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1.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 818-830, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003035

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#There are limited studies on the management of hepatic hemangiomas (HHs). We investigated the proportion and predictors of surgical resection and analyzed HH growth rates in addition to associated factors. @*Methods@#A retrospective case-control study of patients treated in 2 centers was conducted. Thirty-six patients who underwent surgical resection were assigned to the case group. Patients who did not undergo surgical treatment were randomly sigselected at a 1:10 ratio and assigned to the control group (n = 360). Baseline characteristics, clinical course and surgical outcomes were analyzed. @*Results@#The proportion of surgically treated HH patients was 0.3% (36 per 11,049). The longest diameter at diagnosis (mean ± standard deviation) was 7.7 ± 5.2 cm in the case group and 2.4 ± 1.8 cm in the control group (p 10 cm (OR 10.50, 95% CI 1.06–103.77, p = 0.04). The subgroup analysis showed substantial growth in 41.3% with an overall mean annual growth rate of 0.14 cm. @*Conclusions@#Approximately one in 300 patients with an HH underwent surgical treatment. Multiple HHs and a growth rate of more than 4.8%/year were indications for surgical treatment. Nearly half of the HHs showed growing pattern in our study.

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e332-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001192

ABSTRACT

Background@#Since the long-term outcomes of 162 patients who underwent gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) as an initial or adjuvant treatment for acoustic neuromas (ANs) with unilateral hearing loss were first reported in 1998, there has been no report of a comprehensive analysis of what has changed in GKS practice. @*Methods@#We performed a retrospective study of the long-term outcomes of 106 patients with unilateral sporadic ANs who underwent GKS as an initial treatment. The mean patient age was 50 years, and the mean initial tumor volume was 3.68 cm 3 (range, 0.10–23.30 cm 3 ).The median marginal tumor dose was 12.5 Gy (range, 8.0–15.0 Gy) and the median follow-up duration was 153 months (range, 120–216 months). @*Results@#The tumor volume increased in 11 patients (10.4%), remained stationary in 27 (25.5%), and decreased in 68 patients (64.2%). The actuarial 3, 5, 10, and 15-year tumor control rates were 95.3 ± 2.1%, 94.3 ± 2.2%, 87.7 ± 3.2%, and 86.6 ± 3.3%, respectively.The 10-year actuarial tumor control rate was significantly lower in the patients with tumor volumes of ≥ 8 cm 3 (P = 0.010). The rate of maintaining the same Gardner-Robertson scale grade was 28.6%, and that of serviceable hearing was 46.4%. The rates of newly developed facial and trigeminal neuropathy were 2.8% and 4.7%, respectively. The patients who received marginal doses of less than 12 Gy revealed higher tumor control failure rates (P = 0.129) and newly occurred facial or trigeminal neuropathy rates (P = 0.040 and 0.313, respectively). @*Conclusion@#GKS as an initial treatment for ANs could be helpful in terms of tumor control, the preservation of serviceable hearing, and the prevention of cranial neuropathy. It is recommended to perform GKS as soon as possible not only for tumor control in unilateral ANs with hearing loss but also for hearing preservation in those without hearing loss.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e255-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938028

ABSTRACT

Background@#Angiotensin type II receptor blockers (ARBs) are the most widely used antihypertensive drugs. This study aimed to elucidate the likelihood and pattern of ARB-induced liver injury in a hospital-based cohort. @*Methods@#Data of patients receiving fimasartan (n = 5,543), candesartan (n = 6,406), valsartan (n = 6,040), and losartan (n = 9,126) were retrieved from the clinical data warehouse of two tertiary hospitals. Patients with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels > 5 times the upper normal limit were assessed according to the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM). @*Results@#A total of 27,115 patients were enrolled, including 14,630 (54.0%) men, with a mean age of 64.6 years (standard deviation, 13.6). During 31,717 person-years of ARB therapy, serum ALT levels > 120 IU/L were found in 558 (2.1%) person-years, and levels > 200 IU/L were found in 155 (0.6%) person-years. The incidence of ALT elevation > 120 IU/L per 10 6cumulative defined daily doses was 6.6, 3.6, 3.9, and 4.0 in the fimasartan, candesartan, valsartan, and losartan groups, respectively (P = 0.002). An ALT level > 200 IU/L with RUCAM score ≥ 6 was found in 20 patients, suggesting probable drug-induced liver injury for 11 (0.2%) patients receiving fimasartan, five (0.1%) receiving candesartan, four (0.1%) receiving valsartan, and none receiving losartan (P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#Approximately 2% of patients receiving ARB therapy had significant ALT elevation (4.24/10 6 cumulative defined daily doses [cDDDs]), which was associated with probable ARB-related liver injury in 0.07% of patients (0.15/10 6 cDDDs). Elevation of ALT was more commonly associated with fimasartan than the other ARBs. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of ARB-related ALT elevation in patients with unexplained chronic abnormal ALT.

4.
Journal of Cerebrovascular and Endovascular Neurosurgery ; : 16-23, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925191

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Despite the usefulness of pterional craniotomy (PC), its cosmetic outcome is questionable. Electrocautery (EC) causes injuries to adjacent structures, and it could be a factor that affects the cosmetic outcome. Evaluation of cosmetic outcome is difficult because it is often determined by patient’s subjective criteria. The objective of this study is to compare the cosmetic outcome after EC versus non-electrocautery (NEC) dissection of the temporalis muscle for PC by analyzing long-term follow-up data determined from both physician and patient’s aspects. @*Methods@#Patients at follow-ups between January 2014 and April 2021 after PCs were enrolled. The keyhole (KH) site, the inferior margin of the temporal line of the frontal bone (ITL), the mid-temporal (mid-T) area, and the posterior incision line (PIL) were inspected by a physician to check the presence of depressions. Patient’s cosmetic satisfaction was categorized into satisfactory, intermediate, or unsatisfactory by a survey. The presence of osteolysis was checked from the radiological images. Patients were classified into two groups; one with EC dissection and another with NEC retrograde dissection using a double-ended dissector. @*Results@#The incidences of depression at the mid-T area and osteolysis were higher in the EC group (p=0.001, p<0.001). The percentage of satisfactory cosmetic outcome was lower in the EC group (p=0.002). The presences of depression at the mid-T area and osteolysis were related with lower rate of satisfactory outcomes (p<0.001, p<0.001). @*Conclusions@#NEC dissection causes less destruction to adjacent structures and brings better cosmetic outcome after PC.

5.
Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons ; : 388-393, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916036

ABSTRACT

At present, in Korea, due to developments in medicine and technology and an increasing mean lifespan, the expected lifetime for elderly people is increasing (at 70 years, the expected additional lifespan is 14.8 years for males and 18.3 years for females). However, among all causes of death, malignant neoplasm is ranked first for all ages. Further, the incidence rate of oral cancer tends to increase with age. Thus, oral and maxillofacial surgeons have increased opportunity to experience the ‘oldest old’ patients with oral cancer. Elderly patients commonly have several comorbidities, poor general condition, limited socioeconomic support, fear of various postoperative complications, and perception of short for the rest of their life. In this situation, the patient, caregiver, and surgeon often choose undergraded treatment rather than standard treatment for oral squamous cell carcinoma owing to patient age. In elderly patients with oral cancer, ablation of tumor or reconstructive surgery is challenging for surgeons. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons must evaluate carefully the patient’s medical condition and make a decision regarding treatment plans after sufficient discussion with patient and caregivers. We review the literature to consider the factors involved for deciding on a treatment plan regarding surgery in elderly patients with oral cancer.

6.
Journal of Korean Dental Science ; : 69-78, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915362

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the change in the temperature of the adhesive resin in polycrystalline ceramic brackets irradiated using a diode laser at different irradiation energy levels and times. @*Materials and Methods@#For the measurement of the temperature of the adhesive resin, it was applied at the base of the ceramic bracket, a thermocouple was placed at the center of the base surface, the bracket was placed on prepared resin specimens for light curing, and a laser was irradiated to the center of the bracket slot at 5, 7, and 10 W. For the measurement of the temperatures of the enamel under the bracket and pulp cavity, extracted premolar was fixed to a prepared mold and the ceramic bracket was bonded to the buccal surface of the premolar. The Kruskal–Wallis H test and Friedman test were used for statistical analysis.Result: At 5 W, the temperature of the adhesive resin did not reach the resin softening temperature of 200°C within 30 seconds. At 7 W, it reached 200°C when the ceramic bracket was irradiated continuously for 28 seconds. At 10 W, it reached 200°C when the ceramic bracket was irradiated continuously for 15 seconds. During laser irradiation, the temperature of the enamel under the bracket increased by over 5°C within 15 seconds. @*Conclusion@#The use of diode laser irradiation for bracket debonding should be carefully considered because the pulp cavity temperature increases by over 5°C within the irradiation time for resin thermal softening.

7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 389-398, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889722

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The treatment outcomes and genomic profiles of diffuse midline glioma (DMG) in adult patients are rarely characterized. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the clinicogenomic profiles of adult patients with brain DMG. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients aged ≥ 18 years diagnosed with brain DMG at Seoul National University Hospital were included. The clinicopathological parameters, treatment outcomes, survival, and genomic profiles using 82-gene targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) were analyzed. The 6-month progression-free survival (PFS6) after radiotherapy and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. @*Results@#Thirty-three patients with H3-mutant brain DMG were identified. The median OS from diagnosis was 21.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.2 to not available [NA]) and involvement of the ponto-medullary area tended to have poor OS (median OS, 20.4 months [95% CI, 9.3 to NA] vs. 43.6 months [95% CI, 18.2 to NA]; p=0.07). Twenty-four patients (72.7%) received radiotherapy with or without temozolomide. The PFS6 rate was 83.3% (n=20). Patients without progression at 6 months showed significantly prolonged OS compared with those with progression at 6 months (median OS, 24.9 months [95% CI, 20.4 to NA] vs. 10.8 months [95% CI, 4.0 to NA]; p=0.02, respectively). Targeted NGS was performed in 13 patients with DMG, among whom nine (69.2%) harbored concurrent TP53 mutation. Two patients (DMG14 and DMG23) with PIK3CAR38S+E545K and KRASG12A mutations received matched therapies. Patient DMG14 received sirolimus with a PFS of 8.4 months. @*Conclusion@#PFS6 after radiotherapy was associated with prolonged survival in adult patients with DMG. Genome-based matched therapy may be an encouraging approach for progressive adult patients with DMG.

8.
The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics ; : 136-143, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903480

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the effect of repeated use of an implant handpiece under an implant placement torque (35 Ncm) and overloading torque condition (50 Ncm) on an output torque. @*Materials and Methods@#Two types of implant handpiece systems (Surgicpro/X-DSG20L [NSK, Kanuma, Japan] and SIP20/CRB46LN [SAESHIN, Daegu, South Korea]) were used. The output torque was measured using a digital torque gauge. The height and angle (x, y, and z axes) of the digital torque gauge and implant handpiece were adjusted through a jig for passive connection. The experiment was conducted under the setting torque value of 35 Ncm (implant placement torque) and 50 Ncm (overloading torque condition) and 30 times per set; a total of 5 sets were performed (N = 150).For statistical analysis, the difference between the groups was analyzed using the Mann–Whitney U test and the Friedman test was used to confirm the change in output torque (α=.05). @*Results@#NSK and SAESHIN implant handpieces showed significant differences in output torque results at the setting torques of 35 Ncm and 50 Ncm (P <.001). The type of implant handpiece and repeated use influenced the output torque (P <.001). @*Conclusion@#. There may be a difference between the setting torque and actual output torque due to repeated use, and the implant handpiece should be managed and repaired during long-term use. In addition, for successful implant results in dental clinics, the output torque of the implant handpiece system should be checked before implant placement.

9.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 111-115, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913767

ABSTRACT

A 25-year-old female presented with a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. She had no previous history of seizures. A brain magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed a solitary enhancing mass in the right fronto-parietal cortex. During surgery, the mass was noted to be pure cortical with no connection to the ventricular lining. The tumor was completely resected. After surgery, the patient had no further seizures. The biopsy result showed a supratentorial ependymoma, which was C11orf95-RELA-fusionpositive.

10.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 389-398, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897426

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The treatment outcomes and genomic profiles of diffuse midline glioma (DMG) in adult patients are rarely characterized. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the clinicogenomic profiles of adult patients with brain DMG. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients aged ≥ 18 years diagnosed with brain DMG at Seoul National University Hospital were included. The clinicopathological parameters, treatment outcomes, survival, and genomic profiles using 82-gene targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) were analyzed. The 6-month progression-free survival (PFS6) after radiotherapy and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. @*Results@#Thirty-three patients with H3-mutant brain DMG were identified. The median OS from diagnosis was 21.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.2 to not available [NA]) and involvement of the ponto-medullary area tended to have poor OS (median OS, 20.4 months [95% CI, 9.3 to NA] vs. 43.6 months [95% CI, 18.2 to NA]; p=0.07). Twenty-four patients (72.7%) received radiotherapy with or without temozolomide. The PFS6 rate was 83.3% (n=20). Patients without progression at 6 months showed significantly prolonged OS compared with those with progression at 6 months (median OS, 24.9 months [95% CI, 20.4 to NA] vs. 10.8 months [95% CI, 4.0 to NA]; p=0.02, respectively). Targeted NGS was performed in 13 patients with DMG, among whom nine (69.2%) harbored concurrent TP53 mutation. Two patients (DMG14 and DMG23) with PIK3CAR38S+E545K and KRASG12A mutations received matched therapies. Patient DMG14 received sirolimus with a PFS of 8.4 months. @*Conclusion@#PFS6 after radiotherapy was associated with prolonged survival in adult patients with DMG. Genome-based matched therapy may be an encouraging approach for progressive adult patients with DMG.

11.
The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics ; : 136-143, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895776

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the effect of repeated use of an implant handpiece under an implant placement torque (35 Ncm) and overloading torque condition (50 Ncm) on an output torque. @*Materials and Methods@#Two types of implant handpiece systems (Surgicpro/X-DSG20L [NSK, Kanuma, Japan] and SIP20/CRB46LN [SAESHIN, Daegu, South Korea]) were used. The output torque was measured using a digital torque gauge. The height and angle (x, y, and z axes) of the digital torque gauge and implant handpiece were adjusted through a jig for passive connection. The experiment was conducted under the setting torque value of 35 Ncm (implant placement torque) and 50 Ncm (overloading torque condition) and 30 times per set; a total of 5 sets were performed (N = 150).For statistical analysis, the difference between the groups was analyzed using the Mann–Whitney U test and the Friedman test was used to confirm the change in output torque (α=.05). @*Results@#NSK and SAESHIN implant handpieces showed significant differences in output torque results at the setting torques of 35 Ncm and 50 Ncm (P <.001). The type of implant handpiece and repeated use influenced the output torque (P <.001). @*Conclusion@#. There may be a difference between the setting torque and actual output torque due to repeated use, and the implant handpiece should be managed and repaired during long-term use. In addition, for successful implant results in dental clinics, the output torque of the implant handpiece system should be checked before implant placement.

12.
Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery ; : 30-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918466

ABSTRACT

Background@#The potential risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission from asymptomatic COVID-19 patients is a concern in dental practice. However, the impact of this risk is not well documented to date. This report describes our dental clinical experience with patients who did not exhibit symptoms of COVID-19 but were later confirmed as positive for COVID-19.Case presentation: Of the 149,149 patients who visited the outpatient clinic of KNUDH and the 3291 patients who visited the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic of KNUH, 3 were later confirmed as having COVID-1 between 1 February 2020 and 28 February 2021. Owing to close contact with these patients during their treatments, 46 dental and medical staff had to undergo quarantine from the date of the patients’ confirmation of COVID-19 infection. @*Conclusion@#The presented cases showed the potential existence of asymptomatic COVID-19 patients after dental treatment with aerosol-generating procedures. Clinicians should be aware of the infection prevention measures and try to protect healthcare personnel from secondary infection of COVID-19 during dental treatments.

13.
Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery ; : 35-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918462

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to analyze the impact of COVID-19 on oral and maxillofacial fracture in Daegu by comparing the demographic data in 2019 and 2020, retrospectively. We collected data from all patients having trauma who visited the emergency room for oral and maxillofacial fractures. @*Methods@#This retrospective study was based on chart review of patients who visited the emergency department of Kyungpook National University Hospital in Daegu, South Korea from January 1, 2019, to December 31, 2020. We conducted a comparative study for patients who presented with maxillofacial fractures with occlusal instability during pre-COVID-19 era (2019) and COVID-19 era (2000) with demographics and pattern of injuries. @*Results@#After the outbreak of COVID-19, the number of monthly oral and maxillofacial fractures, especially sportsrelated oral and maxillofacial fractures, decreased significantly. Also, the number of alcohol-related fractures increased significantly. In addition, as the number of monthly confirmed cases of COVID-19 increases, the incidence of fracture among these cases tends to decrease. @*Conclusions@#The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the daily life in Korea. Identifying the characteristics of patients having trauma can provide a good lead to understand this long-lasting infectious disease and prepare for future outbreaks.

14.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 21-28, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875606

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Painful muscle cramps are a common complication in liver cirrhosis patients, and no effective treatment is available.This pilot study aimed to evaluate whether taurine supplementation improves muscle cramps in Korean cirrhotic patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Ten cirrhotic patients who experienced muscle cramps one or more times/week were enrolled in this prospective single-arm study and administered with an oral taurine solution (1 g/50 mL) thrice a day for 4 weeks. Taurine was discontinued for the subsequent 4 weeks. The frequency and intensity of muscle cramps were evaluated using a questionnaire at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 after the start of treatment. @*Results@#At baseline, the median frequency of muscle cramps was six times/week, and all patients had severe pain. Muscle cramp scores (frequency×intensity) decreased in seven patients by weeks 4 and 8 after treatment initiation. Compared to baseline muscle cramp scores [median 21, interquartile range (IQR): 8–84], median muscle cramp scores were lower at week 4 (6.5, IQR: 3–12, p=0.126) and week 8 (5, IQR: 1.5–56, p=0.066). All five patients whose baseline plasma taurine levels were below the normal limit showed increased taurine levels at week 4; 60% of them experienced improvements in their muscle cramps. Of the five patients with normal or higher taurine levels, 80% experienced an improvement in symptoms at week 4. The safety and tolerability of the 4-week taurine therapy were excellent. @*Conclusion@#Oral taurine therapy for 4 weeks improved muscle cramps safely in cirrhotic patients.

15.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : e7-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901417

ABSTRACT

Aging triggers cellular and molecular alterations, including genomic instability and organ dysfunction, which increases the risk of disease in mammals. Recently, due to the markedly growing number of aging dogs in the world, as much as 49% in total number of pet dogs, it is necessary to improve and maintain their quality of life by understanding of the biological effects of aging. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine specific biomarkers in aging dogs as a means of defining a set of hematological/biochemical biomarkers that influence the aging process. Blood samples were collected from younger (1–3 years) and older (7–10 years) dogs of middle/large size. The hematological/biochemistry analysis was performed to evaluate parameters significantly associated with age. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to target growth hormone (GH)/insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1), one of the main regulators of the aging process. Declining levels of total protein and increased levels of glucose in young dogs was observed regardless of their body size. Notably, a significantly high concentration of GH and IGF-1 in the younger dogs compared to the older dogs was found in middle/large-sized dogs. GH and IGF-1 were also found at significantly high levels in large-sized dogs compared to middle-sized dogs, suggesting a similar trend to that of elderly humans. Consequently, glucose, total protein, GH, and IGF-1 were identified as potential biomarkers for regulating the aging process in large/middle-sized dogs. These findings provide an invaluable insight into the mechanism of aging for the field of aging research.

16.
Gut and Liver ; : 808-816, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833168

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#To eliminate hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, improving public knowledge of and access to HCV screening and treatment is essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of and testing rate for HCV and the opinions about the inclusion of the HCV test in the National Health Examination (NHE) among the general population in South Korea. @*Methods@#A telephone interview survey was conducted by an independent research company using a 16 item-questionnaire (demographics, knowledge of HCV, testing and results, need for screening) in May 2019. The sample population consisted of 1,003 adult Korean resi-dents adjusted by age, sex, and area according to the stan-dard Korean population in 2019. @*Results@#Among the 1,003 participants (505 women, mean age of 47.9 years), 56.4% recognized HCV; 44.4% understood that HCV is transmit-table, and 56.8% thought that HCV is curable by medication. The recognition rate tended to increase with an increasing level of education. Testing for anti-HCV antibodies was re-ported by 91 people (9.1%); among them, 10 people (11.0%) reported a positive result, and eight people received treat-ment. The common reasons for HCV testing were a health check-up (58.5%), a physician’s recommendation (11.0%) and elevated liver enzyme levels (10.7%). The majority of the population (75.1%) agreed with the integration of HCV into the NHE. @*Conclusions@#The level of knowledge of HCV is suboptimal, and the self-reported testing rate for HCV is less than 10%; however, once HCV infection is diagnosed, the treatment rate seems to be high in South Korea. More active campaigns and effective screening are needed.

17.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 492-505, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832294

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The role of serum myokine levels in sarcopenia and the outcome of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients are not clear. This study investigated the serum levels of myostatin, follistatin, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in HCC patients and their association with sarcopenia and survival. @*Methods@#Using prospectively collected pretreatment samples from 238 HCC patients in a hospital from 2012 to 2015, the serum levels of 3 myokines were determined and compared to 50 samples from age and sex-matched healthy controls. Sarcopenia was evaluated using the psoas muscle index (PMI) measured at the third lumbar level in the computed tomography, and clinical data were collected until 2017. @*Results@#The median levels of the 3 myokines for the male and female HCC patients were as follow: myostatin (3,979.3 and 2,976.3 pg/mL), follistatin (2,118.5 and 2,174.6 pg/mL), and IL-6 (2.5 and 2.7 pg/mL), respectively. Those in the HCC patients were all significantly higher than in the healthy controls. In the HCC patient, the median PMI was 4.43 (males) and 2.17 cm2/m2 (females) with a sarcopenic prevalence of 56.4%. The serum levels of myostatin, IL-6 and follistatin in the HCC patients showed a positive, negative, and no correlation with PMI, respectively. The serum follistatin level was an independent factor for poor survival in HCC patients. @*Conclusions@#The serum levels of myostatin, follistatin, and IL-6 and their correlation with sarcopenia and survival were presented in HCC patients for the first time. The role of the serum follistatin level as a poor prognostic biomarker warrants further study.

18.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e228-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831598

ABSTRACT

N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), a widely used solvent in the chemical industry, is known to induce toxic hepatitis. However, there have been no reported cases of DMF-associated autoimmune hepatitis. A 31-year-old healthy man working at a glove factory since July 2015 had intermittently put his bare hands into a diluted DMF solution for his first 15 days at work. After 2 months, he felt nausea, fatigue, and hand cramping, and a jaundice followed. His laboratory findings showed positive autoantibodies and elevated immunoglobulin G (IgG), and his liver biopsy pathology was typical of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Prednisolone and azathioprine therapy began, and he recovered rapidly without adverse events. Though his liver chemistry was normalized, the IgG level remained persistently upper normal range. His 2nd liver biopsy performed in April 2019 showed mild portal activity, and he was well under a low dose immunosuppressive therapy up to April 2020. This case warns of the hazard of occupational exposure to DMF, and clinicians should be aware of DMF-related AIH for timely initiation of immunosuppressive therapy.

19.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 113-124, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811143

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of dementia. We aimed to comprehensively analyze the incidence and risk factors for dementia and young-onset dementia (YOD) in diabetic patients in Korea using the National Health Insurance Service data.METHODS: Between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2012, a total of 1,917,702 participants with diabetes were included and followed until the date of dementia diagnosis or until December 31, 2015. We evaluated the incidence and risk factors for all dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) by Cox proportional hazards analyses. We also compared the impact of risk factors on the occurrence of YOD and late-onset dementia (LOD).RESULTS: During an average of 5.1 years of follow-up, the incidence of all types of dementia, AD, or VaD was 9.5, 6.8, and 1.3/1,000 person-years, respectively, in participants with diabetes. YOD comprised 4.8% of all dementia occurrence, and the ratio of AD/VaD was 2.1 for YOD compared with 5.5 for LOD. Current smokers and subjects with lower income, plasma glucose levels, body mass index (BMI), and subjects with hypertension, dyslipidemia, vascular complications, depression, and insulin treatment developed dementia more frequently. Vascular risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, and previous cardiovascular diseases were more strongly associated with the development of VaD than AD. Low BMI and a history of stroke or depression had a stronger influence on the development of YOD than LOD.CONCLUSION: The optimal management of modifiable risk factors may be important for preventing dementia in subjects with diabetes mellitus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alzheimer Disease , Blood Glucose , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases , Dementia , Dementia, Vascular , Depression , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diagnosis , Dyslipidemias , Follow-Up Studies , Hypertension , Incidence , Insulin , Korea , National Health Programs , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Stroke
20.
Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery ; : 7-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836937

ABSTRACT

Maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) is effective for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In previous studies, the airway was increased in the anteroposterior and transverse dimensions after MMA. However, the effect of the opposite of mandibular movement (mandibular setback) on the airway is still controversial. Mandibular setback surgery has been suggested to be one of the risk factors in the development of sleep apnea. Previous studies have found that mandibular setback surgery could reduce the total airway volume and posterior airway space significantly in both the one-jaw and two-jaw surgery groups. However, a direct cause-and-effect relationship between the mandibular setback and development of sleep apnea has not been clearly established. Moreover, there are only a few reported cases of postoperative OSA development after mandibular setback surgery. These findings may be attributed to a fundamental difference in demographic variables such as age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) between patients with mandibular prognathism and patients with OSA. Another possibility is that the site of obstruction or pattern of obstruction may be different between the awake and sleep status in patients with OSA and mandibular prognathism. In a case-controlled study, information including the BMI and other presurgical conditions potentially related to OSA should be considered when evaluating the airway. In conclusion, the preoperative evaluation and management of co-morbid conditions would be essential for the prevention of OSA after mandibular setback surgery despite its low incidence.

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