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1.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 330-343, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926829

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Zanthoxylum schinifolium is traditionally used as a spice for cooking in East Asian countries. This study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-proliferative potential of ethanol extracts of Z. schinifolium leaves (EEZS) against human bladder cancer T24 cells.MATERIALS/METHODS: Subsequent to measuring the cytotoxicity of EEZS, the anti-cancer activity was measured by assessing apoptosis induction, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). In addition, we determined the underlying mechanism of EEZS-induced apoptosis through various assays, including Western blot analysis. @*RESULTS@#EEZS treatment concentration-dependently inhibited T24 cell survival, which is associated with apoptosis induction. Exposure to EEZS induced the expression of Fas and Fas-ligand, activated caspases, and subsequently resulted to cleavage of poly (ADPribose) polymerase. EEZS also enhanced the expression of cytochrome c in the cytoplasm by suppressing MMP, following increase in the ratio of Bax:Bcl-2 expression and truncation of Bid. However, EEZS-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis were significantly diminished by a pan-caspase inhibitor. Moreover, EEZS inhibited activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, and the apoptosis-inducing potential of EEZS was promoted in the presence of PI3K/Akt inhibitor. In addition, EEZS enhanced the production of ROS, whereas N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, markedly suppressed growth inhibition and inactivation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway induced by EEZS. Furthermore, NAC significantly attenuated the EEZS-induced apoptosis and reduction of cell viability. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Taken together, our results indicate that exposure to EEZS exhibits anticancer activity in T24 bladder cancer cells through ROS-dependent induction of apoptosis and inactivation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

2.
Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science ; : 23-30, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914948

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate effect of zirconia on osseointegration and Surface appearance by surface treatments using various acid solution. Materials and Methods: The prepared zirconia disks were treated with hydrofluoric acid solution and photo-assisted etching under various condition. The surface was analyzed by SEM and the surface roughness was analyzed by using surface profiler. The osteogenic effect of MC3T3-E1 cells was assessed via fluorescent staining observation and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Various roughness were obtained according to the surface treatment method. The surface roughness increased in the group treated with hydrofluoric acid solution, but that had week network structure. In the method using photo-assisted etching, the surface roughness increased in micro units. Cell reaction showed better results in the photo-assisted etching group than in the hydrofluoric acid-treated group (P < 0.05). And it showed even osteoblastic cell distribution in photo-assisted etching group. Conclusion: As a result, the photo-assisted etching method is more effective than the simple acid solution treatment for zirconia treatment for osseointegration.

3.
International Journal of Thyroidology ; : 170-174, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914658

ABSTRACT

Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a potentially life-threatening condition. Graves’ disease accounts for the majority of cases of TPP. However, another diagnosis should be considered when repeated hypokalemic paralysis occurs in patients that maintain a euthyroid status. In this study, we report a case of persistent hypokalemic paralysis in a patient with Graves’ disease and Gitelman syndrome and provide a brief review of Gitelman syndrome focused on challenges with diagnosis and management when it is accompanied by TPP.

4.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 686-702, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Schisandrae Fructus, the fruit of Schisandra chinensis Baill., has traditionally been used as a medicinal herb for the treatment of various diseases, and has proven its various pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Schisandrae Fructus ethanol extract (SF) on inflammatory and oxidative stress in particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages.MATERIALS/METHODS: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of SF in PM2.5-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, the levels of pro-inflammatory mediator such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the effect of SF, the expression of genes involved in the generation of inflammatory factors was also investigated. We further evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant efficacy of SF against PM2.5 in the zebrafish model. @*RESULTS@#The results indicated that SF treatment significantly inhibited the PM2.5-induced release of NO and PGE2 , which was associated with decreased inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. SF also attenuated the PM2.5-induced expression of IL-6 and IL-1β, reducing their extracellular secretion. Moreover, SF suppressed the PM2.5-mediated translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) from the cytosol into nuclei and the degradation of inhibitor IκB-α, indicating that SF exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway. In addition, SF abolished PM2.5-induced generation of ROS, similar to the pretreatment of a ROS scavenger, but not by an inhibitor of NF-κB activity. Furthermore, SF showed strong protective effects against NO and ROS production in PM2.5-treated zebrafish larvae. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Our findings suggest that SF exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects against PM2.5 through ROS-dependent down-regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway, and that SF can be a potential functional substance to prevent PM2.5-mediated inflammatory and oxidative damage.

5.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 315-322, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834920

ABSTRACT

Objective@#An essay test is difficult to carry out because of the effort for hand scoring and the concerns about inter-rater reliability, even though the use of a rubric can increase inter-rater reliability. This study examined the feasibility of an essay test in medical school students and whether the use of a rubric increases inter-rater reliability. @*Methods@#An essay test was given to 51 undergraduate students in the third grade of emergency medicine clinical clerkship. Three raters assessed the essay test independently with a prepared rubric immediately after the test. They then did the same essay test without a rubric three months later. The researchers compared the Pearson’s correlation coefficients between raters. The researchers analyzed the validity comparing the correlation coefficient between the essay test and previous multiple-choice questions (MCQ) and feasibility by acceptance. @*Results@#Fifty-one students took the essay test. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient using rubric between raters 1 and 2, 1 and 3, and 2 and 3 were 0.898 (P<0.001), 0.896 (P<0.001), and 0.856 (P<0.001), respectively. Without a rubric, the correlation coefficients were 0.838 (P<0.001), 0.888 (P<0.001), and 0.824 (P<0.001), respectively. The new essay test showed a positive correlation (0.367) with the previous MCQ, and the evidence for validity and feasibility was acceptable. @*Conclusion@#In this study, the rubric did not increase the inter-rater reliability of the essay test. On the other hand, the inter-rater reliability was higher than 0.8, even without a rubric. In addition, the essay test showed evidence of validity and feasibility.

6.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 134-140, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740106

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a garlic-derived organosulfuric compound, has been documented for potential anti-inflammatory effects. However, the mechanism in microglia remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of DATS in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. METHODS: The effects of DATS on LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were assessed under conditions not in the cytotoxicity of DATS. The protein expression of inflammation regulatory genes was measured by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: DATS significantly inhibited the LPS-induced secretion of NO and PGE2, which was associated with the suppression of their regulatory genes, inducible NO synthase and COX-2. DATS had been shown to inhibit nuclear translocation of NF-κB by destroying the degradation and phosphorylation of IκB-α inhibitors in the cytoplasm. In addition, DATS effectively inhibited the expression of LPS-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88. Furthermore, DATS markedly reduced the LPS-induced expression of chemokine (CXC motif) ligand (CXCL) 12 and CXC receptor (CXCR) 4, demonstrating its capacity to block chemo-attractive activity. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that DATS inhibits the activation of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis associated with antagonizing effect on TLR4 and blocks NF-κB signaling, thus demonstrating anti-inflammatory effects against LPS stimulation.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Cytoplasm , Dinoprostone , Genes, Regulator , Inflammation , Microglia , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Phosphorylation , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Toll-Like Receptors
7.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 285-288, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715167

ABSTRACT

The artery of Percheron is a rare anatomical variant, in which a common trunk arises from one posterior cerebral artery and then branches to supply each of the thalami and the midbrain separately. Occlusion of this artery triggers a bilateral thalamic infarction. The most commonly reported clinical findings are an altered mental status, vertical gaze palsy, and memory impairment. A 51-year-old man was transferred to the emergency department with a sudden loss of consciousness after drinking alcohol. He appeared to be sleeping deeply. His wife insisted that he had not drunk a quantity of alcohol that would render him unconscious. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed an acute, bilateral, paramedian thalamic infarction. He was admitted and treated with antiplatelet agents. On the following day, four-vessel cerebral angiography revealed stenosis of the left, distal vertebral artery. Three weeks after admission, he was discharged with persistent hypersomnia, memory impairment, and behavioral changes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Alcoholic Intoxication , Arteries , Brain , Cerebral Angiography , Coma , Constriction, Pathologic , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence , Drinking , Eating , Emergency Service, Hospital , Infarction , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Memory , Mesencephalon , Paralysis , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Posterior Cerebral Artery , Spouses , Thalamus , Unconsciousness , Vertebral Artery
8.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 129-134, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713828

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although several recent studies have reported the anti-cancer effects of extracts or components of Citrus unshiu peel, which has been used for various purposes in traditional medicine, the molecular mechanisms for their effects remain unclear. In the present study, the anti-cancer activity of a water-soluble extract of C. unshiu peel (WECU) in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells at the level of apoptosis induction was investigated. MATERIALS/METHODS: Cytotoxicity was evaluated using the MTT assay. Apoptosis was detected using DAPI staining and flow cytometry analyses. Mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, caspase activity and Western blotting were used to confirm the basis of apoptosis. RESULTS: The results indicated that WECU-induced apoptosis was related to the activation of caspase-8, and -9, representative initiator caspases of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways, respectively, and caspase-3 accompanied by proteolytic degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and down-regulation of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein family members. WECU also increased the pro-apoptotic BAX to anti-apoptotic BCL-2 ratio, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytoplasm. Furthermore, WECU provoked the generation of ROS, but the reduction of cell viability and induction of apoptosis by WECU were prevented when ROS production was blocked by antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that WECU suppressed proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells by activating extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways in a ROS-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Caspase 3 , Caspase 8 , Caspases, Initiator , Cell Survival , Citrus , Cysteine , Cytochromes c , Cytoplasm , Down-Regulation , Flow Cytometry , Medicine, Traditional , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Mitochondria , Oxygen , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases , Reactive Oxygen Species , Water
9.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 146-156, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713581

ABSTRACT

Spermidine is a naturally occurring polyamine compound that has recently emerged with anti-aging properties and suppresses inflammation and oxidation. However, its mechanisms of action on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects have not been fully elucidated. In this study, the potential of spermidine for reducing pro-inflammatory and oxidative effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages and zebrafish was explored. Our data indicate that spermidine significantly inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in RAW 264.7 macrophages without any significant cytotoxicity. The protective effects of spermidine accompanied by a marked suppression in their regulatory gene expression at the transcription levels. Spermidine also attenuated the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit and reduced LPS-induced intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, spermidine prevented the LPS-induced NO production and ROS accumulation in zebrafish larvae and was found to be associated with a diminished recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages. Although more work is needed to fully understand the critical role of spermidine on the inhibition of inflammation-associated migration of immune cells, our findings clearly demonstrate that spermidine may be a potential therapeutic intervention for the treatment of inflammatory and oxidative disorders.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Cytokines , Dinoprostone , Genes, Regulator , Inflammation , Larva , Macrophages , Necrosis , Neutrophils , Nitric Oxide , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species , Spermidine , Zebrafish
10.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 469-477, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138433

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients with symptoms of coronary artery disease (CAD) often display normal tracings or only nonspecific changes on electrocardiography (ECG). The aim of this study was to explore strategic elements of the ECG and other potential factors that are predictive of CAD in this scenario. METHODS: This was an observational study of 142 patients with the chief complaint of chest pain, each of whom presented with a normal ECG and was subjected to emergency coronary angiography (CAG). Two population subsets were identified: those patients (n = 97) with no significant stenotic lesions and those (n = 45) with the significant stenotic lesions of CAD. RESULTS: Those patients with normal or nonspecific ECGs and CAD (15.8%) were more likely to have left circumflex artery involvement (20% vs. 7%). In patients with normal ECGs and CAD (vs. normal CAG), male sex (86.7% vs. 68%, p = 0.023), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) levels > 10 U/L (13 vs. 10, p = 0.025), and fragmented QRS (fQRS) (38.6% vs. 21.6%, p = 0.042) occurred with greater frequency. In multivariable analysis, the following variables were significant predictors of CAD, given a normal ECG: male sex (odds ratio [OR], 2.593; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.068 to 5.839); CK-MB (OR, 2.497; 95% CI, 0.955 to 7.039); and W- or M-shaped QRS complex (OR, 2.306; 95% CI 0.988 to 5.382). CONCLUSIONS: In our view, male sex, elevated CK-MB (> 10 U/L), and fQRS complexes are suspects for CAD in patients with angina and unremarkable ECGs and should be considered screening tests.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Angiography , Arteries , Chest Pain , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Disease , Coronary Vessels , Creatine , Electrocardiography , Emergencies , Mass Screening , Myocardial Infarction , Observational Study
11.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 469-477, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients with symptoms of coronary artery disease (CAD) often display normal tracings or only nonspecific changes on electrocardiography (ECG). The aim of this study was to explore strategic elements of the ECG and other potential factors that are predictive of CAD in this scenario. METHODS: This was an observational study of 142 patients with the chief complaint of chest pain, each of whom presented with a normal ECG and was subjected to emergency coronary angiography (CAG). Two population subsets were identified: those patients (n = 97) with no significant stenotic lesions and those (n = 45) with the significant stenotic lesions of CAD. RESULTS: Those patients with normal or nonspecific ECGs and CAD (15.8%) were more likely to have left circumflex artery involvement (20% vs. 7%). In patients with normal ECGs and CAD (vs. normal CAG), male sex (86.7% vs. 68%, p = 0.023), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) levels > 10 U/L (13 vs. 10, p = 0.025), and fragmented QRS (fQRS) (38.6% vs. 21.6%, p = 0.042) occurred with greater frequency. In multivariable analysis, the following variables were significant predictors of CAD, given a normal ECG: male sex (odds ratio [OR], 2.593; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.068 to 5.839); CK-MB (OR, 2.497; 95% CI, 0.955 to 7.039); and W- or M-shaped QRS complex (OR, 2.306; 95% CI 0.988 to 5.382). CONCLUSIONS: In our view, male sex, elevated CK-MB (> 10 U/L), and fQRS complexes are suspects for CAD in patients with angina and unremarkable ECGs and should be considered screening tests.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Angiography , Arteries , Chest Pain , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Disease , Coronary Vessels , Creatine , Electrocardiography , Emergencies , Mass Screening , Myocardial Infarction , Observational Study
12.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 213-221, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-32622

ABSTRACT

Baicalein, a natural flavonoid obtained from the rhizome of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been reported to have anticancer activities in several human cancer cell lines. However, its antimetastatic effects and associated mechanisms in melanoma cells have not been extensively studied. The current study examined the effects of baicalein on cell motility and anti-invasive activity using mouse melanoma B16F10 cells. Within the noncytotoxic concentration range, baicalein significantly inhibited the cell motility and invasiveness of B16F10 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Baicalein also reduced the activity and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9; however, the levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and -2 were concomitantly increased. The inhibitory effects of baicalein on cell motility and invasiveness were found to be associated with its tightening of tight junction (TJ), which was demonstrated by an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance and downregulation of the claudin family of proteins. Additionally, treatment with baicalein markedly reduced the expression levels of lipopolysaccharide-induced phosphorylated Akt and the invasive activity in B16F10 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that baicalein inhibits B16F10 melanoma cell migration and invasion by reducing the expression of MMPs and tightening TJ through the suppression of claudin expression, possibly in association with a suppression of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Cell Line , Cell Movement , Down-Regulation , Electric Impedance , Matrix Metalloproteinases , Melanoma , Rhizome , Scutellaria baicalensis , Tight Junctions , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1
13.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 277-285, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82845

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Prediction of lesions of the proximal right coronary artery (pRCA) through electrocardiogram (ECG) is very important because pRCA occlusion has many complications and a high mortality rate, which has frequently been related with right ventricular infarction. The purpose of this study was to devise a screening tool that takes into account multiple leads from a 12-lead ECG to predict the pRCA lesion. METHODS: A hundred and fifty-eight patients who were diagnosed as acute coronary syndrome and had a pure lesion of RCA or left circumf lex artery (LCX) by ECGs and angiographic findings were enrolled retrospectively. Forty-eight patients with a pure pRCA occlusion were compared to a control group of 110 patients who were diagnosed as having either a pure mid to distal RCA lesion (57 patients) or a pure LCX lesion (53 patients). RESULTS: ECGs of patients in the pRCA group showed more prominent ST depression in lead I (p = 0.001) and ST elevation in V1 (p = 0.002) than in the control group. The combination of ST depression (≤ 0 mm) in I and ST elevation (> 0.5 mm) in V1 was the best diagnostic tool (area under the curve, 0.84). CONCLUSIONS: ST changes in leads V1 and I allow more accurate prediction of pRCA occlusion than other criteria, such as the difference between ST elevation of leads II and III or vector direction and amplitude. These variables could help to screen for right ventricular infarction before performing reverse ECG and predicting prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acute Coronary Syndrome , Arteries , Constriction, Pathologic , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Vessels , Depression , Electrocardiography , Infarction , Mass Screening , Mortality , Myocardial Infarction , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
14.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine ; (12): 344-350, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820262

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of an ethanol extract of Kalopanax septemlobus (Thunb.) Koidz. leaf (EEKS) on cell proliferation in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and its mechanisms of action.@*METHODS@#Cells were treated with EEKS and subsequently analyzed for cell proliferation and flow cytometry analysis. Expressions of cell cycle regulators were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis and Western blotting, and activation of cyclin-associated kinases studied using kinase assays.@*RESULTS@#The EEKS suppressed cell proliferation in both HepG2 and Hep3B cells, but showed a more sensitive anti-proliferative activity in HepG2 cells. Flow cytometry analysis revealed an association between the growth inhibitory effect of EEKS and with G1 phase cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells, along with the dephosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRB) and enhanced binding of pRB with the E2F transcription factor family proteins. Treatment with EEKS also increased the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, such as p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1, without any noticeable changes in G1 cyclins and CDKs (except for a slight decrease in CDK4). Treatment of HepG2 cells with EEKS also increased the binding of p21 and p27 with CDK4 and CDK6, which was paralleled by a marked decrease in the cyclin D- and cyclin E-associated kinase activities.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Overall, our findings suggest that EEKS may be an effective treatment for liver cancer through suppression of cancer cell proliferation via G1 cell cycle arrest. Further studies are required to identify the active compounds in EEKS.

15.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine ; (12): 344-350, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-951433

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of an ethanol extract of Kalopanax septemlobus (Thunb.) Koidz. leaf (EEKS) on cell proliferation in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and its mechanisms of action. Methods: Cells were treated with EEKS and subsequently analyzed for cell proliferation and flow cytometry analysis. Expressions of cell cycle regulators were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis and Western blotting, and activation of cyclin-associated kinases studied using kinase assays. Results: The EEKS suppressed cell proliferation in both HepG2 and Hep3B cells, but showed a more sensitive anti-proliferative activity in HepG2 cells. Flow cytometry analysis revealed an association between the growth inhibitory effect of EEKS and with G

16.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 144-151, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunoregulatory elements have emerged as useful immunotherapeutic agents against cancer. In traditional medicine, Mori folium, the leaf of Morus alba L. (Moraceae), has been used for various medicinal purposes; however, the immunomodulatory effects have not been fully identified. We evaluated the immunoenhancing potential of water extract of Mori folium (WEMF) in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. METHODS: RAW264.7 cells were treated with WEMF for 24 hours and cell viability was detected by an MTT method. Nitric oxide (NO) levels in the culture supernatants were assayed using Griess reagent. The productions of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and immune-related cytokines was measured using ELISA detection kits. The mRNA and protein expression levels of Inducible NO synthase, COX-2, and cytokines were assayed by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The effect of WEMF on phagocytic activity was measured using a Phagocytosis Assay Kit. RESULTS: WEMF significantly stimulated the production of NO and PGE2 as immune response parameters at noncytotoxic concentrations, which was associated with the increased expression of inducible NO synthase and COX-2. The release and expression of cytokines, such as TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, were also significantly increased in response to treatment with WEMF. Moreover, WEMF promoted the macrophagic differentiation of RAW264.7 cells and the resulting phagocytosis activity. CONCLUSIONS: WEMF has the potential to modulate the immune function by regulating immunological parameters. Further studies are needed to identify the active compounds and to support the use of WEMF as an immune stimulant.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Cell Survival , Cytokines , Dinoprostone , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , In Vitro Techniques , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Macrophages , Medicine, Traditional , Methods , Morus , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Phagocytosis , RNA, Messenger , Water
17.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 345-347, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-118325

ABSTRACT

Drainage of pancreatic abscesses is required for effective control of sepsis. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided endoscopic drainage is less invasive than surgery and prevents local complications related to percutaneous drainage. Endoscopic drainage with stent placement in the uncinate process of the pancreas is a technically difficult procedure. We report a case of pancreatic abscess treated by repeated EUS-guided aspiration and intravenous antibiotics without an indwelling drainage catheter or surgical intervention.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Catheters , Drainage , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Pancreas , Sepsis , Stents , Ultrasonography
18.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 284-290, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-35494

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Prediction of the proximal right coronary artery (pRCA) through electrocardiography (ECG) is very important because pRCA occlusion has frequently been suspected in right ventricular infarction, which has a high mortality rate. The aim of this study is to investigate characteristic ECG finding of pRCA occlusion distinguishable from mid or distal RCA. METHODS: A review was conducted retrospectively of 630 patients with chest pain in the ED who underwent coronary angiography (CAG) from June 2007 to December 2013 and CAG of 89 among them resulted in only RCA occlusion exempting other coronary vessels. The patients were divided into two groups: subjects with pRCA (n=32) occlusion and below the mid RCA (n=57) occlusion. In each subset, features of ECG were searched and analyzed. RESULTS: ECG of patients with occlusion of the pRCA showed more prominent ST depression in lead I (-0.68 mm vs -0.22 mm, p=0.027) and ST elevation in V1 (0.94 mm vs 0.09 mm, p=0.001) than in the below portion. Both ST depression (0.5 mm) in V1 classified according to cutoff value using Youden index J were closely related to pRCA occlusion other than mid or distal RCA (OR 7.16, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Discrimination of pRCA occlusion from mid or distal RCA in ECG through ST depression in lead I and ST elevation in lead V1 might be valid as a sentinel of right ventricular infarction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chest Pain , Constriction, Pathologic , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Vessels , Depression , Discrimination, Psychological , Electrocardiography , Infarction , Mortality , Myocardial Infarction , Retrospective Studies
19.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 341-348, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-17193

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the etiologies of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and compared urodynamic characteristics between different diagnostic groups in young men with chronic LUTS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 308 men aged 18 to 50 years who had undergone a urodynamic study for chronic LUTS (> or =6 months) without symptoms suggestive of chronic prostatitis. RESULTS: The men's mean age was 40.4 (+/-10.1) years and their mean duration of symptoms was 38.8 (+/-49.2) months. Urodynamic evaluation demonstrated voiding phase dysfunction in 62.1% of cases (primary bladder neck dysfunction [PBND] in 26.0%, dysfunctional voiding [DV] in 23.4%, and detrusor underactivity [DU]/acontractile detrusor [AD] in 12.7%) and a single storage phase dysfunction in 36.4% of cases (detrusor overactivity [DO] in 13.3%, small cystometric capacity in 17.9%, and reduced bladder sensation in 5.2%). Most of the demographic characteristics and clinical symptoms did not differ between these diagnostic groups. Whereas 53.9% of patients with voiding dysfunction had concomitant storage dysfunction, 69.6% of those with storage dysfunction had concomitant voiding dysfunction. Men with DV or DU/AD exhibited lower maximum cystometric capacity than did those with normal urodynamics. Low bladder compliance was most frequent among patients with PBND (10.0%, p=0.025). In storage dysfunctions, men with DO exhibited higher detrusor pressure during voiding than did those with other storage dysfunctions (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Because clinical symptoms are not useful for predicting the specific urodynamic etiology of LUTS in this population, urodynamic investigation can help to make an accurate diagnosis and, potentially, to guide appropriate treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Compliance , Diagnosis , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Medical Records , Neck , Prevalence , Prostatitis , Sensation , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Bladder Diseases , Urodynamics
20.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 301-306, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-175776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This observational, non-randomized study evaluated the effect of rosuvastatin loading before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on the incidence of CIN in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 824 patients who underwent PCI for ACS were studied (408 patients in the statin group=40 mg rosuvastatin loading before PCI; 416 patients of control group=no statin pretreatment). Serum creatinine concentrations were measured before and 24 and 48 hours after PCI. The primary endpoint was development of CIN defined as an increase in serum creatinine concentration of > or =0.5 mg/dL or > or =25% above baseline within 72 hours after PCI. RESULTS: The incidence of CIN was significantly lower in the statin group than that in the control group (18.8% vs. 13.5%, p=0.040). The maximum percent changes in serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate in the statin group within 48 hours were significantly lower than those in the control group (5.84+/-22.59% vs. 2.43+/-24.49%, p=0.038; -11.44+/-14.00 vs. -9.51+/-13.89, p=0.048, respectively). The effect of rosuvastatin on preventing CIN was greater in the subgroups of patients with diabetes, high-dose contrast medium, multivessel stents, high baseline C-reactive protein, and myocardial infarction. A multivariate analysis revealed that rosuvastatin loading was independently associated with a decreased risk for CIN (odds ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-0.95, p=0.026). CONCLUSION: High-dose rosuvastatin loading before PCI was associated with a significantly lower incidence of CIN in patients with ACS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acute Coronary Syndrome , C-Reactive Protein , Contrast Media , Creatinine , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Incidence , Kidney , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Stents , Rosuvastatin Calcium
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