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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875529

ABSTRACT

Adult echinostomes having 37 collar spines collected from the intestine of Pitalah ducks in Aceh Province, Indonesia in 2018 were morphologically and molecularly determined to be Echinostoma miyagawai Ishii, 1932 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae). Among 20 ducks examined, 7 (35.0%) were found to be infected with this echinostome, and the number of flukes collected was 48 in total with average 6.9 (1-17) worms per duck. The adult flukes were 7.2 (6.1-8.5) mm in length and 1.2 (1.0-1.4) mm in width (pre-ovarian or testicular level) and characterized by having a head collar armed with 37 collar spines (dorsal spines arranged in 2 alternating rows), including 5 end group spines, and variable morphology of the testes, irregularly or deeply lobed (3-5 lobes) at times with horizontal extension. The eggs within the worm uterus were 93 (79-105) µm long and 62 (56-70) µm wide. These morphological features were consistent with both E. miyagawai and Echinostoma robustum, for which synonymy to each other has been raised. Sequencing of 2 mitochondrial genes, cox1 and nad1, revealed high homology with E. miyagawai (98.6-100% for cox1 and 99.0-99.8% for nad1) and also with E. robustum (99.3-99.8% for nad1) deposited in GenBank. We accepted the synonymy between the 2 species and diagnosed our flukes as E. miyagawai (syn. E. robustum) with redescription of its morphology. Further studies are required to determine the biological characteristics of E. miyagawai in Aceh Province, Indonesia, including the intermediate host and larval stage information.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919301

ABSTRACT

Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are still a considerable challenge in Myanmar. We undertook a control program for STH infections (especially Trichuris trichiura) among schoolchildren in Myanmar using mass drug administration (MDA) and health education. Around 1,700 schoolchildren from 15 primary schools in 3 suburban districts (Shwe Pyi Thar, Twantay, and Kyauktan) of the Yangon Region were subjected in this study during 2017-2019. All of the schoolchildren in each school were orally administered albendazole (400 mg in a single dose) 2, 3, and 4 times a year in 2017, 2018, and 2019, respectively. The results revealed that the egg positive rate of any intestinal helminths (including STH) was reduced from 37.6% (649/1,724) in 2017 to 22.8% (352/1,542) in 2019. The egg positive rate of Ascaris lumbricoides was decreased remarkably from 23.3% (402/1,724) in 2017 to 3.6% (56/1,542) in 2019. However, that of T. trichiura was only slightly reduced from 26.9% (464/1,724) in 2017 to 20.2% (312/1,542) in 2019. The intensity of infection with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura was both more or less reduced, and the proportion of light infection cases with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura increased from 35.6% in 2017 to 64.3% in 2019 and from 70.3% in 2017 to 81.7% in 2019, respectively. The results indicated that repeated MDAs (2-4 times a year for 3 years) using albendazole on schoolchildren in Myanmar failed to control T. trichiura infection. For a successful control of trichuriasis in Myanmar, new MDA strategies, using a modified albendazole regimen (multiple daily doses for 2 or 3 days) or an alternative anthelmintic drug, such as oxantel pamoate, is strongly recommended.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903839

ABSTRACT

A survey was performed to investigate the infection status of zoonotic helminth larvae in fish from a local market of North Dagon District in Yangon City, Myanmar. A total of 486 fish in 13 species were collected 8 times from December 2015 to December 2019. All fish were transported under ice to a laboratory in Korea and examined for helminth larvae using artificial digestion method. Larval gnathostomes and metacercariae of more than 8 zoonotic trematode species, i.e., Opisthorchis viverrini, Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus spp., Stellantchasmus falcatus, Pygidiopsis cambodiensis, and Procerovum sp., were detected. Larval gnathostomes were found in 58 (16.0%) out of 362 fish of 6 species, with mean intensity of 2.8 per fish infected. Metacercariae of O. viverrini were detected in 10 (2.9%) out of 349 fish of 5 species, with mean intensity of 16.9 per fish infected. Metacercarial prevalences of 4 intestinal flukes, H. taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, and Centrocestus spp., were 16.8%, 26.0%, 12.5%, and 15.0% in the positive fish species, respectively, and mean metacercarial intensity was 63.3, 26.8, 86.2, and 8.7 per fish infected. Metacercariae of S. falcatus and P. cambodiensis were detected only from the mullet, Chelon macrolepis. Metacercariae of Procerovum sp. were found in Channa striata and Anabas testudineus. Collectively, it was confirmed that the fish were infected with gnathostome larvae and metacercariae of O. viverrini and intestinal flukes in Yangon City, Myanmar.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896135

ABSTRACT

A survey was performed to investigate the infection status of zoonotic helminth larvae in fish from a local market of North Dagon District in Yangon City, Myanmar. A total of 486 fish in 13 species were collected 8 times from December 2015 to December 2019. All fish were transported under ice to a laboratory in Korea and examined for helminth larvae using artificial digestion method. Larval gnathostomes and metacercariae of more than 8 zoonotic trematode species, i.e., Opisthorchis viverrini, Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus spp., Stellantchasmus falcatus, Pygidiopsis cambodiensis, and Procerovum sp., were detected. Larval gnathostomes were found in 58 (16.0%) out of 362 fish of 6 species, with mean intensity of 2.8 per fish infected. Metacercariae of O. viverrini were detected in 10 (2.9%) out of 349 fish of 5 species, with mean intensity of 16.9 per fish infected. Metacercarial prevalences of 4 intestinal flukes, H. taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, and Centrocestus spp., were 16.8%, 26.0%, 12.5%, and 15.0% in the positive fish species, respectively, and mean metacercarial intensity was 63.3, 26.8, 86.2, and 8.7 per fish infected. Metacercariae of S. falcatus and P. cambodiensis were detected only from the mullet, Chelon macrolepis. Metacercariae of Procerovum sp. were found in Channa striata and Anabas testudineus. Collectively, it was confirmed that the fish were infected with gnathostome larvae and metacercariae of O. viverrini and intestinal flukes in Yangon City, Myanmar.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833769

ABSTRACT

Chinese edible frogs, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus, were examined to estimate the potential risks of human gnathostomiasis and sparganosis in Myanmar. A total of 20 frogs were purchased in a local market of Yangon and examined with naked eyes and the artificial digestion method after skin peeling in June 2018 and June 2019. Larvae of gnathostomes and Spirometra (=spargana) were detected in 15 (75.0%) and 15 (75.0%) frogs with average intensities of 10.5 and 6.3 larvae per infected frog, respectively. Gnathostome larvae were 2.75-3.80 (av. 3.30) mm long and 0.29-0.36 (0.33) mm wide. They had a characteristic head bulb with 4 rows of hooklets, a muscular long esophagus, and 2 pairs of cervical sac. The mean number of hooklets were 41, 44, 47, and 50 on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th row, respectively. Collected spargana were actively moving, particularly with the scolex part, and have ivory-white color and variable in size. Conclusively, it has been first confirmed that Chinese edible frogs, H. rugulosus, are highly infected with larval gnathostomes and spargana in this study. Consuming these frogs is considered a potential risk of human gnathostomiasis and sparganosis in Myanmar.

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