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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913784

ABSTRACT

Symptomatic Rathke’s cleft cysts (RCCs) can be treated by surgical procedures, usually through an endonasal transsphenoidal corridor using either a microscope or an endoscope. We report a large suprasellar extended RCC causing obstructive hydrocephalus, which was efficiently managed by a novel surgical route named “reverse” trans-sellar approach using transventricular neuroendoscopy. A 48-yearold woman complained of persistent headache and a tendency to fall that had begun 6 months previously. The images obtained from MRI scan showed intra- and supra-sellar cystic masses occupying the third ventricle with obstruction of the foramina of Monro and the aqueduct of Sylvius. The cystic wall showed a slight enhancement, and the cystic contents showed iso-signal intensity on T1-and T2-weighted images. Instead of trans-nasal trans-sellar surgery, we decided to operate using a conventional transventricular endoscope. A thin cystic capsule, which blocked the foramina of Monro and the aqueduct of Sylvius, was fenestrated and removed and a third ventriculostomy was performed. The defect in the infundibulum between sellar and suprasellar cysts was widened and used as a corridor to drain cystic contents (reverse trans-sellar route). The final pathological finding revealed an RCC with focal metaplasia. We efficiently managed a large RCC by transventricular neuroendoscopic surgery with cyst fenestration and third ventriculostomy and simultaneously drained the sellar contents using a novel surgical route. Reverse trans-sellar neuroendoscopic surgery is a relevant treatment option for selective patients with large suprasellar extensions of RCCs.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899063

ABSTRACT

Objective@#As the average life span in modern society continues to increase, much interest is focused on high-risk procedures in elderly patients, including major surgical operations. We investigated the results of endovascular coiling of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA) in patients over 80 years of age. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 39 patients aged over 80 years who underwent coil embolization for UIA between April 2007 and April 2019 at our hospital. @*Results@#Complete occlusion on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) immediately after surgery was performed in 44 (84.6%) of 52 cases of cerebral aneurysms. Four patients (7.7%) had residual aneurysmal necks, and four (7.7%) had contrast flow in the aneurysmal sac. Follow-up magnetic resonance angiography (mean: 8.2 months) was performed in 37 aneurysms in 24 patients. There was evidence of blood flow in the neck in seven cases (18.9%) and aneurysm in two cases (5.4%). Follow-up DSA (mean: 20.5 months) was performed in 14 aneurysms in 11 patients, and 11 aneurysms (78.6%) had complete occlusion, 1 aneurysm (7.1%) had an aneurysmal neck, and 2 aneurysms (14.3%) had contrast filling into the aneurysmal sac. Coil embolization procedure-related complications occurred in 3 patients (7.7%). Cerebral infarction occurred in 1 (2.6%), arterial dissection in 1 (2.6%), and hypoesthesia in 1 (2.6%). @*Conclusions@#Active treatment of UIA in elderly patients over 80 years of age through endovascular coil embolization can be considered.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891359

ABSTRACT

Objective@#As the average life span in modern society continues to increase, much interest is focused on high-risk procedures in elderly patients, including major surgical operations. We investigated the results of endovascular coiling of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA) in patients over 80 years of age. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 39 patients aged over 80 years who underwent coil embolization for UIA between April 2007 and April 2019 at our hospital. @*Results@#Complete occlusion on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) immediately after surgery was performed in 44 (84.6%) of 52 cases of cerebral aneurysms. Four patients (7.7%) had residual aneurysmal necks, and four (7.7%) had contrast flow in the aneurysmal sac. Follow-up magnetic resonance angiography (mean: 8.2 months) was performed in 37 aneurysms in 24 patients. There was evidence of blood flow in the neck in seven cases (18.9%) and aneurysm in two cases (5.4%). Follow-up DSA (mean: 20.5 months) was performed in 14 aneurysms in 11 patients, and 11 aneurysms (78.6%) had complete occlusion, 1 aneurysm (7.1%) had an aneurysmal neck, and 2 aneurysms (14.3%) had contrast filling into the aneurysmal sac. Coil embolization procedure-related complications occurred in 3 patients (7.7%). Cerebral infarction occurred in 1 (2.6%), arterial dissection in 1 (2.6%), and hypoesthesia in 1 (2.6%). @*Conclusions@#Active treatment of UIA in elderly patients over 80 years of age through endovascular coil embolization can be considered.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917993

ABSTRACT

Spinal extradural arachnoid cysts (SEACs) are rare and usually asymptomatic, and they usually do not require surgical treatment. If symptoms manifest, however, surgical treatment is required. A 25-year-old male patient complained of impotence upon admission. Magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of his lumbar spine showed a SEAC located longitudinally from the T11 to L3, which was accompanied by thecal sac compression. Verifying the location of the dural defect is crucial for minimizing surgical treatments. Cystography, myelography, and lumbar spine MRI were conducted to locate the leak in real-time; however, it was not found.Hence, the location of the cerebrospinal fluid leak was estimated based on cystography, computed tomography, myelography, and MRI findings. We suggest that the region with the earliest contrast-filling, as well as the middle and widest area of the cyst, may correspond to the location of the dural defect.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833485

ABSTRACT

The demineralized bone matrix (DBM) as the bone graft material to increase the fusion rate was widely used in spinal fusion. The current study aimed to compare the fusion rate of DBM to the fusion rate of autograft in lumbar spine fusion via meta-analysis of published literature. After systematic search, comparative studies were selected according to eligibility criteria. Checklist (risk of bias assessment tool for non-randomized study) was used to evaluate the risk of bias of the included nonrandomized controlled studies. The corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. We also used subgroup analysis to analyze the fusion rate of posterolateral lumbar fusion and lumbar interbody fusion. Eight studies were finally included in this meta-analysis. These eight studies included 581 patients. Among them, 337 patients underwent spinal fusion surgery using DBM (DBM group) and 204 patients underwent spinal fusion surgery with mainly autologous bone and without using DBM (control group). There was no significant differences of fusion rate between the two groups in posterolateral fusion analysis (risk ratio [RR], 1.03; 95% CI, 0.90–1.17; p=0.66) and interbody fusion analysis (RR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.91–1.39; p=0.27). Based on the available evidence, the use of DBM with autograft in posterolateral lumbar spine fusion and lumbar interbody fusion showed a slightly higher fusion rate than that of autograft alone; however, there was no statistically different between two groups.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759997

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The laboratory biomarkers used to diagnose spinal infection include white blood cell (WBC) counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Recently, procalcitonin (PCT) has been used as a biomarker to distinguish between bacterial infection and non-bacterial infection. We aimed to compare the changes of conventional biomarker and PCT in patients with spinal infection before and after antibiotic treatment. METHODS: ESR, CRP, WBC counts, and PCT were measured in 29 patients diagnosed with pyogenic spinal infection at our hospital between May 2016 and December 2018 prior to antibiotic administration. After antibiotic administration, the values were followed up for 4 weeks at 1-week intervals. RESULTS: A total of 29 patients were enrolled, with a mean age of 67.8 years, consisting of 16 men and 13 women. Twenty-five patients had lumbar infections, and 2 each had cervical and thoracic infections. The mean ESR, CRP, PCT, and WBCs decreased at week 4 of antibiotic treatment compared to their baseline values. CRP and WBCs were significantly decreased after 4 weeks of treatment compared to before treatment. The mean ESR and PCT was not statistically significant compared to pretreatment and after antibiotic treatment (p-value>0.05). CONCLUSION: Among several biomarker, CRP and WBCs are biomarkers that can aid early evaluation of the effects of antibiotic treatment in pyogenic spondylitis. Although PCT did not have statistical significance, it can be used as a biomarker that reflects the effect of antibiotic and severity of infection.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein , Calcitonin , Erythrocyte Count , Female , Humans , Leukocytes , Male , Spondylitis
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759985

ABSTRACT

We encountered a very rare case of spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage and a spinal intradural arachnoid cyst (AC) that were diagnosed at different sites in the same patient. These two lesions were thought to have interfered with the disease onset and deterioration. A 30-year-old man presented with sudden neck pain and orthostatic headache. Diplopia, ophthalmic pain, and headache deteriorated. CSF leakage was confirmed in C2 by radioisotope cisternography, and an epidural blood patch was performed. While his symptoms improved gradually, paraparesis suddenly progressed. Thoracolumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an upper thoracic spinal intradural AC, which was compressing the spinal cord. We removed the outer membrane of the AC and performed fenestration of the inner membrane after T3-4 laminectomy. Postoperative MRI showed complete removal of the AC and normalized lumbar subarachnoid space. All neurological deficits including motor weakness, sensory impairment, and voiding function improved to normal. We present a case of spontaneous spinal CSF leakage and consecutive intracranial hypotension in a patient with a spinal AC. Our report suggests that if spinal CSF leakage and a spinal AC are diagnosed in one patient, even if they are located at different sites, they may affect disease progression and aggravation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Arachnoid , Blood Patch, Epidural , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Diplopia , Disease Progression , Headache , Humans , Intracranial Hypotension , Laminectomy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Membranes , Neck Pain , Paraparesis , Spinal Cord , Subarachnoid Space
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759984

ABSTRACT

This is a report of a 58-year-old female with Cushing syndrome who underwent posterior lumbar fusion and lost both her vision completely. She was diagnosed with posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Cushingoid features such as buffalo hump and central obesity might have attributed in triggering posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. When laid prone for surgery, perioperative high abdominal pressure causes venous hypertension leading to increase amount of blood loss. To compensate, infusion of large quantities of intravenous fluids is necessary which leads to hemodilution which decreases ocular perfusion pressure. Hypercoagulability of Cushing syndrome is also potentially a risk factor of this condition which increases the incidence of venous thromboembolism. For there is no known effective treatment for posterior ischemic optic neuropathy, means to prevent this complication must be strategically reviewed. When performing long spine surgery on patient who has Cushing syndrome or cushingoid features, caution must be taken to avoid this devastating complication.


Subject(s)
Buffaloes , Cushing Syndrome , Female , Hemodilution , Humans , Hypertension , Incidence , Intraocular Pressure , Middle Aged , Obesity, Abdominal , Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic , Perfusion , Risk Factors , Spinal Fusion , Spine , Thrombophilia , Venous Thromboembolism
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759974

ABSTRACT

Most cases of spinal subdural hematoma are very rare and result from iatrogenic causes, such as coagulopathy or a spinal puncture. Cases of non-traumatic spinal subdural hematoma accompanied by intracranial hemorrhage are even more rare. There are a few reports of spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma with concomitant intracranial subdural or subarachnoid hemorrhage, but not with intracerebral hemorrhage. Especially in our case, the evaluation and diagnosis were delayed because the spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage accompanying the unilateral spinal subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhages caused hemiplegia. We report a case of spinal subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhage with concomitant intracerebral hemorrhage, for the first time, with a relevant literature review.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Hemorrhage , Diagnosis , Hematoma , Hematoma, Subdural, Spinal , Hemiplegia , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Spinal Puncture , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759968

ABSTRACT

Thoracic outlet syndrome is a relatively well known disease. Other than trauma, this disease is mostly caused by anatomical structures that cause vascular or neural compression. The cause of thoracic outlet syndrome is diverse; however, there are only few reports of thoracic outlet syndrome caused by lipoma in the pectoralis minor space. We report a case of compression of the lower trunk of brachial plexus in which a large lipoma that developed in the pectoral minor space grew into the subclavicular space, along with a review of literature.


Subject(s)
Brachial Plexus , Lipoma , Nerve Compression Syndromes , Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717710

ABSTRACT

We describe the case of a patient with an acute subdural hematoma (SDH) that was removed using urokinase irrigation after burr hole trephination in a limited situation where craniotomy was not possible. A 90-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a stuporous mental status. Computed tomography (CT) scans revealed a chronic SDH, and a burr hole procedure was performed. The patient's postoperative progression was good until the third day after surgery when we found that the acute SDH had increased on CT scans. The patient's guardian refused further surgery, and thus we drained the blood from the hematoma by injecting urokinase through a drainage catheter. We used urokinase for two days, and removed the catheter after confirming via CT scans that the hematoma was almost alleviated. The patient recovered gradually; she was discharged with few neurological deficits.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Catheters , Craniotomy , Drainage , Female , Hematoma , Hematoma, Subdural, Acute , Humans , Stupor , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Trephining , Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765231

ABSTRACT

Posttraumatic delayed vertebral collapse, known as Kummell’s disease, is increasing in number of patients. This disease is already progressive kyphosis due to vertebral collapse at the time of diagnosis and it causes intractable pain or neurologic deficit due to intravertebral instability. Treatment is very difficult after progression of the disease, and the range of treatment, in hospital day, and cost of treatment are both increased. Clinical features, pathogenesis and radiologic findings of these disease groups were reviewed to determine risk factors for delayed vertebral collapse. The purpose of this article is to suggest appropriate treatment before vertebral collapse for patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture who have risk factors for posttraumatic delayed vertebral collapse.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Fractures, Compression , Humans , Kyphosis , Neurologic Manifestations , Osteonecrosis , Osteoporosis , Pain, Intractable , Risk Factors
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788661

ABSTRACT

Posttraumatic delayed vertebral collapse, known as Kummell’s disease, is increasing in number of patients. This disease is already progressive kyphosis due to vertebral collapse at the time of diagnosis and it causes intractable pain or neurologic deficit due to intravertebral instability. Treatment is very difficult after progression of the disease, and the range of treatment, in hospital day, and cost of treatment are both increased. Clinical features, pathogenesis and radiologic findings of these disease groups were reviewed to determine risk factors for delayed vertebral collapse. The purpose of this article is to suggest appropriate treatment before vertebral collapse for patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture who have risk factors for posttraumatic delayed vertebral collapse.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Fractures, Compression , Humans , Kyphosis , Neurologic Manifestations , Osteonecrosis , Osteoporosis , Pain, Intractable , Risk Factors
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-64799

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Among pediatric injury, brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability. To improve outcomes, many developed countries built neurotrauma databank (NTDB) system but there was not established nationwide coverage NTDB until 2009 and there have been few studies on pediatric traumatic head injury (THI) patients in Korea. Therefore, we analyzed epidemiology and outcome from the big data of pediatric THI. METHODS: We collected data on pediatric patients from 23 university hospitals including 9 regional trauma centers from 2010 to 2014 and analyzed their clinical factors (sex, age, initial Glasgow coma scale, cause and mechanism of head injury, presence of surgery). RESULTS: Among all the 2617 THI patients, total number of pediatric patients was 256. The average age of the subjects was 9.07 (standard deviation±6.3) years old. The male-to female ratio was 1.87 to 1 and male dominance increases with age. The most common cause for trauma were falls and traffic accidents. Age (p=0.007), surgery (p<0.001), mechanism of trauma (p=0.016), subdural hemorrhage (SDH) (p<0.001), diffuse axonal injury (DAI) (p<0.001) were statistically significant associated with severe brain injury. CONCLUSION: Falls were the most common cause of trauma, and age, surgery, mechanism of trauma, SDH, DAI increased with injury severity. There is a critical need for effective fall and traffic accidents prevention strategies for children, and we should give attention to these predicting factors for more effective care.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Accidents, Traffic , Brain Injuries , Cause of Death , Child , Craniocerebral Trauma , Developed Countries , Diffuse Axonal Injury , Epidemiology , Female , Glasgow Coma Scale , Hematoma, Subdural , Hospitals, University , Humans , Korea , Male , Mortality , Pediatrics , Republic of Korea , Trauma Centers
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-26697

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether baseline cerebral atrophy can predict the rate of future chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) after head trauma and compare indirect markers of brain atrophy with volumetric analysis of computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Single institution case-control study involving 1,476 patients who visited our hospital after head trauma from January 2009 to December 2014. Forty-one patients with delayed CSDH were identified and age, gender matched 41 patients were selected as control group. Both volumetric analyze on CT and Evans index, frontal horn index, bicaudate ratio, sylvian fissure ratio and cortical atrophy scale of 82 patients were estimated by different raters and relationship of those factors with CSDH was analyzed. RESULTS: Every indirect indices except cortical atrophy scale were not enough to give a good estimate of CSDH. Brain atrophy and cortical atrophy scale were predisposing factors of CSDH on multivariate analysis with statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Brain atrophy was a potential prognostic factor of CSDH after trauma. In practice, patients with a value of cortical atrophy scale over moderate grade needed more attention for CSDH.


Subject(s)
Animals , Atrophy , Brain , Case-Control Studies , Causality , Craniocerebral Trauma , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Hematoma, Subdural, Chronic , Horns , Humans , Multivariate Analysis
16.
Korean Journal of Spine ; : 124-129, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47842

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) can be fatal if untreated, so early diagnosis and treatment are essential. We conducted a retrospective study to define its clinical features and evaluate the risk factors of motor weakness. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records and images of patients with SEA who had been hospitalized in our institute from January 2005 to June 2012. Pyogenic SEA patients were categorized as patients without motor weakness (Group A) and with motor weakness (Group B). Abscess volume was measured using the Gamma-Plan program. Intervertebral foramen height and posterior disc height were measured to evaluate degree of spinal stenosis. RESULTS: Of 48 patients with pyogenic SEA, 33 (68%) were treated surgically, and 15 (32%) were treated with antibiotics. Eleven patients had weakness and abscess volume was unrelated to motor weakness. Old age, 'spare room' (abscess volume subtracted from spinal volume) and intervertebral foramen height and posterior disc height were statistically significant. Among the 48 patients, 43 (85%) had good outcome and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was the only meaningful prognostic factor (p=0.014). The cut-off value of ESR was 112mm/h with 80% sensitivity and 79% specificity and had borderline significance (p=0.062). CONCLUSION: SEA needs emergent diagnosis and treatment. Motor weakness is the most important factor in treatment decision. By careful image reading, early surgical treatment can be an option for selected patients with severe spinal stenosis for prevent motor weakness. Inflammatory markers, especially ESR, are valuable to identify worsening of SEA.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Blood Sedimentation , Causality , Diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Epidural Abscess , Humans , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spinal Stenosis
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-120938

ABSTRACT

Spinal cord herniation is a rare condition that has become increasingly recognised in the last few years. The authors report a case of idiopathic spinal cord herniation in a 33 year old woman performed with progressive Brown-Sequard syndrome. The diagnosis was made on MR imaging. After repairing the herniation, the patient made a gradual improvement. Potential causes are discussed, including a possible role of dural defect. In conclusion, idiopathic spinal cord herniation is a potentially treatable condition that should be more readily diagnosed that increasing awareness and improved imaging techniques.


Subject(s)
Brown-Sequard Syndrome , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Spinal Cord
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205827

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Brain atrophy and subdural hygroma were well known factors that enlarge the subdural space, which induced formation of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). Thus, we identified the subdural volume that could be used to predict the rate of future CSDH after head trauma using a computed tomography (CT) volumetric analysis. METHODS: A single institution case-control study was conducted involving 1,186 patients who visited our hospital after head trauma from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2014. Fifty-one patients with delayed CSDH were identified, and 50 patients with age and sex matched for control. Intracranial volume (ICV), the brain parenchyme, and the subdural space were segmented using CT image-based software. To adjust for variations in head size, volume ratios were assessed as a percentage of ICV [brain volume index (BVI), subdural volume index (SVI)]. The maximum depth of the subdural space on both sides was used to estimate the SVI. RESULTS: Before adjusting for cranium size, brain volume tended to be smaller, and subdural space volume was significantly larger in the CSDH group (p=0.138, p=0.021, respectively). The BVI and SVI were significantly different (p=0.003, p=0.001, respectively). SVI [area under the curve (AUC), 77.3%; p=0.008] was a more reliable technique for predicting CSDH than BVI (AUC, 68.1%; p=0.001). Bilateral subdural depth (sum of subdural depth on both sides) increased linearly with SVI (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Subdural space volume was significantly larger in CSDH groups. SVI was a more reliable technique for predicting CSDH. Bilateral subdural depth was useful to measure SVI.


Subject(s)
Atrophy , Brain , Case-Control Studies , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Craniocerebral Trauma , Head , Hematoma, Subdural, Chronic , Humans , Skull , Subdural Effusion , Subdural Space , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200612

ABSTRACT

Burkholderia cepacia is an important nosocomial pathogen in hospitalized patients, particularly those with prior antimicrobial therapy. B. cepacia causes various clinically significant infections such as bacteremia, pneumonia, and urinary tract and surgical site infections. However, osteomyelitis caused by B. cepacia is very rare. We present a case of B. cepacia vertebral osteomyelitis with review of the literature.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture , Aged , Bacteremia , Burkholderia cepacia , Humans , Osteomyelitis , Pneumonia , Spine , Spondylitis , Urinary Tract
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-89973

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Infectious spinal disease is regarded as an infection by a specific organism that affects the vertebral body, intervertebral disc and adjacent perivertebral soft tissue. Its incidence seems to be increasing as a result of larger proportion of the older patients with chronic debilitating disease, the rise of intravenous drug abuser, and the increase in spinal procedure and surgery. In Korea, studies assessing infectious spinal disease are rare and have not been addressed in recent times. The objectives of this study are to describe the epidemiology of all kind of spinal infectious disease and their clinical and microbiological characteristics as well as to assess the diagnostic methodology and the parameters related to the outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in all infectious spinal disease cases presenting from January 2005 to April 2010 to three tertiary teaching hospitals within a city of 1.5 million in Korea. Patient demographics, risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes were assessed. Risk factors entailed the presence of diabetes, chronic renal failure, liver cirrhosis, immunosuppressants, remote infection, underlying malignancy and previous spinal surgery or procedure. We comparatively analyzed the results between the groups of pyogenic and tuberculous spinal infection. SPSS version 14 statistical software was used to perform the analyses of the data. The threshold for statistical significance was established at p<0.05. RESULTS: Ninety-two cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Overall, patients of tuberculous spinal infection (TSI) and pyogenic spinal infection (PSI) entailed 20 (21.7%) and 72 (78.3%) cases, respectively. A previous spinal surgery or procedure was the most commonly noted risk factor (39.1%), followed by diabetes (15.2%). The occurrence of both pyogenic and tuberculous spondylitis was predominant in the lumbar spine. Discs are more easily invaded in PSI. At initial presentation, white cell blood count and C-reactive protein levels were higher in PSI compared to TSI (p<0.05). Etiological agents were identified in 53.3%, and the most effective method for identification of etiological agents was tissue culture (50.0%). Staphyococcus aureus was the most commonly isolated infective agent associated with pyogenic spondylitis, followed by E. coli. Surgical treatment was performed in 31.5% of pyogenic spondylitis and in 35.0% of tuberculous spondylitis cases. CONCLUSION: Many previous studies in Korea usually reported that tuberculous spondylitis is the predominant infection. However, in our study, the number of pyogenic infection was 3 times greater than that of tuberculous spinal disease. Etiological agents were identified in a half of all infectious spinal disease. For better outcomes, we should try to identify the causative microorganism before antibiotic therapy and make every effort to improve the result of culture and biopsy.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , C-Reactive Protein , Communicable Diseases , Demography , Drug Users , Epidemiology , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents , Incidence , Intervertebral Disc , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Korea , Liver Cirrhosis , Osteomyelitis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spinal Diseases , Spine , Spondylitis , Tuberculosis
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