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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925191

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Despite the usefulness of pterional craniotomy (PC), its cosmetic outcome is questionable. Electrocautery (EC) causes injuries to adjacent structures, and it could be a factor that affects the cosmetic outcome. Evaluation of cosmetic outcome is difficult because it is often determined by patient’s subjective criteria. The objective of this study is to compare the cosmetic outcome after EC versus non-electrocautery (NEC) dissection of the temporalis muscle for PC by analyzing long-term follow-up data determined from both physician and patient’s aspects. @*Methods@#Patients at follow-ups between January 2014 and April 2021 after PCs were enrolled. The keyhole (KH) site, the inferior margin of the temporal line of the frontal bone (ITL), the mid-temporal (mid-T) area, and the posterior incision line (PIL) were inspected by a physician to check the presence of depressions. Patient’s cosmetic satisfaction was categorized into satisfactory, intermediate, or unsatisfactory by a survey. The presence of osteolysis was checked from the radiological images. Patients were classified into two groups; one with EC dissection and another with NEC retrograde dissection using a double-ended dissector. @*Results@#The incidences of depression at the mid-T area and osteolysis were higher in the EC group (p=0.001, p<0.001). The percentage of satisfactory cosmetic outcome was lower in the EC group (p=0.002). The presences of depression at the mid-T area and osteolysis were related with lower rate of satisfactory outcomes (p<0.001, p<0.001). @*Conclusions@#NEC dissection causes less destruction to adjacent structures and brings better cosmetic outcome after PC.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918466

ABSTRACT

Background@#The potential risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission from asymptomatic COVID-19 patients is a concern in dental practice. However, the impact of this risk is not well documented to date. This report describes our dental clinical experience with patients who did not exhibit symptoms of COVID-19 but were later confirmed as positive for COVID-19.Case presentation: Of the 149,149 patients who visited the outpatient clinic of KNUDH and the 3291 patients who visited the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic of KNUH, 3 were later confirmed as having COVID-1 between 1 February 2020 and 28 February 2021. Owing to close contact with these patients during their treatments, 46 dental and medical staff had to undergo quarantine from the date of the patients’ confirmation of COVID-19 infection. @*Conclusion@#The presented cases showed the potential existence of asymptomatic COVID-19 patients after dental treatment with aerosol-generating procedures. Clinicians should be aware of the infection prevention measures and try to protect healthcare personnel from secondary infection of COVID-19 during dental treatments.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918462

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to analyze the impact of COVID-19 on oral and maxillofacial fracture in Daegu by comparing the demographic data in 2019 and 2020, retrospectively. We collected data from all patients having trauma who visited the emergency room for oral and maxillofacial fractures. @*Methods@#This retrospective study was based on chart review of patients who visited the emergency department of Kyungpook National University Hospital in Daegu, South Korea from January 1, 2019, to December 31, 2020. We conducted a comparative study for patients who presented with maxillofacial fractures with occlusal instability during pre-COVID-19 era (2019) and COVID-19 era (2000) with demographics and pattern of injuries. @*Results@#After the outbreak of COVID-19, the number of monthly oral and maxillofacial fractures, especially sportsrelated oral and maxillofacial fractures, decreased significantly. Also, the number of alcohol-related fractures increased significantly. In addition, as the number of monthly confirmed cases of COVID-19 increases, the incidence of fracture among these cases tends to decrease. @*Conclusions@#The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the daily life in Korea. Identifying the characteristics of patients having trauma can provide a good lead to understand this long-lasting infectious disease and prepare for future outbreaks.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916036

ABSTRACT

At present, in Korea, due to developments in medicine and technology and an increasing mean lifespan, the expected lifetime for elderly people is increasing (at 70 years, the expected additional lifespan is 14.8 years for males and 18.3 years for females). However, among all causes of death, malignant neoplasm is ranked first for all ages. Further, the incidence rate of oral cancer tends to increase with age. Thus, oral and maxillofacial surgeons have increased opportunity to experience the ‘oldest old’ patients with oral cancer. Elderly patients commonly have several comorbidities, poor general condition, limited socioeconomic support, fear of various postoperative complications, and perception of short for the rest of their life. In this situation, the patient, caregiver, and surgeon often choose undergraded treatment rather than standard treatment for oral squamous cell carcinoma owing to patient age. In elderly patients with oral cancer, ablation of tumor or reconstructive surgery is challenging for surgeons. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons must evaluate carefully the patient’s medical condition and make a decision regarding treatment plans after sufficient discussion with patient and caregivers. We review the literature to consider the factors involved for deciding on a treatment plan regarding surgery in elderly patients with oral cancer.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915362

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the change in the temperature of the adhesive resin in polycrystalline ceramic brackets irradiated using a diode laser at different irradiation energy levels and times. @*Materials and Methods@#For the measurement of the temperature of the adhesive resin, it was applied at the base of the ceramic bracket, a thermocouple was placed at the center of the base surface, the bracket was placed on prepared resin specimens for light curing, and a laser was irradiated to the center of the bracket slot at 5, 7, and 10 W. For the measurement of the temperatures of the enamel under the bracket and pulp cavity, extracted premolar was fixed to a prepared mold and the ceramic bracket was bonded to the buccal surface of the premolar. The Kruskal–Wallis H test and Friedman test were used for statistical analysis.Result: At 5 W, the temperature of the adhesive resin did not reach the resin softening temperature of 200°C within 30 seconds. At 7 W, it reached 200°C when the ceramic bracket was irradiated continuously for 28 seconds. At 10 W, it reached 200°C when the ceramic bracket was irradiated continuously for 15 seconds. During laser irradiation, the temperature of the enamel under the bracket increased by over 5°C within 15 seconds. @*Conclusion@#The use of diode laser irradiation for bracket debonding should be carefully considered because the pulp cavity temperature increases by over 5°C within the irradiation time for resin thermal softening.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913767

ABSTRACT

A 25-year-old female presented with a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. She had no previous history of seizures. A brain magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed a solitary enhancing mass in the right fronto-parietal cortex. During surgery, the mass was noted to be pure cortical with no connection to the ventricular lining. The tumor was completely resected. After surgery, the patient had no further seizures. The biopsy result showed a supratentorial ependymoma, which was C11orf95-RELA-fusionpositive.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903480

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the effect of repeated use of an implant handpiece under an implant placement torque (35 Ncm) and overloading torque condition (50 Ncm) on an output torque. @*Materials and Methods@#Two types of implant handpiece systems (Surgicpro/X-DSG20L [NSK, Kanuma, Japan] and SIP20/CRB46LN [SAESHIN, Daegu, South Korea]) were used. The output torque was measured using a digital torque gauge. The height and angle (x, y, and z axes) of the digital torque gauge and implant handpiece were adjusted through a jig for passive connection. The experiment was conducted under the setting torque value of 35 Ncm (implant placement torque) and 50 Ncm (overloading torque condition) and 30 times per set; a total of 5 sets were performed (N = 150).For statistical analysis, the difference between the groups was analyzed using the Mann–Whitney U test and the Friedman test was used to confirm the change in output torque (α=.05). @*Results@#NSK and SAESHIN implant handpieces showed significant differences in output torque results at the setting torques of 35 Ncm and 50 Ncm (P <.001). The type of implant handpiece and repeated use influenced the output torque (P <.001). @*Conclusion@#. There may be a difference between the setting torque and actual output torque due to repeated use, and the implant handpiece should be managed and repaired during long-term use. In addition, for successful implant results in dental clinics, the output torque of the implant handpiece system should be checked before implant placement.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897426

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The treatment outcomes and genomic profiles of diffuse midline glioma (DMG) in adult patients are rarely characterized. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the clinicogenomic profiles of adult patients with brain DMG. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients aged ≥ 18 years diagnosed with brain DMG at Seoul National University Hospital were included. The clinicopathological parameters, treatment outcomes, survival, and genomic profiles using 82-gene targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) were analyzed. The 6-month progression-free survival (PFS6) after radiotherapy and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. @*Results@#Thirty-three patients with H3-mutant brain DMG were identified. The median OS from diagnosis was 21.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.2 to not available [NA]) and involvement of the ponto-medullary area tended to have poor OS (median OS, 20.4 months [95% CI, 9.3 to NA] vs. 43.6 months [95% CI, 18.2 to NA]; p=0.07). Twenty-four patients (72.7%) received radiotherapy with or without temozolomide. The PFS6 rate was 83.3% (n=20). Patients without progression at 6 months showed significantly prolonged OS compared with those with progression at 6 months (median OS, 24.9 months [95% CI, 20.4 to NA] vs. 10.8 months [95% CI, 4.0 to NA]; p=0.02, respectively). Targeted NGS was performed in 13 patients with DMG, among whom nine (69.2%) harbored concurrent TP53 mutation. Two patients (DMG14 and DMG23) with PIK3CAR38S+E545K and KRASG12A mutations received matched therapies. Patient DMG14 received sirolimus with a PFS of 8.4 months. @*Conclusion@#PFS6 after radiotherapy was associated with prolonged survival in adult patients with DMG. Genome-based matched therapy may be an encouraging approach for progressive adult patients with DMG.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895776

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the effect of repeated use of an implant handpiece under an implant placement torque (35 Ncm) and overloading torque condition (50 Ncm) on an output torque. @*Materials and Methods@#Two types of implant handpiece systems (Surgicpro/X-DSG20L [NSK, Kanuma, Japan] and SIP20/CRB46LN [SAESHIN, Daegu, South Korea]) were used. The output torque was measured using a digital torque gauge. The height and angle (x, y, and z axes) of the digital torque gauge and implant handpiece were adjusted through a jig for passive connection. The experiment was conducted under the setting torque value of 35 Ncm (implant placement torque) and 50 Ncm (overloading torque condition) and 30 times per set; a total of 5 sets were performed (N = 150).For statistical analysis, the difference between the groups was analyzed using the Mann–Whitney U test and the Friedman test was used to confirm the change in output torque (α=.05). @*Results@#NSK and SAESHIN implant handpieces showed significant differences in output torque results at the setting torques of 35 Ncm and 50 Ncm (P <.001). The type of implant handpiece and repeated use influenced the output torque (P <.001). @*Conclusion@#. There may be a difference between the setting torque and actual output torque due to repeated use, and the implant handpiece should be managed and repaired during long-term use. In addition, for successful implant results in dental clinics, the output torque of the implant handpiece system should be checked before implant placement.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889722

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The treatment outcomes and genomic profiles of diffuse midline glioma (DMG) in adult patients are rarely characterized. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the clinicogenomic profiles of adult patients with brain DMG. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients aged ≥ 18 years diagnosed with brain DMG at Seoul National University Hospital were included. The clinicopathological parameters, treatment outcomes, survival, and genomic profiles using 82-gene targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) were analyzed. The 6-month progression-free survival (PFS6) after radiotherapy and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. @*Results@#Thirty-three patients with H3-mutant brain DMG were identified. The median OS from diagnosis was 21.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.2 to not available [NA]) and involvement of the ponto-medullary area tended to have poor OS (median OS, 20.4 months [95% CI, 9.3 to NA] vs. 43.6 months [95% CI, 18.2 to NA]; p=0.07). Twenty-four patients (72.7%) received radiotherapy with or without temozolomide. The PFS6 rate was 83.3% (n=20). Patients without progression at 6 months showed significantly prolonged OS compared with those with progression at 6 months (median OS, 24.9 months [95% CI, 20.4 to NA] vs. 10.8 months [95% CI, 4.0 to NA]; p=0.02, respectively). Targeted NGS was performed in 13 patients with DMG, among whom nine (69.2%) harbored concurrent TP53 mutation. Two patients (DMG14 and DMG23) with PIK3CAR38S+E545K and KRASG12A mutations received matched therapies. Patient DMG14 received sirolimus with a PFS of 8.4 months. @*Conclusion@#PFS6 after radiotherapy was associated with prolonged survival in adult patients with DMG. Genome-based matched therapy may be an encouraging approach for progressive adult patients with DMG.

11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 21-28, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875606

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Painful muscle cramps are a common complication in liver cirrhosis patients, and no effective treatment is available.This pilot study aimed to evaluate whether taurine supplementation improves muscle cramps in Korean cirrhotic patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Ten cirrhotic patients who experienced muscle cramps one or more times/week were enrolled in this prospective single-arm study and administered with an oral taurine solution (1 g/50 mL) thrice a day for 4 weeks. Taurine was discontinued for the subsequent 4 weeks. The frequency and intensity of muscle cramps were evaluated using a questionnaire at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 after the start of treatment. @*Results@#At baseline, the median frequency of muscle cramps was six times/week, and all patients had severe pain. Muscle cramp scores (frequency×intensity) decreased in seven patients by weeks 4 and 8 after treatment initiation. Compared to baseline muscle cramp scores [median 21, interquartile range (IQR): 8–84], median muscle cramp scores were lower at week 4 (6.5, IQR: 3–12, p=0.126) and week 8 (5, IQR: 1.5–56, p=0.066). All five patients whose baseline plasma taurine levels were below the normal limit showed increased taurine levels at week 4; 60% of them experienced improvements in their muscle cramps. Of the five patients with normal or higher taurine levels, 80% experienced an improvement in symptoms at week 4. The safety and tolerability of the 4-week taurine therapy were excellent. @*Conclusion@#Oral taurine therapy for 4 weeks improved muscle cramps safely in cirrhotic patients.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836937

ABSTRACT

Maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) is effective for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In previous studies, the airway was increased in the anteroposterior and transverse dimensions after MMA. However, the effect of the opposite of mandibular movement (mandibular setback) on the airway is still controversial. Mandibular setback surgery has been suggested to be one of the risk factors in the development of sleep apnea. Previous studies have found that mandibular setback surgery could reduce the total airway volume and posterior airway space significantly in both the one-jaw and two-jaw surgery groups. However, a direct cause-and-effect relationship between the mandibular setback and development of sleep apnea has not been clearly established. Moreover, there are only a few reported cases of postoperative OSA development after mandibular setback surgery. These findings may be attributed to a fundamental difference in demographic variables such as age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) between patients with mandibular prognathism and patients with OSA. Another possibility is that the site of obstruction or pattern of obstruction may be different between the awake and sleep status in patients with OSA and mandibular prognathism. In a case-controlled study, information including the BMI and other presurgical conditions potentially related to OSA should be considered when evaluating the airway. In conclusion, the preoperative evaluation and management of co-morbid conditions would be essential for the prevention of OSA after mandibular setback surgery despite its low incidence.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834377

ABSTRACT

The neurological coordination of the lower urinary tract can be analyzed from the perspective of motor neurons or sensory neurons. First, sensory nerves with receptors in the bladder and urethra transmits stimuli to the cerebral cortex through the periaqueductal gray (PAG) of the midbrain. Upon the recognition of stimuli, the cerebrum carries out decision-making in response. Motor neurons are divided into upper motor neurons (UMNs) and lower motor neurons (LMNs) and UMNs coordinate storage and urination in the brainstem for synergic voiding. In contrast, LMNs, which originate in the spinal cord, cause muscles to contract. These neurons are present in the sacrum, and in particular, a specific neuron group called Onuf’s nucleus is responsible for the contraction of the external urethral sphincter and maintains continence in states of rising vesical pressure through voluntary contraction of the sphincter. Parasympathetic neurons originating from S2–S4 are responsible for the contraction of bladder muscles, while sympathetic neurons are responsible for contraction of the urethral smooth muscle, including the bladder neck, during the guarding reflex. UMNs are controlled in the pons where various motor stimuli to the LMNs are directed along with control to various other pelvic organs, and in the PAG, where complex signals from the brain are received and integrated. Future understanding of the complex mechanisms of micturition requires integrative knowledge from various fields encompassing these distinct disciplines.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917960

ABSTRACT

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is a common complication of spinal and cranial surgery, and patients undergoing spinal tumor surgery are probably particularly predisposed due to the presence of an intradural tumor and many other factors. Furthermore, a meticulous dural closure technique does not always result in watertight closure. A number of adjunctive methods have been used to assist with dural closure. Synthetic, absorbable polyethylene glycol hydrogel dural sealants are widely used and have been approved for use as adjuncts for cranial applications requiring sutured dural closure. We report a case of thecal sac compression by DuraSeal ® Dural Sealant used to repair the CSF leak after intentional durotomy during lumbar schwannoma extirpation.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901417

ABSTRACT

Aging triggers cellular and molecular alterations, including genomic instability and organ dysfunction, which increases the risk of disease in mammals. Recently, due to the markedly growing number of aging dogs in the world, as much as 49% in total number of pet dogs, it is necessary to improve and maintain their quality of life by understanding of the biological effects of aging. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine specific biomarkers in aging dogs as a means of defining a set of hematological/biochemical biomarkers that influence the aging process. Blood samples were collected from younger (1–3 years) and older (7–10 years) dogs of middle/large size. The hematological/biochemistry analysis was performed to evaluate parameters significantly associated with age. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to target growth hormone (GH)/insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1), one of the main regulators of the aging process. Declining levels of total protein and increased levels of glucose in young dogs was observed regardless of their body size. Notably, a significantly high concentration of GH and IGF-1 in the younger dogs compared to the older dogs was found in middle/large-sized dogs. GH and IGF-1 were also found at significantly high levels in large-sized dogs compared to middle-sized dogs, suggesting a similar trend to that of elderly humans. Consequently, glucose, total protein, GH, and IGF-1 were identified as potential biomarkers for regulating the aging process in large/middle-sized dogs. These findings provide an invaluable insight into the mechanism of aging for the field of aging research.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893713

ABSTRACT

Aging triggers cellular and molecular alterations, including genomic instability and organ dysfunction, which increases the risk of disease in mammals. Recently, due to the markedly growing number of aging dogs in the world, as much as 49% in total number of pet dogs, it is necessary to improve and maintain their quality of life by understanding of the biological effects of aging. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine specific biomarkers in aging dogs as a means of defining a set of hematological/biochemical biomarkers that influence the aging process. Blood samples were collected from younger (1–3 years) and older (7–10 years) dogs of middle/large size. The hematological/biochemistry analysis was performed to evaluate parameters significantly associated with age. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to target growth hormone (GH)/insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1), one of the main regulators of the aging process. Declining levels of total protein and increased levels of glucose in young dogs was observed regardless of their body size. Notably, a significantly high concentration of GH and IGF-1 in the younger dogs compared to the older dogs was found in middle/large-sized dogs. GH and IGF-1 were also found at significantly high levels in large-sized dogs compared to middle-sized dogs, suggesting a similar trend to that of elderly humans. Consequently, glucose, total protein, GH, and IGF-1 were identified as potential biomarkers for regulating the aging process in large/middle-sized dogs. These findings provide an invaluable insight into the mechanism of aging for the field of aging research.

17.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833490

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Metaplastic meningioma is an extremely rare subtype of World Health Organization (WHO) grade I meningioma. It has distinctive histological subtypes according to its own mesenchymal components. Owing to its scarcity, clinical or radiological features of a metaplastic meningioma are poorly described. @*Methods@#: Between 2004 and 2018, we analyzed total 1814 cases surgically proven meningioma for 15 years. Among them, metaplastic meningioma was diagnosed in 11 cases. Magnetic resonance images were taken for all patients, and computed tomography scan was taken for 10 patients. @*Results@#: WHO grade I meningiomas were 1376 cases (75.9%), 354 cases (19.5%) in WHO grade II, and 84 cases (4.6%) in WHO grade III meningiomas. Metaplastic meningioma was 11 cases as 0.8% of WHO grade I meningioma and 0.6% of entire meningiomas for 15 years. Among the entire 11 metaplastic meningiomas, five tumors (45%) were diagnosed as a lipomatous subtype with rich fat components, four (36%) as an osseous subtype with extensive bone formation and two (18%) as a xanthomatous subtype. There was no cartilaginous subtype metaplastic meningioma in our study. Lipomatous and osseous metaplastic meningioma have peculiar radiological characteristics according to mesenchymal components. @*Conclusion@#: We investigated a rare metaplastic meningioma subtype based on our 15-year surgical experience with meningiomas.Further investigation will be necessary for the clear clarification of tumor nature of this rare tumor.

18.
Gut and Liver ; : 808-816, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833168

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#To eliminate hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, improving public knowledge of and access to HCV screening and treatment is essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of and testing rate for HCV and the opinions about the inclusion of the HCV test in the National Health Examination (NHE) among the general population in South Korea. @*Methods@#A telephone interview survey was conducted by an independent research company using a 16 item-questionnaire (demographics, knowledge of HCV, testing and results, need for screening) in May 2019. The sample population consisted of 1,003 adult Korean resi-dents adjusted by age, sex, and area according to the stan-dard Korean population in 2019. @*Results@#Among the 1,003 participants (505 women, mean age of 47.9 years), 56.4% recognized HCV; 44.4% understood that HCV is transmit-table, and 56.8% thought that HCV is curable by medication. The recognition rate tended to increase with an increasing level of education. Testing for anti-HCV antibodies was re-ported by 91 people (9.1%); among them, 10 people (11.0%) reported a positive result, and eight people received treat-ment. The common reasons for HCV testing were a health check-up (58.5%), a physician’s recommendation (11.0%) and elevated liver enzyme levels (10.7%). The majority of the population (75.1%) agreed with the integration of HCV into the NHE. @*Conclusions@#The level of knowledge of HCV is suboptimal, and the self-reported testing rate for HCV is less than 10%; however, once HCV infection is diagnosed, the treatment rate seems to be high in South Korea. More active campaigns and effective screening are needed.

19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832294

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The role of serum myokine levels in sarcopenia and the outcome of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients are not clear. This study investigated the serum levels of myostatin, follistatin, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in HCC patients and their association with sarcopenia and survival. @*Methods@#Using prospectively collected pretreatment samples from 238 HCC patients in a hospital from 2012 to 2015, the serum levels of 3 myokines were determined and compared to 50 samples from age and sex-matched healthy controls. Sarcopenia was evaluated using the psoas muscle index (PMI) measured at the third lumbar level in the computed tomography, and clinical data were collected until 2017. @*Results@#The median levels of the 3 myokines for the male and female HCC patients were as follow: myostatin (3,979.3 and 2,976.3 pg/mL), follistatin (2,118.5 and 2,174.6 pg/mL), and IL-6 (2.5 and 2.7 pg/mL), respectively. Those in the HCC patients were all significantly higher than in the healthy controls. In the HCC patient, the median PMI was 4.43 (males) and 2.17 cm2/m2 (females) with a sarcopenic prevalence of 56.4%. The serum levels of myostatin, IL-6 and follistatin in the HCC patients showed a positive, negative, and no correlation with PMI, respectively. The serum follistatin level was an independent factor for poor survival in HCC patients. @*Conclusions@#The serum levels of myostatin, follistatin, and IL-6 and their correlation with sarcopenia and survival were presented in HCC patients for the first time. The role of the serum follistatin level as a poor prognostic biomarker warrants further study.

20.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831598

ABSTRACT

N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), a widely used solvent in the chemical industry, is known to induce toxic hepatitis. However, there have been no reported cases of DMF-associated autoimmune hepatitis. A 31-year-old healthy man working at a glove factory since July 2015 had intermittently put his bare hands into a diluted DMF solution for his first 15 days at work. After 2 months, he felt nausea, fatigue, and hand cramping, and a jaundice followed. His laboratory findings showed positive autoantibodies and elevated immunoglobulin G (IgG), and his liver biopsy pathology was typical of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Prednisolone and azathioprine therapy began, and he recovered rapidly without adverse events. Though his liver chemistry was normalized, the IgG level remained persistently upper normal range. His 2nd liver biopsy performed in April 2019 showed mild portal activity, and he was well under a low dose immunosuppressive therapy up to April 2020. This case warns of the hazard of occupational exposure to DMF, and clinicians should be aware of DMF-related AIH for timely initiation of immunosuppressive therapy.

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