESULTS: After median follow-up of 9.69 years, 22 (0.5%) had lung cancer. Lung cancer incidence for Lung-RADS category 4 was 1,848.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1,132.4 to 3,017.2) per 100,000 person-years and 16.4 (95% CI, 7.4 to 36.4) for categories 1, 2, and 3 combined. The cumulative probability of lung cancer for category 4 was 10.6% at 5 years and 14.8% at 10 years while they were 0.07% and 0.17% when categories 1, 2, and 3 were combined. The SIR for subjects with category 4 was 43.80 (95% CI, 25.03 to 71.14), which was much higher than 0.47 (95% CI, 0.17 to 1.02) for categories 1, 2, and 3 combined. CONCLUSION: Considering the low risk of lung cancer development in female never smokers, it seems unnecessary to repeat annual LDCT screening for at least 5 years or even longer unless the initial LDCT showed Lung-RADS category 4 findings.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Information Systems , Korea , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Mass Screening , Retrospective Studies , Thorax , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714375

ABSTRACT

Recent clinical trials demonstrated the clinical benefit of endovascular treatment (EVT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion. These trials confirmed that good outcome after EVT depends on the time interval from symptom onset to reperfusion and that in-hospital delay leads to poor clinical outcome. However, there has been no universally accepted in-hospital workflow and performance benchmark for rapid reperfusion. Additionally, wide variety in workflow for EVT is present between each stroke centers. In this consensus statement, Korean Society of Interventional Neuroradiology and Korean Stroke Society Joint Task Force Team propose a standard workflow to reduce door-to-reperfusion time for stroke patients eligible for EVT. This includes early stroke identification and pre-hospital notification to stroke team of receiving hospital in pre-hospital phase, the transfer of stroke patients from door of the emergency department to computed tomography (CT) room, warming call to neurointervention team for EVT candidate prior to imaging, neurointervention team preparation in parallel with thrombolysis, direct transportation from CT room to angiography suite following immediate decision of EVT and standardized procedure for rapid reperfusion. Implementation of optimized workflow will improve stroke time process metrics and clinical outcome of the patient treated with EVT.


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees , Angiography , Benchmarking , Consensus , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Joints , Reperfusion , Stroke , Transportation
16.
Neurointervention ; : 2-12, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-730352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the influence of temporal patterns related to the availability of new endovascular treatment (EVT) devices on care processes and outcomes among patients with AIS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 720 consecutive patients (January 2011 to May 2016) in a retrospective registry, ASIAN KR, from three Korean hospitals, who received EVT for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) caused by cervicocephalic arterial occlusions. We performed period-to-period analyses based on stent retriever reimbursement and the availability of second-generation direct-aspiration devices (Period 1: January 2011–July 2014 vs. Period 2: August 2014–May 2016); time metrics and outcomes were compared when the onset-to-puncture time was <720 min among patients with EVT for intracranial occlusion. RESULTS: Period 2 had better post-EVT outcomes (3-month modified Rankin Scale 0–2 or equal to prestroke score, 48.3% vs. 60.2%, P=0.004), more successful reperfusion rates (modified Treatment In Cerebral Ischemia 2b–3, 74.2% vs. 82.2%, P=0.019), fewer subarachnoid hemorrhages (modified Fisher grade 3–4, 5.5% vs. 2.0%, P=0.034) and lower hemorrhagic transformation rates (any intracerebral hemorrhage, 35.3 vs. 22.7%, P=0.001) than Period 1. Compared to Period 1, Period 2 had a shorter door-to-puncture time (median 109 vs. 90 min, P<0.001), but longer onset-to-door time (129 vs. 143 min, P=0.057). CONCLUSION: Recent temporal improvements in post-EVT AIS outcomes in Korea are likely due to a combination of enhanced hospital care processes and administration of newer thrombectomy devices.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Brain Ischemia , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Cerebral Infarction , Humans , Korea , Learning Curve , Reperfusion , Retrospective Studies , Stents , Stroke , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Thrombectomy , Treatment Outcome
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742289

ABSTRACT

Babesiosis, caused by Babesia microti and B. divergens, is transmitted by Ixodid ticks. Symptoms of babesiosis vary from a mild flu-like illness to acute, severe, and sometimes fatal and fulminant disease. In Korea, 7 imported babesiosis cases and 1 endemic case have been reported. We report 2 cases of severe babesiosis initially mistaken as malaria. The first patient was complicated by shock and splenic infarction, the other co-infected with Lyme disease. As the population traveling abroad increases every year, physicians should be aware of babesiosis which mimics malaria, co-infection with other diseases, and its complications.


Subject(s)
Animals , Babesia microti , Babesiosis , Coinfection , Humans , Korea , Lyme Disease , Malaria , Republic of Korea , Shock , Splenic Infarction , Ticks
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717866

ABSTRACT

Recent clinical trials demonstrated the clinical benefit of endovascular treatment (EVT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion. These trials confirmed that good outcome after EVT depends on the time interval from symptom onset to reperfusion and that in-hospital delay leads to poor clinical outcome. However, there has been no universally accepted in-hospital workflow and performance benchmark for rapid reperfusion. Additionally, wide variety in workflow for EVT is present between each stroke centers. In this consensus statement, Korean Society of Interventional Neuroradiology and Korean Stroke Society Joint Task Force Team propose a standard workflow to reduce door-to-reperfusion time for stroke patients eligible for EVT. This includes early stroke identification and pre-hospital notification to stroke team of receiving hospital in pre-hospital phase, the transfer of stroke patients from door of the emergency department to computed tomography (CT) room, warming call to neurointervention (NI) team for EVT candidate prior to imaging, NI team preparation in parallel with thrombolysis, direct transportation from CT room to angiography suite following immediate decision of EVT and standardized procedure for rapid reperfusion. Implementation of optimized workflow will improve stroke time process metrics and clinical outcome of the patient treated with EVT.


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees , Angiography , Benchmarking , Consensus , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Joints , Reperfusion , Stroke , Transportation
19.
Journal of Stroke ; : 394-403, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Little is known about prognosis after endovascular therapy (EVT) for acute large artery occlusion (LAO) caused by underlying intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS). Therefore, we investigated the prognosis following EVT according to the underlying etiology of LAO. METHODS: Patients from the Acute Stroke due to Intracranial Atherosclerotic occlusion and Neurointervention-Korean Retrospective (ASIAN KR) registry (n=720) were included if their occlusion was in the intracranial anterior circulation and their onset-to-puncture time was < 24 hours. Occlusion was classified according to etiology as follows: no significant stenosis after recanalization (Embolic group), and fixed significant focal stenosis in the occlusion site with flow impairment or re-occlusion observed during EVT (ICAS group). Patients were excluded when significant extracranial carotid lesions existed, and when the intracranial occlusion was intractable to EVT so that the etiology was undetermined. The effect of angiographic etiologic classification on outcomes was evaluated using multivariable analysis that was adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Among eligible patients (n=520), 421 and 99 were classified in the Embolic and ICAS groups, respectively. Patients in the Embolic and ICAS groups had similar successful reperfusion rates with EVT (79.6% vs. 76.8%, P=0.537) and 3-month functional independence (54.5% vs. 45.5%, P=0.104). In multivariable analysis, ICAS-related occlusion (odds ratio, 0.495; 95% confidence interval, 0.269 to 0.913; P=0.024) showed poorer 3-month functional independence compared to embolic occlusion. CONCLUSIONS: After EVT, patients with acute ICAS-related occlusion have relatively poor functional outcomes compared to those with embolic occlusion. Novel strategies need to be developed to improve EVT outcomes for ICAS occlusion.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Atherosclerosis , Cerebral Infarction , Classification , Constriction, Pathologic , Embolism , Humans , Prognosis , Reperfusion , Retrospective Studies , Stroke , Thrombectomy , Treatment Outcome
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716525

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Schistosoma haematobium which causes urogenital schistosomiasis (UGS) is highly prevalent in African countries. Urine microscopy (UM) is the first-line diagnostic method of UGS. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a common method for screening many parasite infections primarily or alternatively. The present study established an in-house diagnostic system by ELISA and evaluated its diagnostic efficacy in comparison with UM for screening UGS in White Nile State, Republic of Sudan, 2011–2013. METHODS: A total of 490 participants were screened by UM or ELISA, and 149 by both. The in-house ELISA system was established employing soluble egg antigen of S. haematobium and the cut-off absorbance was set at 0.270. RESULTS: Of the 149 subjects, 58 participants (38.9%) were positive by UM, 119 (79.9%) were positive by ELISA and 82 (55.0%) showed consistently positive or negative results by both methods. The diagnostic sensitivity of ELISA was 94.8% and specificity was 29.7% based on UM results. The ELISA positive serum samples also cross-reacted with egg antigens of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum. CONCLUSION: We have established in-house ELISA for screening serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies by employing soluble egg antigen of S. haematobium for diagnosis of UGS with 94.8% sensitivity and 29.7% specificity. The ELISA system can supplement the conventional diagnosis by UM.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoglobulins , Mass Screening , Methods , Microscopy , Ovum , Parasites , Schistosoma haematobium , Schistosoma japonicum , Schistosoma mansoni , Schistosoma , Schistosomiasis haematobia , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sudan
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