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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913301

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Contrast media is one of the most common cause of adverse drug reaction (ADR) in adult. However, there was little data reported about differences in ADR ratio and severity among iodinated contrast media (ICM). @*Methods@#Medical records of 627,049 patients who performed computed tomography scan using low-osmolar nonionic iodinated contrast media from January 2015 to December 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 6 ICMs including iomeprol, iohexol, iopromide, iobitridol, ioversol, and iopamidol were used in this period. The incidence of ADR was compared to their total usage and dosage between each contrast media. @*Results@#The incidence of ADR of iopromide (1.36%) and iomeprol (1.27%) was the highest when compared with the average incidence of 1% of 6 ICMs. Ioversol (0.67%), iohexol, and iobitridol (0.74%) had the lower incidence of ADR. The order of results adjusted by actual administered dosage, the use of premedication, and the prior exposure history of ICMs was similar. The fraction of moderate and severe ADR in overall ADR was slightly different, but not proportional to the incidence of ADR. @*Conclusion@#The incidence of ADR among 6 low-osmolar nonionic ICMs was significantly different when compared by the total number of usage and the total volume of dose. The incidence of ADR varied by nearly 2-fold depending on ICMs. Further study might need to explore the reason for the difference of incidence.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899994

ABSTRACT

Background@#Vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is underway globally to prevent the infection caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. We aimed to investigate the adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) for COVID-19 among healthcare workers (HCWs). @*Methods@#This was a retrospective study of the AEFIs associated with the first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine at the Kosin University Gospel Hospital from March 3 to March 22, 2021. We investigated the systemic and local adverse events during the 7 days following the vaccination using the Mobile Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (MVAERS) developed by our hospital. @*Results@#A total of 1,503 HCWs were vaccinated, and the data of 994 HCWs were reported in the MVAERS. The most commonly reported AEFIs were tenderness at the injection site (94.5%), fatigue (92.9%), pain at the injection site (88.0%), and malaise (83.8%). The severity of most AEFIs was mild-to-moderate, and the severity and number of AEFIs were less in the older age group. There were no serious events requiring hospitalization, and most AEFIs improved within a few days. @*Conclusion@#The AEFIs associated with the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine were tolerable, and the use of the MVAERS was helpful in monitoring the AEFIs. The use of MVAERS will help in sharing accurate and ample information about vaccination against COVID-19.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898207

ABSTRACT

Background@#Despite clinical evidence indicating poor muscle health in subjects with primary aldosteronism (PA), it is still unclear whether the role of aldosterone in muscle metabolism is direct or mediated indirectly via factors, such as electrolyte imbalance or impaired glucose uptake. As one approach to clarify this issue, we investigated the effect of aldosterone on in vitro myogenesis and the potential mechanism explaining it. @*Methods@#Myogenesis was induced in mouse C2C12 myoblasts with 2% horse serum. Immunofluorescence, quantitative reversetranscription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, viability, and migration analyses were performed for experimental research. @*Results@#Recombinant aldosterone treatment suppressed muscle differentiation from mouse C2C12 myoblasts in a dose-dependent manner, and consistently reduced the expression of myogenic differentiation markers. Furthermore, aldosterone significantly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in myotubes, and treatment with N-acetyl cysteine, a potent biological thiol antioxidant, reversed the decrease of myotube area, myotube area per myotube, nucleus number per myotube, and fusion index due to aldosterone through decreasing oxidative stress. A binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirmed that mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) interacted with aldosterone in C2C12 myoblasts, while eplerenone, an MR inhibitor, blocked aldosterone-stimulated intracellular ROS generation during myogenesis and markedly attenuated the suppression of in vitro myogenesis by aldosterone. @*Conclusion@#These findings support the hypothesis that hypersecretion of aldosterone, like PA, directly contributes to muscular deterioration and suggest that antioxidants and/or MR antagonists could be effective therapeutic options to reduce the risk of sarcopenia in these patients.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898168

ABSTRACT

Background@#The C-C motif chemokine ligand 11 (CCL11) has been receiving attention as a potential pro-aging factor. Accordingly, it may be involved in muscle metabolism and sarcopenia, a key component of aging phenotypes. To clarify this potential, we investigated the effects of CCL11 on in vitro muscle biology and its clinical relevance for sarcopenia parameters in older adults. @*Methods@#Myogenesis was induced in mouse C2C12 myoblasts with 2% horse serum. Human blood samples were collected from 79 participants who underwent a functional assessment. Thereafter, CCL11 level was measured using a quantikine ELISA kit. Sarcopenia was defined using the Asian-specific guideline. @*Results@#Recombinant CCL11 treatment significantly stimulated myogenesis in a dose-dependent manner, and consistently increased the expression of myogenic differentiation markers. Among the C-C chemokine receptors (CCRs), CCR5, not CCR2 and CCR3, was predominantly expressed in muscle cells. Further, the CCR5 inhibitor blocked recombinant CCL11-stimulated myogenesis. In a clinical study, serum CCL11 level was not significantly different according to the status of sarcopenia, low muscle mass, weak muscle strength, and poor physical performance, and was not associated with skeletal muscle index, grip strength, short physical performance battery score, gait speed, and time to complete 5 chair stands, after adjusting for sex, age, and body mass index. @*Conclusion@#Contrary to expectations, CCL11 exerted beneficial effects on muscle metabolism at least in vitro system. However, its impact on human muscle health was not evident, suggesting that circulating CCL11 may not be a useful biomarker for sarcopenia risk assessment in older adults.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892290

ABSTRACT

Background@#Vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is underway globally to prevent the infection caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. We aimed to investigate the adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) for COVID-19 among healthcare workers (HCWs). @*Methods@#This was a retrospective study of the AEFIs associated with the first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine at the Kosin University Gospel Hospital from March 3 to March 22, 2021. We investigated the systemic and local adverse events during the 7 days following the vaccination using the Mobile Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (MVAERS) developed by our hospital. @*Results@#A total of 1,503 HCWs were vaccinated, and the data of 994 HCWs were reported in the MVAERS. The most commonly reported AEFIs were tenderness at the injection site (94.5%), fatigue (92.9%), pain at the injection site (88.0%), and malaise (83.8%). The severity of most AEFIs was mild-to-moderate, and the severity and number of AEFIs were less in the older age group. There were no serious events requiring hospitalization, and most AEFIs improved within a few days. @*Conclusion@#The AEFIs associated with the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine were tolerable, and the use of the MVAERS was helpful in monitoring the AEFIs. The use of MVAERS will help in sharing accurate and ample information about vaccination against COVID-19.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890503

ABSTRACT

Background@#Despite clinical evidence indicating poor muscle health in subjects with primary aldosteronism (PA), it is still unclear whether the role of aldosterone in muscle metabolism is direct or mediated indirectly via factors, such as electrolyte imbalance or impaired glucose uptake. As one approach to clarify this issue, we investigated the effect of aldosterone on in vitro myogenesis and the potential mechanism explaining it. @*Methods@#Myogenesis was induced in mouse C2C12 myoblasts with 2% horse serum. Immunofluorescence, quantitative reversetranscription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, viability, and migration analyses were performed for experimental research. @*Results@#Recombinant aldosterone treatment suppressed muscle differentiation from mouse C2C12 myoblasts in a dose-dependent manner, and consistently reduced the expression of myogenic differentiation markers. Furthermore, aldosterone significantly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in myotubes, and treatment with N-acetyl cysteine, a potent biological thiol antioxidant, reversed the decrease of myotube area, myotube area per myotube, nucleus number per myotube, and fusion index due to aldosterone through decreasing oxidative stress. A binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirmed that mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) interacted with aldosterone in C2C12 myoblasts, while eplerenone, an MR inhibitor, blocked aldosterone-stimulated intracellular ROS generation during myogenesis and markedly attenuated the suppression of in vitro myogenesis by aldosterone. @*Conclusion@#These findings support the hypothesis that hypersecretion of aldosterone, like PA, directly contributes to muscular deterioration and suggest that antioxidants and/or MR antagonists could be effective therapeutic options to reduce the risk of sarcopenia in these patients.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890464

ABSTRACT

Background@#The C-C motif chemokine ligand 11 (CCL11) has been receiving attention as a potential pro-aging factor. Accordingly, it may be involved in muscle metabolism and sarcopenia, a key component of aging phenotypes. To clarify this potential, we investigated the effects of CCL11 on in vitro muscle biology and its clinical relevance for sarcopenia parameters in older adults. @*Methods@#Myogenesis was induced in mouse C2C12 myoblasts with 2% horse serum. Human blood samples were collected from 79 participants who underwent a functional assessment. Thereafter, CCL11 level was measured using a quantikine ELISA kit. Sarcopenia was defined using the Asian-specific guideline. @*Results@#Recombinant CCL11 treatment significantly stimulated myogenesis in a dose-dependent manner, and consistently increased the expression of myogenic differentiation markers. Among the C-C chemokine receptors (CCRs), CCR5, not CCR2 and CCR3, was predominantly expressed in muscle cells. Further, the CCR5 inhibitor blocked recombinant CCL11-stimulated myogenesis. In a clinical study, serum CCL11 level was not significantly different according to the status of sarcopenia, low muscle mass, weak muscle strength, and poor physical performance, and was not associated with skeletal muscle index, grip strength, short physical performance battery score, gait speed, and time to complete 5 chair stands, after adjusting for sex, age, and body mass index. @*Conclusion@#Contrary to expectations, CCL11 exerted beneficial effects on muscle metabolism at least in vitro system. However, its impact on human muscle health was not evident, suggesting that circulating CCL11 may not be a useful biomarker for sarcopenia risk assessment in older adults.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898861

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe lung injury and hemorrhagic shock, may develop acute respiratory failure syndrome during resuscitation, and may require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support to ensure adequate oxygenation to sustain life. In this case study, a 69 year-old female was hit by a motor vehicle whilst riding her bicycle. She was in a state of hemorrhagic shock due to polytrauma and was resuscitated with massive fluid transfusion during the initial management. After admission to the intensive care unit, she suffered from hypoxia which required mechanical ventilation using 100% oxygen. However, hypoxia did not improve, so she was placed on venoveno ECMO support after 4 days of intensive care treatment. Although trauma and bleeding are considered as relative contraindications for ECMO support, veno-veno ECMO allows for lung rest, and improvement of pulmonary function.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891157

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe lung injury and hemorrhagic shock, may develop acute respiratory failure syndrome during resuscitation, and may require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support to ensure adequate oxygenation to sustain life. In this case study, a 69 year-old female was hit by a motor vehicle whilst riding her bicycle. She was in a state of hemorrhagic shock due to polytrauma and was resuscitated with massive fluid transfusion during the initial management. After admission to the intensive care unit, she suffered from hypoxia which required mechanical ventilation using 100% oxygen. However, hypoxia did not improve, so she was placed on venoveno ECMO support after 4 days of intensive care treatment. Although trauma and bleeding are considered as relative contraindications for ECMO support, veno-veno ECMO allows for lung rest, and improvement of pulmonary function.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836557

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The Act on Hospice and Palliative Care and Decisions on Life-Sustaining Treatment for Patients at the End of Life came into force in February 2018 in Korea. This study reviews the practices of end-of-life care for patients who withdrew or withheld lifesustaining treatment at a tertiary care hospital, addresses the limitations of the law, and discusses necessary steps to promote patient-centered self-determination. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients who died after agreeing to withhold lifesustaining treatment in 2018 at our university hospital. The cause of death, the intensity of end-of-life care, and other characteristics were reviewed and statistically analyzed. @*Results@#Of a total of 334 patients, 231 (69%) died from cancer. The decision to stop life-sustaining treatment was made by family members for 178 patients overall (53.3%) and for 101 (43.7%) cancer patients, regardless of the patient’s wishes. When the patient decided to stop lifesustaining treatment, the time from the authorization to withhold life-sustaining treatment to death was longer than when the decision was made by family members (28.7±41.3 vs 10.5±23.2 days, P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#In many cases, the decision to discontinue lifesustaining treatment was made by the family, not by the patient. In order to protect human dignity based on the patients’ self-determination, it is necessary for patients to understand their disease based on careful explanations from physicians. Ongoing survey-based research will be necessary in the future.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834214

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Demand for hand sanitizers has surged since the coronavirus broke out and spread around the world. Hand sanitizers are usually applied by squirting the sanitizer liquid when one presses a pump with one’s hand. This causes many people to come into contact with the pump handle, which increases the risk of viral transmission. Some hand sanitizers on the market are automatically pumped. However, because sanitizer containers and pump devices are designed to be compatible only between products produced by the same manufacturer, consumers must also repurchase the container for the liquid if they replace the hand sanitizer. Therefore, this paper suggests the design of an automatic hand sanitizer system compatible with various sanitizer containers. @*Methods@#An automatic hand sanitizer system was designed, which will be presented in two stages describing the instrument structure and control parts. This work focused on using the elasticity of pumps and improving people’s access to devices. @*Results@#We have designed an automatic hand sanitizer system that is compatible with various containers. When one moves one’s hand close to the device sensor, the hand sanitizer container is pumped once. @*Conclusions@#The automatic hand sanitizer device proposed in this paper is ultimately expected to contribute to contactless hand disinfection in public places and virus infection prevention. Additionally, it is economical and eco-friendly by decreasing waste emissions.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763086

ABSTRACT

This study identified the explanatory power of the Korean rehabilitation patient group (KRPG) v1.1 for acquired brain injury (ABI) on medical expenses in the rehabilitation hospitals and the correlation of functional outcomes with the expenses. Here, the design is a retrospective analysis from the claim data of the designated rehabilitation hospitals. Data including KRPG information with functional status and medical expenses were collected from 1 January and 31 August 2018. Reduction of variance (R2) was statistically analyzed for the explanation power of the KRPG. Association between functional status and the medical expenses was carried out using the Spearman's rank order correlation (rho). From the claim data of 365 patients with ABI, the KRPG v1.1 explained 8.6% of variance for the total medical expenses and also explained 9.8% of variance for the rehabilitation therapy costs. Cognitive function and spasticity showed very weak correlation with the total medical expenses (rho = −0.17 and −0.14, respectively). Motor power and performance of activities of daily living were associated weakly (rho = −0.27 and −0.30, respectively). The KRPG and related functional status in ABI reflects the total medical expenses and rehabilitation therapy costs insufficiently in the designated rehabilitation hospitals. Thus, the current KRPG algorithm and variables for ABI may need to be ameliorated in the future.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Brain Diseases , Brain Injuries , Brain , Cognition , Diagnosis-Related Groups , Fee-for-Service Plans , Humans , Muscle Spasticity , Neurological Rehabilitation , Rehabilitation , Retrospective Studies
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759630

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the nutritional status and prevalence of metabolic syndrome of the people who participated in the KNHANES according to the number of household members. They were assessed by using information from the 2013~2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). METHODS: A total of 6,088 persons aged 19 years and over participated in 2013~2014 KNHANES, and they were classified into three groups according to the number of household members (single-person, two-person, three-person & over). The dietary behavior, nutritional status, health-related factors and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome of the subjects were investigated with using information from the survey questionnaires of KNHANES. The nutrient intake data of the subjects were obtained by the 24-hour recall method and this was analyzed for evaluating the nutrition adequacy ratio and the index of nutritional quality. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the subjects, and according to the study groups, was estimated using the blood and physical measurement data of the subjects. RESULTS: As for EQ-5D index available for all the health states generated by the EQ-5D descriptive system, the single-person household member was the lowest among all the household types. The index of nutrition quality for protein, crude fiber, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin C in the single-person household was lower than that of the two-person or the three-person and over households (p<0.001). The mean adequacy ratio of single-person households was significantly decreased compared with that of the other types of households (p<0.001). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in the single-person households than that in the multiple-person households (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that dietary behaviors, nutrition status and health status might be influenced by the number of household members. The results from this study would be useful for improving Korean people's dietary life and health status by implementing evidence-based, specialized intervention for the members of diverse types of households.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid , Calcium , Family Characteristics , Humans , Korea , Methods , Nutrition Surveys , Nutritional Status , Nutritive Value , Phosphorus , Potassium , Prevalence , Riboflavin
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766899

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine changes in subfoveal choroidal thickness (SCT) after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in eyes with macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO). METHODS: Forty-four patients treated with intravitreal bevacizumab for unilateral macular edema due to RVO were retrospectively reviewed. Before injection, patients underwent best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) assessment, dilated fundus examination, fluorescein angiography, and enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Changes in BCVA, SCT, and central macular thickness (CMT) of the RVO eyes were evaluated and compared with those of the normal contralateral eyes at baseline and at 1, 3, and 6 months after injection. RESULTS: The mean SCT in RVO eyes (265.41 ± 43.02 µm) was significantly thicker than that in the fellow eyes (244.77 ± 30.35 µm) at baseline (p < 0.001). The mean SCT was significantly reduced at 1, 3, and 6 months after intravitreal bevacizumab injection (all p < 0.001), and the change in SCT was significantly correlated with the change in CMT (r = 0.327, p = 0.030). While there was an improvement in BCVA together with a reduction in SCT (p < 0.001), no significant correlation was found (p = 0.126). CONCLUSIONS: Subfoveal choroidal thickness in RVO eyes with macular edema was greater than that in the normal fellow eyes, and decreased significantly after intravitreal bevacizumab injection. The SCT reduction was significantly correlated with CMT reduction.


Subject(s)
Bevacizumab , Choroid , Fluorescein Angiography , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Edema , Retinal Vein Occlusion , Retinal Vein , Retinaldehyde , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785894

ABSTRACT

Acute appendicitis is the most common indication for emergency abdominal surgery worldwide. The risks and benefits of incidental appendectomy during other operations have been debated for over a century. There is no right answer to the question of whether or not to perform incidental appendectomy. Although there are only a few indications where it is explicitly recommended such as in gynecological surgery, malrotation, and Ladd's procedure, incidental appendectomy is cost-effective in selected patient groups, especially in the young, without an increase in morbidity and mortality. In this review, the literature on incidental appendectomy was assessed from several perspectives.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Appendectomy , Appendicitis , Costs and Cost Analysis , Emergencies , Female , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures , Humans , Mortality , Risk Assessment
17.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 357-360, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785375

ABSTRACT

The pneumatic colorectal injury caused by high pressure compressed air are rare and can be fatal. Herein, we present a case of 45-year-old male who developed sudden onset of severe abdominal pain after cleaning the dust on his pants with high pressure compressed air gun dust cleaner. Emergent exploratory laparotomy was done which findings are a huge rectal perforation with multiple serosal and subserosal tear in sigmoid to splenic flexure of colon. Anterior resection with left hemicolectomy, and temporary transverse colostomy was performed. Postoperative course was uneventful. Recently, prognosis is generally favorable because of prompt diagnosis and emergent surgical management.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Colon , Colon, Sigmoid , Colon, Transverse , Colostomy , Compressed Air , Diagnosis , Dust , Humans , Laparotomy , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Rectum , Tears
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916938

ABSTRACT

Traumatic intrapulmonary glass foreign bodies that are missed on an initial examination can migrate and lead to severe complications. Here, we present a rare case of a traumatic intrapulmonary glass foreign body surgically removed by a direct pulmonary incision, which preserved the pulmonary parenchyma and avoided severe complications caused by migration.

19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714317

ABSTRACT

The traditional drug for anticoagulation in those with a high risk of thrombosis is a vitamin K antagonist, such as warfarin. On the other hand, this drug has several limitations and hemorrhagic complications. Recently, novel or non-vitamin K-dependent antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have been developed to solve these problems. This paper presents a case of adaptation of NOAC for a warfarin anticoagulated patient with traumatic ongoing hemorrhages with a discussion of the clinical implications of NOAC.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Hand , Hemorrhage , Humans , Thrombosis , Vitamin K , Warfarin
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741853

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus aureus is now a major community-acquired pathogen worldwide, notably associated with skin and soft tissue infections. Staphylococci are present in the form of colonizers or environmental contaminants at home and increase the risk of recurrent infection. We are describing recurrent familial furunculosis caused by Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-positive methicillin susceptible S. aureus ST1 in Korea. An infant, his father and mother had furunculosis due to methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) infection with identical susceptibility patterns. ST1 accounted for all 3 isolates and they were confirmed of having agr group I. Both sec and seh were detected in all isolates using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, and all isolates contained Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. Risk factors for the household spread of S. aureus include skin conditions and close physical contact among household members. The relationship between S. aureus colonization of household contacts and the occurrence of S. aureus infection should be studied into more detail.


Subject(s)
Colon , Family Characteristics , Fathers , Furunculosis , Humans , Infant , Korea , Leukocidins , Methicillin , Mothers , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Skin , Soft Tissue Infections , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus
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