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1.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ; : 180-189, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967665

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a global shortage of medical resources; therefore, we investigated whether COVID-19 impacted the quality of non-COVID-19 hospital care in Korea by comparing hospital standardized mortality rates (HSMRs) before and during the pandemic. @*Methods@#This retrospective cohort study analyzed Korean National Health Insurance discharge claim data obtained from January to June in 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2020. Patients’ in-hospital deaths were classified according to the most responsible diagnosis categories. The HSMR is calculated as the ratio of expected deaths to actual deaths. The time trend in the overall HSMR was analyzed by region and hospital type. @*Results@#The final analysis included 2 252 824 patients. In 2020, the HSMR increased nationwide (HSMR, 99.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 97.7 to 101.0) in comparison to 2019 (HSMR, 97.3; 95% CI, 95.8 to 98.8). In the COVID-19 pandemic zone, the HSMR increased significantly in 2020 (HSMR, 112.7; 95% CI, 107.0 to 118.7) compared to 2019 (HSMR, 101.7; 95% CI, 96.9 to 106.6). The HSMR in all general hospitals increased significantly in 2020 (HSMR, 106.4; 95% CI, 104.3 to 108.5) compared to 2019 (HSMR, 100.3; 95% CI, 98.4 to 102.2). Hospitals participating in the COVID-19 response had a lower HSMR (HSMR, 95.6; 95% CI, 93.9 to 97.4) than hospitals not participating in the COVID-19 response (HSMR, 124.3; 95% CI, 119.3 to 129.4). @*Conclusions@#This study suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic may have negatively impacted the quality of care in hospitals, especially general hospitals with relatively few beds. In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is necessary to prevent excessive workloads in hospitals and to properly employ and coordinate the workforce.

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e58-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967423

ABSTRACT

Background@#The epidemiology of influenza is commonly used to understand and establish relevant health policies for emerging respiratory infections, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, Korea has no confirmed nationwide data on influenza incidence, severity, and mortality rate. @*Methods@#We conducted a cross-sectional study to obtain epidemic data on influenza at the national level using National Health Insurance claims data during 2010 to 2020. Influenza cases were defined as 90-day timeframe episodes based on all inpatient and outpatient claims data with disease code J09, J10, and J11. Influenza incidence, severity, and mortality rate were calculated, and logistic regressions were performed to assess the associations of demographic characteristics and comorbidity with influenza-related hospitalization, severe illness, and death. @*Results@#There were 0.3–5.9% influenza cases in the population from 2010 to 2020, with 9.7–18.9%, 0.2–0.9%, and 0.03–0.08% hospitalized, used in the intensive care unit, and dead, respectively. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were 424.3–6847.4 and 0.2–1.9 per 100,000 population, respectively. While more than half of the influenza cases occurred in populations aged younger than 20 years, deaths in older than 60 years accounted for more than two-thirds of all deaths. @*Conclusion@#This study provided the simplest but most important statistics regarding Korean influenza epidemics as a reference. These can be used to understand and manage other new acute respiratory diseases, including COVID-19, and establish influenza-related policies.

3.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 22-33, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919628

ABSTRACT

In response to the global spread of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), many countries have expanded access to non-contact healthcare. This study aimed to investigate the current state of non-contact healthcare in developed countries before and after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, and examine the potential clinical and political implications applicable to Korea. Before the COVID-19 outbreak, non-contact healthcare was provided to a limited extent. However, given the surge in COVID-19 cases, countries have lifted the restrictions on non-contact healthcare by expanding eligibility to patients and providers and the range of services. Countries that were slow to implement non-contact healthcare before the pandemic experienced a paradigm shift. Noncontact healthcare has advantages in maintaining essential health services while protecting patients and providers from viral infections. In Korea, non-contact healthcare was regarded as a business sector, so it has not been formally discussed from a public health standpoint. Given this global urgency, discussions should begin surrounding how to best utilize non-contact healthcare, considering the values, safety, and efficacy from the perspective of continuity of patient care. Non-contact healthcare should shift to utilizing a patient-centered approach. The step-by-step strategic planning of non-contact healthcare is imperative for ensuring value, quality, equity, and safety of services.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e1-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915525

ABSTRACT

Background@#The aim of this study was to estimate the 8-year prevalence and mortality statistics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) according to birth year (2002–2012). @*Methods@#We used the National Health Insurance Service database with 4,989,351 children born from 2002 to 2012 including 35,529 children diagnosed with ASD until 8 years of age.The 8-year cumulative prevalence of ASD was calculated annually (2010–2020) with 8 years of follow-up. The 8-year mortality was estimated using Cox models adjusted for sex, household income, area of residence, and year of birth. @*Results@#Of the 473,494 children born in 2002, 2,467 (5.2 per 1,000 births) were diagnosed with ASD until 2010. The ASD prevalence was 2.6 times higher among boys (1,839; 7.4 per 1,000 boy births) than girls (628; 2.8 per 1,000 girl births). Of the 467,360 children born in 2012, 4,378 (9.4 per 1,000 births) were diagnosed with ASD until 2020. The ASD prevalence was 2.7 times higher among boys (3,246; 13.5 per 1,000 boy births) than girls (1,132; 5.0 per 1,000 girl births). The risk of all-cause mortality was higher among children with ASD than those without (hazard ratio [HR], 2.340; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.063–2.654), which is substantially higher among girls (HR, 4.223; 95% CI, 3.472–5.135) than boys (HR, 1.774; 95% CI, 1.505–2.090). @*Conclusion@#The present study demonstrated that national-level prevalence and mortality statistics of ASD can be estimated effectively using claims data comprising newborns born each year and followed up for to the age of interest. Because this information is essential to establish evidence-based policies, health authorities need to consider producing epidemiological information of ASD continuously using the same methodology.

5.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2022020-2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937564

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#We investigated the awareness, experience, approval, intention to use, and the desired type of telemedicine among Korean general public. @*METHODS@#From November to December 2020, we conducted an online self-reported survey on awareness, experience, approval, and intent to use telemedicine services among Korean residents aged 20 years or older. A total of 2,097 participants completed the survey. @*RESULTS@#Of the 2,097 participants, 1,558 (74.3%) were aware of, 1,198 (57.1%) approved of, and 1,474 (70.3%) had the intention to use telemedicine. Participants from regions other than the Seoul metropolitan area and Daegu–Gyeongbuk Province (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.63), households with a monthly household income of US$6,000 or more (aOR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.01 to 2.08), participants who had a college/university or associate’s degree (aOR, 1.35. 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.75) or a master’s degree or above (aOR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.50), and housewives (aOR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.64) had higher odds of approval. Elderly participants, those with a chronic disease (aOR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.54), those who had experienced delays of healthcare services (aOR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.27 to 2.96), and those who had experience with telemedicine (aOR, 4.28; 95% CI, 1.69 to 10.82) were more likely to intend to use telemedicine services. Regarding types of telemedicine, teleconsultation between doctors showed the highest approval rate (73.1%). @*CONCLUSIONS@#In the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, more than 70% of participants had already used or intended to use telemedicine at some point. Groups with a substantial need for telemedicine were more in favor of telemedicine.

6.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 265-279, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926506

ABSTRACT

Digital health is rapidly growing worldwide and its area is expanding from wellness to treatment due to digital therapeutics (DTx). This study compared DTx in the Korean context with other countries to better understand its political and practical implications. DTx is generally the same internationally, often categorized as software as a medical device. It provides evidence-based therapeutic interventions for medical disabilities and diseases.Abroad, DTx support entailed state subsidies and fundraising and national health insurance coverage. In the case of national health insurance coverage, most cases were applied to mental diseases. Moreover, in Japan, DTx related to hypertension will possibly be under discussion for national health insurance coverage in 2022. In overseas countries, coverage was decided only when the clinical effects were equivalent to those provided by existing technology, and in the UK, real usage data for DTx and associated evaluations were reflected by national health coverage determination. Prices were either determined through closed negotiations with health insurance operating agencies and manufacturers or established based on existing technology. Concerning the current situation, DTx dealing with various diseases including hypertension are expected to be developed near in the future, and the demand for use and compensation will likely increase. Therefore, it is urgent to define and prepare for DTx, relevant support systems, and health insurance coverage listings. Several support systems must be considered, including government subsidies, science/technology funds, and health insurance.

7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 850-857, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896592

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#During the COVID-19 pandemic, Korea has temporarily expanded coverage of teleconsultation to ensure access to essential health services. As a preliminary study, we investigated service utilization patterns and the characteristics of doctors and patients involved in these temporary teleconsultation services. @*Materials and Methods@#Using national health insurance claims data from February 23, 2020 to June 30, 2020 from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, 228269875 cases were identified. Among them, 567390 cases that received teleconsultation services were included in our study. We performed descriptive analyses according to the types of healthcare institutions. @*Results@#In total, 6193 healthcare institutions provided teleconsultation. Of these, 5466 (88.3%) were clinics. Physicians providing teleconsultations were most likely to be doctors of internal medicine (34.0%) or pediatricians (7.0%) and based in the Seoul Metropolitan area (30.4%). In terms of patients undergoing teleconsultation, the most common major disease categories treated were circulatory system diseases (I00–I99). In a detailed analysis, hypertensive diseases (I10–I15) were the most common diagnoses, with a total of 88726 cases (15.6%), followed by diabetes mellitus at 60298 cases (10.6%). The proportion of Medical Aid recipients receiving teleconsultations was higher (9.5%) than other socioeconomic groups. Among all participants, 356622 cases (84.6%) were from a return visit, and 108838 cases (19.2%) received teleconsultation services without being prescribed drugs. @*Conclusion@#Temporarily allowed teleconsultation services were provided mostly to the following patients: 1) those scheduled for revisitation, 2) those with chronic diseases, and 3) those living in pandemic hotspots.

8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 943-947, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896580

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to investigate the association between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis and mortality among children using the data from a large-scale national cohort of Korean infants and children. We also explored the association between hearing impairment detected during early infancy and mortality. @*Materials and Methods@#We performed a retrospective cohort study using the nationwide claims data of the Republic of Korea.Children born between 2007 and 2014 (n=3598904) were followed up until 2020. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the association between ASD diagnosis and mortality among children. Then, in order to evaluate the association between hearing impairment and mortality, Cox proportional hazard models were built using the responses related to hearing impairment asked during the first health screening (at age 4–6 months). @*Results@#Of the 3598904 children born between 2007 and 2014, 32878 children (0.9%) were diagnosed with ASD until the end of 2020. We identified that ASD diagnosis was associated with higher mortality among children [hazard ratio (HR)=2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.2–2.9]. This association was stronger among girls (HR=4.8, 95% CI: 3.9–5.8) compared to boys (HR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.6–2.2). We found that hearing impairment detected during infancy was associated with higher mortality among children with ASD diagnosis. @*Conclusion@#ASD diagnosis was associated with higher mortality among Korean children. This association was stronger in girls than in boys. Hearing impairment detected during infancy was also associated with higher mortality among children diagnosed with ASD.

9.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e280-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892334

ABSTRACT

Background@#Excess all-cause mortality is helpful to assess the full extent of the health impact, including direct and indirect deaths of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The study aimed to estimate overall and regional excess all-cause mortality during the pandemic in Korea. @*Methods@#We obtained all-cause death data and population statistics from January 2010 to December 2020. The expected mortality in 2020 was estimated using a quasi-Poisson regression model. The model included death year, seasonal variation, cold wave (January), average death counts in the previous month, and population. Excess mortality was defined as the difference between the observed mortality and the expected mortality. Regions were classified into three areas according to the numbers of COVID-19 cases. @*Results@#There was no annual excess all-cause mortality in 2020 at the national and regional level compared to the average death for the previous ten years. The observed mortality in 2020 was 582.9 per 100,000 people, and the expected mortality was 582.3 per 100,000 people (95% confidence interval, 568.3–596.7). However, we found monthly and regional variations depending on the waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Korea. While the mortality in August, October, and November exceeded the expected range, the mortality in September was lower than the expected range. The months in which excess deaths were identified differed by region. @*Conclusion@#Our results show that the mortality in 2020 was similar to the historical trend.However, in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, it would be necessary to regularly investigate COVID-19-related mortality and determine its direct and indirect causes.

10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 850-857, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904296

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#During the COVID-19 pandemic, Korea has temporarily expanded coverage of teleconsultation to ensure access to essential health services. As a preliminary study, we investigated service utilization patterns and the characteristics of doctors and patients involved in these temporary teleconsultation services. @*Materials and Methods@#Using national health insurance claims data from February 23, 2020 to June 30, 2020 from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, 228269875 cases were identified. Among them, 567390 cases that received teleconsultation services were included in our study. We performed descriptive analyses according to the types of healthcare institutions. @*Results@#In total, 6193 healthcare institutions provided teleconsultation. Of these, 5466 (88.3%) were clinics. Physicians providing teleconsultations were most likely to be doctors of internal medicine (34.0%) or pediatricians (7.0%) and based in the Seoul Metropolitan area (30.4%). In terms of patients undergoing teleconsultation, the most common major disease categories treated were circulatory system diseases (I00–I99). In a detailed analysis, hypertensive diseases (I10–I15) were the most common diagnoses, with a total of 88726 cases (15.6%), followed by diabetes mellitus at 60298 cases (10.6%). The proportion of Medical Aid recipients receiving teleconsultations was higher (9.5%) than other socioeconomic groups. Among all participants, 356622 cases (84.6%) were from a return visit, and 108838 cases (19.2%) received teleconsultation services without being prescribed drugs. @*Conclusion@#Temporarily allowed teleconsultation services were provided mostly to the following patients: 1) those scheduled for revisitation, 2) those with chronic diseases, and 3) those living in pandemic hotspots.

11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 943-947, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904284

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to investigate the association between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis and mortality among children using the data from a large-scale national cohort of Korean infants and children. We also explored the association between hearing impairment detected during early infancy and mortality. @*Materials and Methods@#We performed a retrospective cohort study using the nationwide claims data of the Republic of Korea.Children born between 2007 and 2014 (n=3598904) were followed up until 2020. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the association between ASD diagnosis and mortality among children. Then, in order to evaluate the association between hearing impairment and mortality, Cox proportional hazard models were built using the responses related to hearing impairment asked during the first health screening (at age 4–6 months). @*Results@#Of the 3598904 children born between 2007 and 2014, 32878 children (0.9%) were diagnosed with ASD until the end of 2020. We identified that ASD diagnosis was associated with higher mortality among children [hazard ratio (HR)=2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.2–2.9]. This association was stronger among girls (HR=4.8, 95% CI: 3.9–5.8) compared to boys (HR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.6–2.2). We found that hearing impairment detected during infancy was associated with higher mortality among children with ASD diagnosis. @*Conclusion@#ASD diagnosis was associated with higher mortality among Korean children. This association was stronger in girls than in boys. Hearing impairment detected during infancy was also associated with higher mortality among children diagnosed with ASD.

12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e280-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900038

ABSTRACT

Background@#Excess all-cause mortality is helpful to assess the full extent of the health impact, including direct and indirect deaths of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The study aimed to estimate overall and regional excess all-cause mortality during the pandemic in Korea. @*Methods@#We obtained all-cause death data and population statistics from January 2010 to December 2020. The expected mortality in 2020 was estimated using a quasi-Poisson regression model. The model included death year, seasonal variation, cold wave (January), average death counts in the previous month, and population. Excess mortality was defined as the difference between the observed mortality and the expected mortality. Regions were classified into three areas according to the numbers of COVID-19 cases. @*Results@#There was no annual excess all-cause mortality in 2020 at the national and regional level compared to the average death for the previous ten years. The observed mortality in 2020 was 582.9 per 100,000 people, and the expected mortality was 582.3 per 100,000 people (95% confidence interval, 568.3–596.7). However, we found monthly and regional variations depending on the waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Korea. While the mortality in August, October, and November exceeded the expected range, the mortality in September was lower than the expected range. The months in which excess deaths were identified differed by region. @*Conclusion@#Our results show that the mortality in 2020 was similar to the historical trend.However, in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, it would be necessary to regularly investigate COVID-19-related mortality and determine its direct and indirect causes.

13.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ; : 8-16, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874908

ABSTRACT

This article aims to introduce the inception and operation of the COVID-19 International Collaborative Research Project, the world’s first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) open data project for research, along with its dataset and research method, and to discuss relevant considerations for collaborative research using nationwide real-world data (RWD). COVID-19 has spread across the world since early 2020, becoming a serious global health threat to life, safety, and social and economic activities. However, insufficient RWD from patients was available to help clinicians efficiently diagnose and treat patients with COVID-19, or to provide necessary information to the government for policy-making. Countries that saw a rapid surge of infections had to focus on leveraging medical professionals to treat patients, and the circumstances made it even more difficult to promptly use COVID-19 RWD. Against this backdrop, the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) of Korea decided to open its COVID-19 RWD collected through Korea’s universal health insurance program, under the title of the COVID-19 International Collaborative Research Project. The dataset, consisting of 476 508 claim statements from 234 427 patients (7590 confirmed cases) and 18 691 318 claim statements of the same patients for the previous 3 years, was established and hosted on HIRA’s in-house server. Researchers who applied to participate in the project uploaded analysis code on the platform prepared by HIRA, and HIRA conducted the analysis and provided outcome values. As of November 2020, analyses have been completed for 129 research projects, which have been published or are in the process of being published in prestigious journals.

14.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ; : 17-21, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874907

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused unprecedented disruptions to global health systems. The Korea has taken full-fledged actions against this novel infectious disease, swiftly implementing a testing-tracing-treatment strategy. New obligations have therefore been given to the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) to devote the utmost effort towards tackling this global health crisis. Thanks to the universal national health insurance and state-of-the-art information communications technology (ICT) of the Korea, HIRA has conducted far-reaching countermeasures to detect and treat cases early, prevent the spread of COVID-19, respond quickly to surging demand for the healthcare services, and translate evidence into policy. Three main factors have enabled HIRA to undertake pandemic control preemptively and systematically: nationwide data aggregated from all healthcare providers and patients, pre-existing ICT network systems, and real-time data exchanges. HIRA has maximized the use of data and pre-existing network systems to conduct rapid and responsive measures in a centralized way, both of which have been the most critical tactics and strategies used by the Korean healthcare system. In the face of new obligations, our promise is to strive for a more responsive and resilient health system during this prolonged crisis.

15.
Journal of Agricultural Medicine & Community Health ; : 13-40, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919644

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The purpose of this manuscript was to propose the policy and perspectives of prevention and management for hypertension and diabetes in Korea. @*Methods@#Authors reviewed the chronic disease prevention and management projects and models were executed in Korea until now, and analyzed and evaluated their performances. @*Results@#In the circumstances of Korea, the following several requisites should be improved ; Specific Korean strategy for development and pursuing of national level policy agenda for chronic disease management must be established. There are a need to establish several means of supplementing the weaknesses of the current chronic disease management policies and programs. Firstly, development and distribution of contents of guidelines on the systematic project execution regime (regarding systematization of local community, subjects and contents of the projects) with guarantee for the quality of chronic disease prevention and management are necessary. Secondly, there is a need for development of information system that can lead the chronic disease management programs currently being implemented. Thirdly, there is urgent need to develop resources such as cultivation of manpower and facilities for provision of education and consultation for the patients and holders of risk factors of chronic disease. Fourthly, there is a need for means of securing management system and financial resources for operation of policies and programs. @*Conclusions@#The results can be able to use as a road map, models, and direction and strategies of policies for chronic disease prevention and management of Korea.

16.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e41-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Statistical data of undiagnosed people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) are of great importance to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection control. This study estimated the total number of PLHIV using nationwide claims data.@*METHODS@#This study used data of the incident HIV cases identified by the National Health Insurance System between 2009 and 2015. The number of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was identified by diagnoses or prescription records. The estimated number of PLHIV and the time to diagnosis were calculated from the incident numbers of HIV and AIDS cases using the HIV Modeling Tool of the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control.@*RESULTS@#Between 2009 and 2015, a total of 7,033 PLHIV and 2,899 AIDS patients were diagnosed. In 2009, the number of incident HIV cases was 873 (460 AIDS patients), increasing to 995 (337 AIDS patients) in 2015. Besides, the estimated number of prevalent cases was 10,753 in 2009, compared to 14,880 in 2015. Patients visiting health facilities accounted for 42.9% (4,616/10,753) in 2009 and 64.1% (9,544/14,880) in 2015. In 2009, there were 8,363 (77.8%) undiagnosed HIV cases, experiencing a decline to 6,215 (41.8%) in 2015. It took a mean of 6.96 years to diagnose after HIV infection.@*CONCLUSION@#This study estimates the total burden of HIV infection in Korea for the first time using an internationally recognized HIV modeling tool. Claims data can be used to estimate the number of undiagnosed cases by identifying the total number of PLHIV and AIDS patients visiting health facilities.

17.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e41-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899766

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Statistical data of undiagnosed people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) are of great importance to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection control. This study estimated the total number of PLHIV using nationwide claims data.@*METHODS@#This study used data of the incident HIV cases identified by the National Health Insurance System between 2009 and 2015. The number of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was identified by diagnoses or prescription records. The estimated number of PLHIV and the time to diagnosis were calculated from the incident numbers of HIV and AIDS cases using the HIV Modeling Tool of the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control.@*RESULTS@#Between 2009 and 2015, a total of 7,033 PLHIV and 2,899 AIDS patients were diagnosed. In 2009, the number of incident HIV cases was 873 (460 AIDS patients), increasing to 995 (337 AIDS patients) in 2015. Besides, the estimated number of prevalent cases was 10,753 in 2009, compared to 14,880 in 2015. Patients visiting health facilities accounted for 42.9% (4,616/10,753) in 2009 and 64.1% (9,544/14,880) in 2015. In 2009, there were 8,363 (77.8%) undiagnosed HIV cases, experiencing a decline to 6,215 (41.8%) in 2015. It took a mean of 6.96 years to diagnose after HIV infection.@*CONCLUSION@#This study estimates the total burden of HIV infection in Korea for the first time using an internationally recognized HIV modeling tool. Claims data can be used to estimate the number of undiagnosed cases by identifying the total number of PLHIV and AIDS patients visiting health facilities.

18.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 41-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810949

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Statistical data of undiagnosed people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) are of great importance to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection control. This study estimated the total number of PLHIV using nationwide claims data.METHODS: This study used data of the incident HIV cases identified by the National Health Insurance System between 2009 and 2015. The number of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was identified by diagnoses or prescription records. The estimated number of PLHIV and the time to diagnosis were calculated from the incident numbers of HIV and AIDS cases using the HIV Modeling Tool of the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control.RESULTS: Between 2009 and 2015, a total of 7,033 PLHIV and 2,899 AIDS patients were diagnosed. In 2009, the number of incident HIV cases was 873 (460 AIDS patients), increasing to 995 (337 AIDS patients) in 2015. Besides, the estimated number of prevalent cases was 10,753 in 2009, compared to 14,880 in 2015. Patients visiting health facilities accounted for 42.9% (4,616/10,753) in 2009 and 64.1% (9,544/14,880) in 2015. In 2009, there were 8,363 (77.8%) undiagnosed HIV cases, experiencing a decline to 6,215 (41.8%) in 2015. It took a mean of 6.96 years to diagnose after HIV infection.CONCLUSION: This study estimates the total burden of HIV infection in Korea for the first time using an internationally recognized HIV modeling tool. Claims data can be used to estimate the number of undiagnosed cases by identifying the total number of PLHIV and AIDS patients visiting health facilities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Diagnosis , Health Facilities , HIV Infections , HIV , Infection Control , Korea , National Health Programs , Prescriptions
19.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 30-30, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826302

ABSTRACT

Methylmercury is an environmental pollutant that causes neurotoxicity. Recent studies have reported that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is involved in defense against methylmercury toxicity through the degradation of proteins synthesizing the pyruvate. Mitochondrial accumulation of pyruvate can enhance methylmercury toxicity. In addition, methylmercury exposure induces several immune-related chemokines, specifically in the brain, and may cause neurotoxicity. This summary highlights several molecular mechanisms of methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Rats , Chemokines , Metabolism , Methylmercury Compounds , Toxicity , Neurotoxins , Toxicity , Proteolysis , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
20.
Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery ; : 17-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836927

ABSTRACT

Background@#To evaluate the facial asymmetry, three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) has been used widely. This study proposed a method to quantify facial asymmetry based on 3D-CT. @*Methods@#The normal standard group consisted of twenty-five male subjects who had a balanced face and normal occlusion. Five anatomical landmarks were selected as reference points and ten anatomical landmarks were selected as measurement points to evaluate facial asymmetry. The formula of facial asymmetry index was designed by using the distances between the landmarks. The index value on a specific landmark indicated zero when the landmarks were located on the three-dimensional symmetric position. As the asymmetry of landmarks increased, the value of facial asymmetry index increased. For ten anatomical landmarks, the mean value of facial asymmetry index on each landmark was obtained in the normal standard group. Facial asymmetry index was applied to the patients who had undergone orthognathic surgery. Preoperative facial asymmetry and postoperative improvement were evaluated. @*Results@#The reference facial asymmetry index on each landmark in the normal standard group was from 1.77 to 3.38. A polygonal chart was drawn to visualize the degree of asymmetry. In three patients who had undergone orthognathic surgery, it was checked that the method of facial asymmetry index showed the preoperative facial asymmetry and the postoperative improvement well. @*Conclusions@#The current new facial asymmetry index could efficiently quantify the degree of facial asymmetry from 3D-CT. This method could be used as an evaluation standard for facial asymmetry analysis.

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