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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 322-335, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016638

ABSTRACT

In recent years, polysaccharides have received much attention because of their high safety and good immunological activity. The study of polysaccharide in vivo process is a key scientific problem that needs to be solved for polysaccharide drug development. Some progress has been made in the field of polysaccharide pharmacokinetics and immunomodulation. However, due to the lack of both chromogenic and light-absorbing groups and the complex molecular structure of polysaccharides, the in vivo processes and immunomodulatory mechanisms of polysaccharides have been slow to be investigated. The effective combination of multiple techniques can break the bottleneck of difficult tracing and unknown immunomodulatory mechanism of polysaccharides in vivo, and promote the development and utilization of polysaccharides. In this paper, we systematically summarize the key techniques in the study of polysaccharide in vivo processes and immunomodulatory mechanisms in order to provide technical references and research ideas for the study of polysaccharide in vivo processes and immunomodulatory mechanisms.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 127-138, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-964293

ABSTRACT

Juvenile zebrafish were used to screen the active components of Lycii Fructus for improving osteoporosis. The screening results were further verified by zebrafish adult osteoporosis model and the action mechanism was explored. Prednisolone was used as the inducer to build osteoporosis models of juvenile and adult zebrafish, and 9 groups of samples of different extracts and chemical parts of Lycii Fructus were given. Alizarin red staining was applied for observing the scale matrix mineralization and bone resorption. The activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts were detected using alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP/TRACP) staining. The expressions of bone metabolism-related genes alp, osteoprotectin (opn), osteoblast specific transcription factor (sp7), cathepsin K (ctsk), tracp, and Runt family transcription factor 2b (runx2b) in each group were determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that all components of Lycii Fructus improved the formation area of the first vertebrae, the staining light density value, and the number of vertebrae joints in juvenile zebrafish and the Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) treatment group exerted the best effect. In addition, LBP prevented the formation of bone resorption lacunae in zebrafish scales, increased ALP activity, decreased TRAP activity, up-regulated the alp, sp7, and opn genes, and lowered the expressions of ctsk and tracp genes. In conclusion, LBP regulated the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, reduced bone resorption, promoted bone formation and enhanced bone density, which might be the main anti-osteoporosis active fraction of Lycii Fructus. This study provided modern scientific evidence for the scientific connotation of the traditional effect of "strengthening bones and muscles" of Lycii Fructus, provided the reference for the evaluation of the anti-osteoporosis activity of traditional Chinese medicine based on zebrafish adult model, and provided beneficial enlightenment for the bone health needs of the aging society population.

3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2667-2678, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981371

ABSTRACT

Polysaccharides have significant immunomodulatory activity and have good development value in food and medicine fields. At present, there are many studies on the chemical structure and immune activity of polysaccharides, but the relationship between them of polysaccharides has not been fully explained, which limits the further development and utilization of polysaccharide resources. The immune activity of polysaccharides is closely related to their own structure. This paper systematically summarized the relationship between the relative molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, glycosidic bond types, chemical modification, and advanced conformation of polysaccharides and the immune regulation, aiming to provide references for the profound study of polysaccharide structure-activity relationship and utilization of polysaccharides.


Subject(s)
Monosaccharides/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship , Molecular Weight , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/chemistry
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2387-2395, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981315

ABSTRACT

As a traditional Chinese herb and functional food, the fruits of Lycium barbarum has been widely used for thousands of years in China. L. barbarum polysaccharides(LBPs) are predominant active components, which have immunomodulatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, neuroprotective, anti-tumor, and prebiotic activities. The molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, glycosidic bond, branching degree, protein content, chemical modification, and spatial structure of LBPs are closely related to their biological activity. Based on the previous studies of this research team, this paper systematically combed and integrated the research progress of structure, function, and structure-activity relationship of LBPs. At the same time, some problems restricting the clarification of the structure-activity relationship of LBPs were considered and prospected, hoping to provide references for the high value utilization of LBPs and in-depth exploration of their health value.


Subject(s)
Lycium/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents , Polysaccharides/chemistry
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1238-1248, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970595

ABSTRACT

Huoluo Xiaoling Dan is a classical prescription commonly used for blood circulation and pain relief in clinic with obvious effects. To make it directly treat lesion and improve the effect, this research optimized the preparation process of Huoluo Xiaoling gel paste and further evaluated its in vitro transdermal absorption performance, so as to provide a scientific basis for its development and utilization. Using primary viscosity, holding viscosity, and sensory score as evaluation indexes, the matrix amount of gel paste was determined by the single factor test and Box-Behnken response surface method. The ultra-performance liquid chromatography(UPLC) method was established to determine the content of eight active ingredients, including Danshensu, ferulic acid, salvianolic acid B, salvianolic acid A, ligustilide, tanshinone Ⅱ_A, 11-keto-β-boswellic(KBA), and 3-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid(AKBA). A mo-dified Franz diffusion cell method was used to evaluate and compare the absorption properties of the gel paste without volatile oil and with volatile oil microemulsion. The results showed that the optimal prescription for Huoluo Xiaoling gel paste matrix was NP700(1.35 g), glycerol(7.00 g), micropowder silica gel(1.25 g), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose(0.20 g), tartaric acid(0.06 g), and glyceryl aluminum(0.04 g). The mass fractions of eight active ingredients in the paste were successively 0.48, 0.014, 0.95, 0.39, 0.57, 0.055, 0.35, and 0.97 mg·g~(-1). The results of the in vitro transdermal absorption test showed that the addition of the volatile oil or the volatile oil microemulsion promoted the transdermal absorption of the active ingredients, and the law of drug penetration conformed to the zero equation or the Higuchi equation. The gel paste prepared by the optimal prescription has good appearance and adhesion, with no residue, and has the characteristics of skeletal slow-release preparation, which is easy to reduce the number of administration, la-ying a foundation for the development of new external dosage forms of Huoluo Xiaoling Dan.


Subject(s)
Administration, Cutaneous , Skin Absorption , Chromatography, Liquid , Oils, Volatile , Viscosity
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6600-6612, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008859

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to provide data support for resource utilization of the stems and leaves of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus(SLAM) by analyzing and evaluating the chemical constituents. The crude protein, crude fiber, and soluble saccharide of SLAM were analyzed by Kjeldahl method, filtration method, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry, respectively. The nucleosides, amino acids, flavonoids, and saponins of SLAM were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry(UPLC-TQ-MS). Combined with principal component analysis(PCA), the quality difference of resource components of SLAM was comprehensively evaluated. The results showed that the average content of crude protein, crude fiber, total polysaccharide, and redu-cing sugar in SLAM was 5.11%, 30.33%, 11.03 mg·g~(-1), and 31.90 mg·g~(-1), respectively. Six nucleosides, 15 amino acids, 22 flavonoids, and one saponin were detected, with an average content of 1.49 mg·g~(-1), 6.00 mg·g~(-1), 1.86 mg·g~(-1), and 35.67 μg·g~(-1), respectively. The content of various types of chemical components in SLAM differed greatly in different harvesting periods and growing years. The results of PCA showed that the quality of SLAM produced in Ningxia was superior. The results can provide references for the utilization of SLAM.


Subject(s)
Astragalus propinquus/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Flavonoids/analysis , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Amino Acids , Saponins/analysis
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5142-5151, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008712

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)industry has experienced rapid development, resulting in a significant amount of Chinese medicinal residues generated during the industrial manufacturing process. Currently, the main methods of handling Chinese medicinal residues include stacking, landfilling, and incineration, which lead to substantial resource waste and potential environmental pollution. With "carbon peak" and "carbon neutrality"( "Dual Carbon")becoming national strategic goals, the TCM industry is ushering in a new wave of "low-carbon" trends, and the high-value utilization of Chinese medicinal residues has become a breakthrough for implementing a low-carbon economy in the TCM sector. From the perspective of a low-carbon economy, this article reviewed literature in China and abroad to summarize the microbial transformation technology, enzymatic conversion technology, biomass pyrolysis, gasification, hydrothermal liquefaction, and other high-value utilization technologies for Chinese medicinal residues. It also overviewed the applications of Chinese medicinal residue in feed additives, organic fertilizers, edible mushroom cultivation substrates, preparation of activated carbon for wastewater treatment, and new energy batteries. Considering the current status of resource utilization of Chinese medicinal residues, feasible strategies and suggestions for resource development and utilization were proposed to improve the quality and efficiency of the Chinese medicinal resource industry chain and promote green development, thereby providing research ideas and theoretical basis for achieving carbon peak and carbon neutrality goals.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , China , Technology , Industry
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4545-4551, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008623

ABSTRACT

It has become a common consensus that resource conservation and intensive recycling for improving resource utilization efficiency is an important way to achieve carbon peak and carbon neutrality(dual carbon). Traditonal Chinese medicine(TCM)resources as national strategic resources are the material basis and fundamental guarantee for the development of TCM industry and health services. However, the rapid growth of China's TCM industry and the continuous expansion and extension of the industrial chain have exposed the low efficiency of TCM resources. Resource waste and environmental pollution caused by the treatment and discharge of TCM waste have emerged as major problems faced by the development of the industry, which has aroused wide concern. Considering the dual carbon goals, this paper expounds the role and potential of TCM resource recycling and circular economy industry development. Taking the typical model of TCM resource recycling as the case of circular economy industry in reducing carbon source and increasing carbon sink, this paper puts forward the suggestions for the TCM circular economy industry serving the double carbon goals. The suggestions mainly include strengthening the policy and strategic leading role of the double carbon goals, building an objective evaluation system of low-carbon emission reduction in the whole industrial chain of TCM resources, building an industrial demonstration park for the recycling of TCM resources, and promoting the establishment of a circular economy system of the whole industrial chain of TCM resources. These measures are expected to guide the green transformation of TCM resource industry from linear economic model to circular economy model, provide support for improving the utilization efficiency and sustainable development of TCM resources, and facilitate the low-carbon and efficient development of TCM resource industry and the achievement of the double carbon goals.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Equipment Reuse , Goals , Environmental Pollution , Economic Development , Carbon , China
9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3546-3556, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-964323

ABSTRACT

In this study, the ameliorative effects of Flos Abelmoschus manihot on mice with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were investigated and its effects on the structure of the intestinal flora as well as the lipid profile in feces of IBD mice were analyzed. All animal welfare and experimental procedures followed the regulations of the Animal Ethics Committee of Nanjing University of Chinese medicine. A mouse model with chronic IBD induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was used to evaluate changes in body weight, disease activity index (DAI), colonic histopathological damage as well as gene expression levels of inflammatory factors in the colon. Fecal samples from mice in each group were collected and subjected to Illumina high-throughput sequencing to detect the abundance of intestinal flora; samples were analyzed by UHPLC-Q-Exactive® HF Quadrupole-Orbitrap® of untargeted lipidomics, which detects lipid content in feces. Administration of Flos Abelmoschus manihot could significantly restore the body weight and ameliorate colonic histopathological damage in IBD mice. Sequencing of the gut microbiota revealed that the species diversity and richness of the gut microbiota in IBD mice were decreased, with a significant increase in the abundance of Verrucomicrobia and a significant decrease in the abundance of Bacteroidetes; Flos Abelmoschus manihot significantly increased the richness and diversity of intestinal microbiota in IBD mice, increased the number of taxa species at each level, and restored the abundance of bacteria in the phylum Bacteroidetes. Analysis of fecal lipid profiles identified the most significant changes in sphingolipid and glycerophospholipid metabolic pathways in IBD mice, with Flos Abelmoschus manihot inhibiting ceramide and sphingomyelin synthesis in sphingolipid metabolism. In summary, Flos Abelmoschus manihot can effectively improve the disease condition of mice with chronic IBD, and it has the effect of regulating intestinal flora homeostasis and lipid metabolism, but the related mechanism between the two still needs to be deeply explored.

10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3535-3545, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-964311

ABSTRACT

Aging can cause degenerative changes in the function of multiple tissues and organs in the body. Gastrointestinal diseases and intestinal dysfunction are very common in the elderly people. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of the total extract of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. on intestinal function and gut microbiota homeostasis in natural aging mice, which will provide clues for further mechanism study. The natural aging mice model is established and animal experiments follow the regulations of the Animal Ethics Committee of Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The overall health of the mice was evaluated by the "frailty index" scoring method. The intestinal absorption and transport function were measured by detecting intestinal glucose absorption capacity, transport time, lipase and amylase activities of aging mice. Intestinal inflammation was assessed by detecting inflammatory cytokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The pathological changes in the intestines of aging mice were tested by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining and alizarin blue (AB) staining. The qRT-PCR method was used to explore the gene transcription level related with the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal stem cells. Microbiota analysis based on 16S rDNA were used to evaluate the composition of gut microbiota. The results showed that Astragalus had a tendency to reduce the "frailty index" of aging mice, but did not show a significant difference. In some indicators of aging phenotype, Astragalus has the most significant effect on hair loss and physical fitness. In terms of intestinal function, Astragalus could increase intestinal glucose absorption capacity, shorten intestinal transportation time and promote lipase secretion in aging mice. The levels of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-‍α) in the aging intestinal tissue were reduced after Astragalus administration. Astragalus also ameliorated the pathological degeneration of the intestinal tissue of aging mice by increasing the length of small intestinal villi, the thickness of colonic mucosa and goblet cell number. In addition, Astragalus elevated the expression of genes associated with the proliferation and differentiation in jejunum and modulated gut microbiota, especially restoring the abundance of Lachnospiraceae. Taken together, the above research results demonstrate the total extract of Astragalus as a key factor improving the intestinal function and gut microbiota homeostasis of aging mice.

11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 364-374, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922921

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research is to study the effect of small molecule compound piceatannol (PIC) on host inflammation in adenine induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) mice, and then to explore its mechanism based on the regulation of gut microbiota. All procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine. The level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); UPLC-TQ/MS technology was used to monitor the level of proinflammatory uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresol sulfate (PCS); the expression of occludin was tested by Western blot; in vitro anaerobic culture of gut bacteria was used to produce indole; the abundance of gut microbiota was evaluated by 16S rDNA sequencing. The results showed that PIC had no effect on inflammatory infiltration in kidney tissue of CKD mice, but could decrease IL-6 level in blood and IL-6/TNF-α level in colon tissue. PIC did not improve intestinal occludin protein expression in CKD mice; while it could significantly reduce the levels of IS and PCS in blood and liver of CKD mice. Further mechanism studies showed that PIC could inhibit the synthesis of IS precursor indole in gut bacteria. Moreover, PIC could decrease the abundance of gut bacteria which producing uremic toxin, such as reducing the abundance of indole and p-cresol producing gut bacteria. In conclusion, PIC could regulate gut microbiota and inhibit the synthesis of uremic toxin precursor, thereafter reducing the accumulation of IS and PCS in vivo, ultimately relieving the inflammation of CKD mice.

12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2015-2020, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928140

ABSTRACT

Essential oils(EOs) from Chinese medicinals, which can be used as adjuvants and exert certain therapeutic effect, are directly used in Chinese medicine formulas. Conventional research strategy for EOs from Chinese medicinals is to compare the efficacy of the prescriptions before and after the addition of EOs, and the penetration-enhancing mechanisms of EOs remain unclear. In modern research on EOs from Chinese medicinals, the method for studying chemical penetration enhancers is often used, which fails to reflect the overall efficacy of EOs. This study clarified the property regularity of EOs from Chinese medicinals as transdermal penetration enhancers, and thereby proposed a research model which integrated the medicinal and adjuvant properties of EOs from Chinese medicinals via "component-delivery-effect" characterization route. The core concept is that constituents of EOs from Chinese medicinals and their delivery process play a key role in their external application. This research model is expected to serve as a reference for further research on EOs from Chinese medicinals for transdermal application.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic , Administration, Cutaneous , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1445-1452, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928073

ABSTRACT

The demand for Angelicae Sinensis Radix, the dry root of Angelica sinensis, has been increasing year by year. However, the continuous cropping obstacles, frequent occurrence of pests and diseases, overuse of chemical pesticides, excessive pesticide residues and other problems in Angelicae Sinensis Radix production have attracted much attention. In this paper, we summarized the common diseases and pests attacking Angelica sinensis as well as the detection methods and characteristics of pesticide residues in Angelicae Sinensis Radix from 2002 to 2021. Additionally, we compared the limit standards of pesticide residues in Angelicae Sinensis Radix in and out of China and put forward suggestions for the high-quality and green development of Angelicae Sinensis Radix industry conside-ring the existing problems. The pesticide residues in Angelicae Sinensis Radix have been changing from organochlorines to organophosphorus pesticides. In recent years, some organophosphorus pesticides such as phorate, phoxim, isofenphos-methyl, phorate-sulfoxide, fenamiphos, isocarbophos, omethoate, and triazophos in Angelicae Sinensis Radix have seriously exceeded the standards. The detection methods of pesticide residues has evolved from chromatography to high performance chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS), and some new detection techniques such as immunoassay have also been applied. Pesticide residues have become a primary factor that restricting the development of Angelicae Sinensis Radix industry. Therefore, moderate application of pesticides, establishment of ecological planting system, and strict limit standards of pesticide residues are necessary to solve the pesticide residue problem.


Subject(s)
Angelica sinensis/chemistry , Chromatography, Liquid , Organophosphorus Compounds , Pesticide Residues , Pesticides
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1279-1285, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928053

ABSTRACT

This paper explored the specific peptides from Bubali Cornu by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and based on mathematics set theory. Following the profile analysis of peptides from Bubali Cornu, Bovis Grunniens Cornu, Caprae Hircus Cornu, and Suis Cornu by nano LC-LTQ-Obitrap-MS after digestion with trypsin, the relationship of peptide composition among different samples was analyzed using the mathematics set theory. The ones that existed only in the Bubali Cornu set rather than in any other set were considered as the specific peptides of Bubali Cornu. The further bioinformatic analysis revealed four specific peptides from Bubali Cornu, whose specificity was verified by UPLC-QQQ-MS. The results showed that these four peptides could be used for distinguishing Bubali Cornu from Caprae Hircus Cornu and Suis Cornu. This study has provided a rapid and simple method for seeking the specific peptides in animal medicines, which can be utilized for quality evaluation of animal medicines, thus making them authenticable and traceable.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, Liquid , Cornus , Horns/chemistry , Peptides/chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 862-871, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928003

ABSTRACT

As a unique medical resource in China, Chinese herbal medicine plays a key role in the prevention and treatment of human diseases. With the gradual expansion of applications, the quality of Chinese herbal medicine has become the focus of attention. The quality of Chinese herbal medicines depends largely on their source authenticity. Tracing the origin of Chinese herbal medicines plays an important role in ensuring their quality and efficacy and reducing the mixing and adulteration of Chinese herbal medicines from different regions. Stable isotope technology, as a key technology for origin tracing of agricultural products and food, has been used in the research of Chinese herbal medicines from multiple sources and origins in recent years. This new technological means contributes to standardizing the origin of Chinese herbal medicines and controlling their quality from the source. Apart from introducing the basic principles of stable isotope technology and the characteristics of common stable isotopes, this study reviewed the application status of light and heavy stable isotopes in the origin tracing of Chinese herbal medicines and their correlation with ecological factors, and forecasted the application prospect of this technology in the authentication of Chinese herbal medicines, aiming to provide reference for the geographical origin tracing of Chinese herbal medicines and promote the sustainable development of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Contamination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Isotopes , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 444-452, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927988

ABSTRACT

In order to evaluate the composition and distribution characteristics of inorganic elements in Laminaria japonica, this study employed inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS) to detect the inorganic elements and used high performance liquid chromatography tandem ICP-MS(HPLC-ICP-MS) to determine the content of different arsenic species in L. japonica from diffe-rent origins. Micro X-ray fluorescence(Micro-XRF) was used to determine micro-area distribution of inorganic elements in L. japonica. The results showed that the average content of Mn, Fe, Sr, and Al was high, and that of As and Cr exceeded the limits of the national food safety standard. According to the results of HPLC-ICP-MS, arsenobetaine(AsB) was the main species of As contained in L. japonica. The more toxic inorganic arsenic accounts for a small proportion, whereas its content was 1-4 times of the limit in the national food safety standard. The results of Micro-XRF showed that As, Pb, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni were mainly distributed on the surface of L. japonica. Among them, As and Pb had a clear tendency to diffuse from the surface to the inside. The results of the study can provide a basis for the processing as well as the medicinal and edible safety evaluation of L. japonica.


Subject(s)
Arsenic/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Laminaria , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Spectrum Analysis , Trace Elements/analysis
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 392-402, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927981

ABSTRACT

Obvious epigenetic differentiation occurred on Lycium barbarum in different cultivation areas in China. To investigate the difference and change rule of DNA methylation level and pattern of L. barbarum from different cultivation areas in China, the present study employed fluorescence-assisted methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism(MSAP) to analyze the methylation level and polymorphism of 53 genomic DNA samples from Yinchuan Plain in Ningxia, Bayannur city in Inner Mongolia, Jingyuan county and Yumen city in Gansu, Delingha city in Qinghai, and Jinghe county in Xinjiang. The MSAP technical system suitable for the methylation analysis of L. barbarum genomic DNA was established and ten pairs of selective primers were selected. Among amplified 5'-CCGG-3' methylated sites, there were 35.85% full-methylated sites and 39.88% hemi-methylated sites, showing a high degree of epigenetic differentiation. Stoichiometric analysis showed that the ecological environment was the main factor affecting the epigenetic characteristics of L. barbarum, followed by cultivated varieties. Precipitation, air temperature, and soil pH were the main ecological factors affecting DNA methylation in different areas. This study provided a theoretical basis for the analysis of the epigenetic mechanism of L. barbarum to adapt to the diffe-rent ecological environments and research ideas for the introduction, cultivation, and germplasm traceability of L. barbarum.


Subject(s)
China , DNA Methylation , DNA Primers , Epigenesis, Genetic , Lycium/genetics
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 215-223, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927928

ABSTRACT

An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UHPLC-MS/MS) method was established to investigate the pharmacokinetic behaviors of psoralenoside, isopsoralenoside, calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, psoralen, isopsoralen, methylnissolin, and neobavaisoflavone in rat plasma after oral administration of Bufei Huoxue Capsules. After SD rats were administered with Bufei Huoxue Capsules suspension by gavage, blood samples were collected from the inner canthus at different time points. After protein precipitation, plasma samples were separated on ACQUITY UPLC BEH C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm). The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile(A) and water(B) containing 0.1% formic acid in gradient elution. The positive and negative ions were measured simultaneously in the multi-reaction monitoring(MRM) mode. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and fitted by DAS 3.2.8. Psoralenoside, isopsoralenoside, calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, psoralen, isopsoralen, methylnissolin, and neobavaisoflavone were detected in the rat plasma after drug administration, with AUC_(0-t) of(3 357±1 348),(3 555±1 696),(3.03±0.88),(2.21±0.33),(1 787±522),(2 295±539),(5.69±1.41) and(3.40±0.75) μg·L~(-1)·h, and T_(max) of(1.56±0.62),(1.40±0.70),(0.21±0.05),(0.25±0.12),(0.26±0.11),(0.34±0.29),(0.74±0.59), and 0.25 h. The method is proved specific and repeatable and is suitable for the determination of psoralenoside, isopsoralenoside, calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, pso-ralen, isopsoralen, methylnissolin, and neobavaisoflavone in the rat plasma, which can be applied to pharmacokinetic study.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Capsules , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reproducibility of Results , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
19.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 105-112, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906523

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the effect of sedimentary type Limonitum on hemostatic indexes in blood and metal ions in serum of rats with hemorrhage. Method:The hemorrhagic rat models were established by warfarin sodium. The experimental animals were divided into control group,model group,powder group and water decoction group. On day 15 from drug administration, the contents of 6-keto prostaglandin F<sub>1</sub><italic><sub>α</sub></italic>(6-keto-PGF<sub>1</sub><italic><sub>α</sub></italic>),thromboxane B<sub>2</sub>(TXB<sub>2</sub>),arachidonic acid(AA),endothelin 1(ET-1),platelet activating factor(PAF),P-selectin(PS),and Ca<sup>2+</sup> in the whole blood of rats in each group were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The contents of Na,Mg,K,Ca,Fe,Al,Li,Be,Ti,V,Cr,Mn,Co,Ni,Cu,Zn,As,Sr,Cd,Sn,Sb,Ba,and Pb in serum samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer(ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS). Result:Compared with the model group,the content of 6-keto-PGF<sub>1</sub><italic><sub>α</sub></italic> was reduced in the powder group and water decoction group (<italic>P</italic><0.05),and the contents of TXB<sub>2</sub>,AA,ET-1,PAF,PS,Ca<sup>2+ </sup>were<sup> </sup>significantly increased(<italic>P</italic><0.01),with a positive and beneficial regulatory effect. In the powder group, 10 kinds of metal elements in serum of rats were significantly and positively regulated: Na,K,Ca,Fe,Li,Ti,V,Co,Cu,and Zn(<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic>P</italic><0.01). In the water decoction group, 10 metal elements with significant positive regulation were as follows: Na,K,Ca,Fe,Li,V,Ni,Cu,Zn,and Sr(<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic>P</italic><0.01). In addition,the content of Cr(<italic>P</italic><0.01) in the powder group and Cr(<italic>P</italic><0.01),Pb(<italic>P</italic><0.05) in the water decoction group were significantly reduced. Conclusion:The powder and water decoction of sedimentary type Limonitum had definite and positive intervention effect on warfarin hemorrhage model rats,which could play a coagulation role by enhancing the vasoconstriction ability,promoting the activation of platelets,and increasing the platelet aggregation rate and blood viscosity. The metal elements such as Na,K,Ca,Fe,Li,Ti,V,Co,Cu,Zn,Ni and Sr may be the material basis for sedimentary type Limonitum to exert hemostatic effect. According to the above indicators,the intervention effect of powder group and decoction group was basically the same.

20.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 117-125, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906494

ABSTRACT

Mume Flos is a traditional Chinese medicinal material,with the effects of soothing the liver,resolving phlegm and dispelling stagnation. It was mainly used to treat globus hystericus,liver and stomach pain,loss of appetite,dizziness and scrofula. Mume Flos is native to China,with a long history of cultivation and application and complex and diverse varieties. There are hundreds varieties of Mume Flos,including fruiting Mei and flowering Mei. However,there was no ancient literature on which color of Mume Flos is the best traditional Chinese medicinal material among those with different colors,as well as relevant study report on the correlation between medicinal Mume Flos group and plant systematics. In order to define the origin,the author conducted the textual research on the changes in the origin,quality and producing areas of the Mume Flos in the past dynasties. According to the findings, traditional medicinal Mume Flos were mainly green calyx Mume Flos and white Mume Flos,and derived from flowering Mei of the true Mume branch. Among them, green calyx Mume Flos belonged to the green calyx group, while medicinal white Mume Flos belonged to the albo-plena group and the single-lobe group. The producing area of Mume Flos was first recorded in Sheng Nong's Herbal Classic,where now in southern Shaanxi province. After the Song dynasty,due to climate,social and economic factors,the producing areas of Mume Flos had continued to move southward from Shaanxi province to the Yangtze River and Dongting Lake basins. Till the Ming and Qing dynasties,the distribution of Mume Flos was also reported in Guangdong province and Hainan province. In modern times,due to the comprehensive impact of natural climate conditions and urbanization,the producing areas of medicinal Mume Flos had gradually changed from Sichuan province,Jiangsu province and Zhejiang province to southern Anhui province at present. In this paper,the textual research is conducted to define the origin and systematically summarize the changes in the producing areas of Mume Flos,so as to provide reference for defining the origin of Mume Flos and the groups of medicinal Mume Flos and making further development and utilization of resources.

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