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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1250-1260, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999810

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study evaluated whether combination therapy is more effective than monotherapy in elderly patients with metastatic or recurrent gastric cancer (MRGC) as first-line chemotherapy. @*Materials and Methods@#Elderly (≥ 70 years) chemo-naïve patients with MRGC were allocated to receive either combination therapy (group A: 5-fluorouracil [5-FU]/oxaliplatin, capecitabine/oxaliplatin, capecitabine/cisplatin, or S-1/cisplatin) or monotherapy (group B: 5-FU, capecitabine, or S-1). In group A, starting doses were 80% of standard doses, and they could be escalated to 100% at the discretion of the investigator. Primary endpoint was to confirm superior overall survival (OS) of combination therapy vs. monotherapy. @*Results@#After 111 of the planned 238 patients were randomized, enrollment was terminated due to poor accrual. In the full-analysis population (group A [n=53] and group B [n=51]), median OS of combination therapy vs. monotherapy was 11.5 vs. 7.5 months (hazard ratio [HR], 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56 to 1.30; p=0.231). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.6 vs. 3.7 months (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.83; p=0.005). In subgroup analyses, patients aged 70-74 years tended to have superior OS with combination therapy (15.9 vs. 7.2 months, p=0.056). Treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) occurred more frequently in group A vs. group B. However, among severe TRAEs (≥ grade 3), there were no TRAEs with a frequency difference of > 5%. @*Conclusion@#Combination therapy was associated with numerically improved OS, although statistically insignificant, and a significant PFS benefit compared with monotherapy. Although combination therapy showed more frequent TRAEs, there was no difference in the frequency of severe TRAEs.

2.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 140-144, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002982

ABSTRACT

Colonic interposition is the main procedure used in esophageal reconstruction. We report a rare case of simultaneous treatment of an anastomotic site stricture and a neoplasm in the interpositioned colon. A 69-year-old female visited our outpatient clinic with symptoms of progressive dysphagia for 1 year. At the age of 30 years, the patient underwent esophagectomy with retrosternal colonic interposition because of severe esophageal burns after chemical ingestion. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed stricture at the anastomosis site and a 10-mm flat elevated high-grade dysplasia in the interpositioned colon. First, through-the-scope balloon dilatation was performed for strictures. However, stenosis was observed during the second upper gastrointestinal endoscopy session.Therefore, a second session of through-the-scope balloon dilatation was performed, and simultaneously, endoscopic submucosal dissection was also successfully performed. After 2 months of follow-up, stenosis persisted; consequently, balloon dilatation was performed. No recurrence of neoplasm was confirmed endoscopically. Through-the-scope balloon dilatation of the stricture site and simultaneous endoscopic submucosal dissection of the neoplasm in the interpositioned colon were successfully performed.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e179-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001127

ABSTRACT

Background@#Exercise capacity is known to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality. However, most previous studies were based on Western populations.Further study is warranted for Asian patients according to ethnic or national standards. We aimed to compare prognostic values of Korean and Western nomograms for exercise capacity in Korean patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). @*Methods@#In this retrospective cohort study, we enrolled 1,178 patients (62 ± 11 years;78% male) between June 2015 and May 2020, who were referred for cardiopulmonary exercise testing in our cardiac rehabilitation program. The median follow-up period was 1.6 years. Exercise capacity was measured in metabolic equivalents by direct gas exchange method during the treadmill test. The nomogram for exercise capacity from healthy Korean individuals and a previous landmark Western study was used to determine the percentage of predicted exercise capacity. The primary endpoint was the composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; all-cause death, myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization, stroke and hospitalization for heart failure). @*Results@#A multivariate analysis showed that the risk of primary endpoint was more than double (hazard ratio [HR], 2.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10–4.40) in the patients with lower exercise capacity (< 85% of predicted) by Korean nomogram. The lower exercise capacity was one of the strong independent predictors along with left ventricular ejection fraction, age, and level of hemoglobin. However, the lower exercise capacity by Western nomogram could not predict the primary endpoint (HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.85–2.10). @*Conclusion@#Korean patients with CVD with lower exercise capacity have higher risk of MACE.Considering inter-ethnic differences in cardiorespiratory fitness, the Korean nomogram provides more suitable reference values than the Western nomogram to determine lower exercise capacity and predict cardiovascular events in Korean patients with CVD.

4.
Gut and Liver ; : 731-740, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000422

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#There are few reports regarding mixed carcinoma, defined as a mixture of glandular and poorly cohesive components, in patients with gastric cancer (GC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion and characteristics of mixed carcinoma in GC patients. @*Methods@#A total of 7,215 patients diagnosed with GC at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital were enrolled from March 2011 to February 2020. GC was divided into four groups (wellmoderately differentiated GC, poorly differentiated GC, poorly cohesive carcinoma, and mixed carcinoma). The proportion of each GC type and the clinicopathological features were analyzed and divided into early GC and advanced GC. @*Results@#The proportion of mixed carcinoma was 10.9% (n=787). In early GC, submucosal invasion was the most common in poorly differentiated (53.7%), and mixed carcinoma ranked second (41.1%). Mixed carcinoma showed the highest proportion of lymph node metastasis in early GC (23.0%) and advanced GC (78.3%). In advanced GC, the rate of distant metastasis was 3.6% and 3.9% in well-moderately differentiated GC and mixed carcinoma, respectively, lower than that in poorly differentiated GC (6.4%) and poorly cohesive carcinoma (5.7%), without statistical significance. @*Conclusions@#Mixed carcinoma was associated with lymph node metastasis compared to other histological GC subtypes. And it showed relatively common submucosal invasion in early GC, but the rates of venous invasion and distant metastasis were lower in advanced GC. Further research is needed to uncover the mechanism underlying these characteristics of mixed carcinoma (Trial registration number: NCT04973631).

5.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 514-525, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977373

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), as measured by maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), is an important independent predictive factor of cardiovascular outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF). However, it is unclear whether conventional equations for estimating CRF are applicable to patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). @*Methods@#This study included 521 patients with HFpEF (EF ≥ 50%) whose CRF was directly measured by cardiopulmonary exercise test using a treadmill. We developed a new equation (Kor-HFpEF) for half of the patients in the HFpEF cohort (group A, n = 253) and validated it for the remaining half (group B, n = 268). The accuracy of the Kor-HFpEF equation was compared to that of the other equations in the validation group. @*Results@#In the total HFpEF cohort, the directly measured VO2max was significantly overestimated by the FRIEND and ACSM equations (p < 0.001) and underestimated by the FRIEND-HF equation (p <0.001) (direct 21.2 ± 5.9 mL/kg/min; FRIEND 29.1 ± 11.8 mL/kg/min; ACSM 32.5 ± 13.4 mL/kg/min; FRIEND-HF 14.1 ± 4.9 mL/kg/min). However, the VO2max estimated by the Kor-HFpEF equation (21.3 ± 4.6 mL/kg/min) was similar to the directly measured VO2max (21.7 ± 5.9 mL/kg/min, p = 0.124), whereas the VO2max estimated by the other three equations was still significantly different from the directly measured VO2max in group B (all p < 0.001). @*Conclusions@#Traditional equations used to estimate VO2max were not applicable to patients with HFpEF. We developed and validated a new Kor-HFpEF equation for these patients, which had a high accuracy.

6.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 75-85, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967941

ABSTRACT

Kidney organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) contain multilineage nephrogenic progenitor cells and can recapitulate the development of the kidney. Kidney organoids derived from hPSCs have the potential to be applied in regenerative medicine as well as renal disease modeling, drug screening, and nephrotoxicity testing. Despite biotechnological advances, individual differences in morphological and growth characteristics among kidney organoids need to be addressed before clinical and commercial application. In this study, we hypothesized that an automated noninvasive method based on deep learning of bright-field images of kidney organoids can predict their differentiation status. Methods: Bright-field images of kidney organoids were collected on day 18 after differentiation. To train convolutional neural networks (CNNs), we utilized a transfer learning approach. CNNs were trained to predict the differentiation of kidney organoids on bright-field images based on the messenger RNA expression of renal tubular epithelial cells as well as podocytes. Results: The best prediction model was DenseNet121 with a total Pearson correlation coefficient score of 0.783 on a test dataset. W classified the kidney organoids into two categories: organoids with above-average gene expression (Positive) and those with below-average gene expression (Negative). Comparing the best-performing CNN with human-based classifiers, the CNN algorithm had a receiver operating characteristic-area under the curve (AUC) score of 0.85, while the experts had an AUC score of 0.48. Conclusion: These results confirmed our original hypothesis and demonstrated that our artificial intelligence algorithm can successfully recognize the differentiation status of kidney organoids.

7.
Gut and Liver ; : 243-258, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966895

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The incidence and prognosis of gastric cancer (GC) shows sex difference.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI) on GC survival depending on sex. @*Methods@#The sex, age, location, histology, TNM stages, BMI, and survival were analyzed in GC patients from May 2003 to February 2020 at the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. @*Results@#Among 14,688 patients, there were twice as many males (66.6%) as females (33.4%).However, under age 40 years, females (8.6%) were more prevalent than males (3.1%). Cardia GC in males showed a U-shaped distribution for underweight (9.6%), normal (6.4%), overweight (6.1%), obesity (5.6%), and severe obesity (9.3%) but not in females (p=0.003). Females showed decreased proportion of diffuse-type GC regarding BMI (underweight [59.9%], normal [56.8%], overweight [49.5%], obesity [44.8%], and severe obesity [41.7%]), but males did not (p<0.001). Both sexes had the worst prognosis in the underweight group (p<0.001), and the higher BMI, the better prognosis in males, but not females. Sex differences in prognosis according to BMI tended to be more prominent in males than in females in subgroup analysis of TNM stages I, II, and III and the operative treatment group. @*Conclusions@#GC-specific survival was affected by BMI in a sex-dependent manner. These differences may be related to genetic, and environmental, hormonal factors; body composition; and muscle mass (Trial registration number: NCT04973631).

8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 621-629, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925681

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to develop a prognostic model to assist palliative care referral at least 3 months before death in advanced cancer patients treated at an outpatient medical oncology clinic. @*Materials and Methods@#In this prospective cohort study, a total of 200 patients were enrolled at a tertiary cancer center in South Korea. The major eligibility criterion was an expected survival of less than a year as estimated by their oncologists. We analyzed the influences of known prognostic factors along with chemotherapy status, mid-arm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness on survival time. @*Results@#The mean age of the patients was 64.5 years, 36% were female, and the median survival time was 7.6 months. In the multivariate analysis, we found 6 significant factors related to poor survival: a poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (≥2), not undergoing chemotherapy, anorexia, a low lymphocyte level (<12%), a high lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level (≥300 IU/L), and a low mid-arm circumference (<23 cm). We developed a prognostic model (score, 0-8.0) to predict 3-month survival based on the multivariate analysis. Patients who scored ≥4.0 points had a short survival of less than 3 months (p<0.001). The discriminating ability of the prognostic model using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.88. @*Conclusion@#The prognostic model using ECOG performance status, chemotherapy status, anorexia, lymphocytes, LDH, and mid-arm circumference can predict 3-month survival in medical oncology outpatients. It can alert oncologists to refer patients to palliative care specialists before it is too late.

9.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 271-280, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925520

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II colon cancer has not been clearly demonstrated even in cases with high-risk factors. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of oral fluoropyrimidine monotherapy as adjuvant chemotherapy with that of intravenous fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy for high-risk stage II colon cancer. @*Methods@#This single-institution, retrospective study included patients who underwent curative resection for high-risk stage II colon cancer between 2003 and 2014. Patients were classified into 3 postoperative treatment groups: observation, oral fluoropyrimidine monotherapy group (OG), or intravenous fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy group (IVG). @*Results@#We identified 356 patients, including 87 (24.4%) in the observation group, 172 (48.3%) in the OG, and 97 (27.2%) in the IVG. Patients in the OG were older (63.8 ± 10.7 vs. 56.5 ± 10.8, P < 0.001) and had a lower number of T4 lesions (12.8% vs. 35.1%, P < 0.001) than those in the IVG. Regarding survival outcomes, the 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates were not different between the OG and IVG (91.2% vs. 92.6% [P = 0.090] and 85.1% vs. 81.9% [P = 0.535], respectively). In multivariate analysis, age over 70 years and no adjuvant chemotherapy were associated with poor overall survival and disease-free survival. Fewer chemotherapy-related adverse events of grade ≥3 were observed in the OG than in the IVG (12.2% vs. 34.0%, P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#In high-risk stage II colon cancer, adjuvant oral fluoropyrimidine monotherapy can be an effective and convenient alternative to intravenous fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy as it has comparable oncological outcomes and reduced chemotherapy-related complications.

10.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e224-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938041

ABSTRACT

A rapid outbreak of monkeypox is ongoing in non-endemic countries since May 2022. We report the first case of monkeypox in the Republic of Korea. This occurred in a 34-year-old male patient who traveled to Europe in June 2022. On the day of his return to the Republic of Korea (June 21, 2022), the patient presented with a genital lesion. The results of the monkeypox real-time polymerase chain reaction tests were positive in the penile ulcer, oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal specimens. The patient subsequently developed fever and skin rash after hospital admission. Careful history taking along physical examination should be conducted in the patients who have epidemiologic risk factors for monkeypox. Moreover, appropriate specimens should be obtained from lesions and tested for the monkeypox virus.

11.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1-9, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913817

ABSTRACT

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is becoming essential in the fields of precision oncology. With implementation of NGS in daily clinic, the needs for continued education, facilitated interpretation of NGS results and optimal treatment delivery based on NGS results have been addressed. Molecular tumor board (MTB) is multidisciplinary approach to keep pace with the growing knowledge of complex molecular alterations in patients with advanced solid cancer. Although guidelines for NGS use and MTB have been developed in western countries, there is limitation for reflection of Korea’s public health environment and daily clinical practice. These recommendations provide a critical guidance from NGS panel testing to final treatment decision based on MTB discussion.

12.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 342-348, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893168

ABSTRACT

Immuno-oncological treatment approaches, particularly with the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors such as antiprogrammed death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 antibody or anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 antibody, have become the standard treatment for gastrointestinal cancers. However, gastrointestinal cancers show an overall modest tumor response to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Nevertheless, subgroups such as tumors that are DNA mismatch repair-deficient or have high microsatellite instability particularly benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors. Even in the first-line setting for colorectal cancer, the clinical efficacy of pembrolizumab, an anti–PD-1 antibody, was superior to that of chemotherapy. Recently, a combination of atezolizumab, an anti-programmed death ligand 1 antibody, and bevacizumab was approved as the first-line treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma, and was reported as superior to sorafenib. Nivolumab, an anti–PD-1 antibody that is added to chemotherapy as the first-line treatment for gastric cancer, resulted in longer survival compared with chemotherapy alone. Further studies are ongoing to investigate additional immune checkpoint inhibitors for other gastrointestinal cancers. This review aims to provide an overview of the results of clinical trials for immune checkpoint inhibitors in gastrointestinal cancers, including colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, and biliary tract cancer.

13.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1420-1436, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919171

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Tacrolimus has been used as an immunosuppressive agent in organ transplantation. Despite the therapeutic benefits, tacrolimus’s use is limited due to its nephrotoxicity. To reduce tacrolimus nephrotoxicity, effective humanized experimental models may be helpful. Here, we modeled tacrolimus nephrotoxicity using kidney organoids derived from human inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in vitro. @*Methods@#Kidney organoids were differentiated from the CMC11 iPSC cell line, re-seeded in 96-well plates, and treated with tacrolimus at doses of 0, 30, or 60 μM for 24 hours. This in vitro model was compared to a mouse model of tacrolimus nephrotoxicity and the associated mechanisms were investigated. @*Results@#The size of the kidney organoids and cell viability decreased in dose-dependent manners after treatment with tacrolimus. The number of tubular cells decreased with a loss of polarity, similar to the effects seen in mouse tacrolimus nephrotoxicity. Ultrastructural analysis showed numerous vacuoles in the proximal tubular cells of the kidney organoids treated with tacrolimus. Tacrolimus treatment induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, and autophagic activity was enhanced in the kidney organoids. Rapamycin, an autophagy inducer, accelerated cell death in the kidney organoid model of tacrolimus nephrotoxicity, which was attenuated by treatment with 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor. These findings indicate that the augmentation of autophagy by rapamycin treatment accelerated tacrolimus nephrotoxicity. @*Conclusions@#Our data suggest that human kidney organoids are an effective in vitro model of tacrolimus nephrotoxicity and that autophagy plays a critical role in tacrolimus nephrotoxicity.

14.
Blood Research ; : 285-292, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913725

ABSTRACT

Background@#High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (HDC-ASCT) as a consolidation treatment is a promising approach for eligible patients with newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). @*Methods@#In this retrospective analysis, 22 patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL received chemotherapy with rituximab, methotrexate, procarbazine, and vincristine. Those who showed complete or partial response subsequently received consolidation HDC-ASCT with a thiotepa-based conditioning regimen but did not undergo radiotherapy. @*Results@#The PCNSL patients had a median age of 57 years (range, 49‒67 yr); of the total patients, 9.1% had a performance status of 2 or higher, and 72.1% had multiple lesions.Approximately 82% of patients received six cycles of induction chemotherapy, which was well tolerated with excellent disease control. The rate of confirmed or unconfirmed complete response increased from 45.5% at the period of interim analysis to 81.8% prior to the initiation of HDC-ASCT. With a median follow-up of 19.6 months (range, 7.5‒56.5 mo), the 2-year progression-free survival and overall survival estimates were 84% and 88%, respectively. No treatment-related deaths occurred. Grade 3 toxicity was recorded in 90.9% of the patients after undergoing the HDC-ASCT, and the most common grade 3 adverse event was febrile neutropenia without sepsis. @*Conclusion@#The discussed treatment approach is feasible in patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL, yielding encouraging results.

15.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 342-348, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900872

ABSTRACT

Immuno-oncological treatment approaches, particularly with the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors such as antiprogrammed death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 antibody or anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 antibody, have become the standard treatment for gastrointestinal cancers. However, gastrointestinal cancers show an overall modest tumor response to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Nevertheless, subgroups such as tumors that are DNA mismatch repair-deficient or have high microsatellite instability particularly benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors. Even in the first-line setting for colorectal cancer, the clinical efficacy of pembrolizumab, an anti–PD-1 antibody, was superior to that of chemotherapy. Recently, a combination of atezolizumab, an anti-programmed death ligand 1 antibody, and bevacizumab was approved as the first-line treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma, and was reported as superior to sorafenib. Nivolumab, an anti–PD-1 antibody that is added to chemotherapy as the first-line treatment for gastric cancer, resulted in longer survival compared with chemotherapy alone. Further studies are ongoing to investigate additional immune checkpoint inhibitors for other gastrointestinal cancers. This review aims to provide an overview of the results of clinical trials for immune checkpoint inhibitors in gastrointestinal cancers, including colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, and biliary tract cancer.

16.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 23-28, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to identify the demographic and clinical factors associated with positive breath-test results and to assess the relationship between hydrogen and methane production in patients with suspected irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).METHODS: The demographic and clinical factors of 268 patients with suspected IBS, who had undergone a lactulose breath test, were analyzed.RESULTS: Of 268 patients included in this study, 143 (53.4%) were females. The median age and BMI of the patients was 58.0 years (range, 18.0–80.0 years) and 22.5 kg/m² (range, 14.4–34.3 kg/m²), respectively. A weak positive correlation was observed between the BMI and baseline hydrogen level (rho=0.134, p=0.031). Women were significantly more likely to show a ≥20 ppm increase in hydrogen within 90 min (early hydrogen increase, p=0.049), a ≥10 ppm increase in methane within 90 min (early methane increase, p=0.001), and a ≥10 ppm increase in methane between 90 min and 180 min (late methane increase, p=0.002) compared to men. The baseline hydrogen level was related to the baseline methane level (rho=0.592, p<0.001) and the maximal hydrogen level within 90 min was related to maximal methane level within 90 min (rho=0.721, p<0.001). Patients with an early hydrogen increase (43.8%) were more likely to show a positive result for an early methane increase compared to patients without an early increase in hydrogen (0%, p<0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Women were associated with high rates of positive lactulose breath-test results. In addition, methane production was correlated with hydrogen production.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Breath Tests , Hydrogen , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Lactulose , Methane , Sex Characteristics
17.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1178-1187, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831138

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Microsatellite instability (MSI) status may affect the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in gastric cancer. In this study, the clinical characteristics of MSI-high (MSI-H) gastric cancer and the predictive value of MSI-H for adjuvant chemotherapy in large cohorts of gastric cancer patients were evaluated. Material and MethodsThis study consisted of two cohorts. Cohort 1 included gastric cancer patients who received curative resection with pathologic stage IB-IIIC. Cohort 2 included patients with MSI-H gastric cancer who received curative resection with pathologic stage II/III. MSI was examined using two mononucleotide markers and three dinucleotide markers. @*Results@#Of 359 patients (cohort 1), 41 patients (11.4%) had MSI-H. MSI-H tumors were more frequently identified in older patients (p < 0.001), other histology than poorly cohesive, signet ring cell type (p=0.005), intestinal type (p=0.028), lower third tumor location (p=0.005), and absent perineural invasion (p=0.027). MSI-H status has a tendency of better disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in multivariable analyses (hazard ratio [HR], 0.4; p=0.059 and HR, 0.4; p=0.063, respectively). In the analysis of 162 MSI-H patients (cohort 2), adjuvant chemotherapy showed a significant benefit with respect to longer DFS and OS (p=0.047 and p=0.043, respectively). In multivariable analysis, adjuvant chemotherapy improved DFS (HR, 0.4; p=0.040). @*Conclusion@#MSI-H gastric cancer had distinct clinicopathologic findings. Even in MSI-H gastric cancer of retrospective cohort, adjuvant chemotherapy could show a survival benefit, which was in contrast to previous prospective studies and should be investigated in a further prospective trial.

18.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 171-176, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914576

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis was reported from a kindergarten on January 5, 2018 and investigation was conducted. A case was defined as a kindergartener presented with vomiting or diarrhea twice a day between January 1 and January 5, 2018. All kindergarteners were interviewed to identify the factor associated with case development. Fifteen (31.3%) children of a total of 48 were identified as cases, and four were confirmed to be Group II, Norovirus positive. In our study, based on the pattern of epidemic curve and different attack rate by classroom in a kindergarten, Norovirus was likely transmitted from human to human.

19.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 223-239, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719427

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate chemotherapy patterns and changes in quality of life (QOL) during first-line palliative chemotherapy for Korean patients with unresectable or metastatic/recurrent gastric cancer (GC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thiswas a non-interventional, multi-center, prospective, observational study of 527 patients in Korea. QOL assessments were conducted using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaires (QLQ)-C30 and QLQ-STO22 every 3 months over a 12-month period during first-line palliative chemotherapy. The specific chemotherapy regimens were selected by individual clinicians. RESULTS: Most patients (93.2%) received combination chemotherapy (mainly fluoropyrimidine plus platinum) as their first-line palliative chemotherapy. The median progression-free survival and overall survival were 8.2 and 14.8 months, respectively. Overall, “a little” changes (differences of 5-10 points from baseline)were observed in some of the functioning or symptom scales; none of the QOL scales showed either “moderate” or “very much” change (i.e., ≥ 11 point difference from baseline). When examining the best change in each QOL domain from baseline, scales related to some aspects of functioning, global health status/QOL, and most symptoms revealed significant improvements (p < 0.05). Throughout the course of first-line palliative chemotherapy, most patients' QOL was maintained to a similar degree, regardless of their actual response to chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: This observational study provides important information on the chemotherapy patterns and QOL changes in Korean patientswith advanced GC. Overall, first-line palliative chemotherapy was found to maintain QOL, and most parameters showed an improvement compared with the baseline at some point during the course.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Global Health , Korea , Observational Study , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Stomach Neoplasms , Weights and Measures
20.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1086-1097, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763171

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) axis blockades have revolutionized the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We assessed the effect of platinum-based chemotherapy on tumor PD-L1 expression and its clinical implications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used immunohistochemistry to retrospectively evaluate the percentage of tumor cells with membranous PD-L1 staining (tumor proportion score) in paired tumor specimens obtained before and after platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in 86 patients with NSCLC. We analyzed the correlation between the change in PD-L1 tumor proportion score and clinicopathologic characteristics, response to NACT, and survival. RESULTS: The PD-L1 tumor proportion score increased in a significant proportion of patients with NSCLC after platinum-based NACT (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p=0.002). That pattern was consistent across clinically defined subgroups except for patients with partial response to NACT. Tumors from 26 patients (30.2%) were PD-L1‒negative before NACT but PD-L1-positive after NACT, whereas the reverse pattern occurred in six patients (7%) (McNemar’s test, p < 0.001). Increase in PD-L1 tumor proportion score was significantly associated with lack of response to NACT (Fisher exact test, p=0.015). There was a tendency, albeit not statistically significant, for patients with an increase in PD-L1 tumor proportion score to have shorter survival. CONCLUSION: Tumor PD-L1 expression increased after platinum-based NACT in a significant proportion of patients with NSCLC. Increase in tumor PD-L1 expression may predict poor clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Drug Therapy , Immunohistochemistry , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Platinum , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
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