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1.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1216-1220, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921035

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the effect of moxibustion combined with basic treatment and simple basic treatment on the clinical symptoms, renal function and hypercoagulable state in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) of low to medium risk with spleen-kidney deficiency and blood stasis.@*METHODS@#A total of 60 patients with IMN of low to medium risk with spleen-kidney deficiency and blood stasis were randomized into an observation group (30 cases, 2 cases dropped off) and a control group (30 cases, 1 case dropped off). In the control group, the conventional basic treatment of anti-hypertension, regulating blood lipid and anti-coagulation was adopted. On the basis of the control group, moxibustion was applied at Shenshu (BL 23), Pishu (BL 20), Guanyuan (CV 4), Zusanli (ST 36) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6) in the observation group, once a day, 5 days a week continuously with 2 day interval. The treatment of 6 months was required in the both groups. Before treatment and 3 and 6 months into treatment, the total TCM syndrome score, the renal function indexes (24-hour urinary protein quantity [UTP], albumin [ALB], urea nitrogen [BUN] and creatinine [Scr]), the blood coagulation indexes (fibrinogen [FIB], D-Dimer [D-D], p-selection and von Willebrand factor [vWF]), total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglycerol (TG) levels were observed, and the therapeutic efficacy was evaluated on 3 and 6 months into treatment in the two groups.@*RESULTS@#The effective rates of 3 and 6 months into treatment were 78.6% (22/28) and 89.3% (25/28) in the observation group, which were higher than 62.1% (18/29) and 75.9% (22/29) in the control group respectively (@*CONCLUSION@#Moxibustion combined with basic treatment can effectively improve the clinical symptoms, renal function and renal microcirculation in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy of low to medium risk with spleen-kidney deficiency and blood stasis, the therapeutic effect is superior to the simple basic treatment.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Glomerulonephritis, Membranous , Humans , Kidney/physiology , Moxibustion , Spleen
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906515

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the effect of modified Shengjiangsan on renal fibrosis in rats with membranous nephropathy (MN) and to explore the mechanism of its complications of renal fibrosis. Method:Rats were injected with cationized bovine serum albumin(C-BSA)in the tail vein to establish a rat model of membranous nephropathy. The normal group,model group,modified Shengjiangsan group (27.3 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>)and benazepril group(10 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>)were established in this study. Each group was given corresponding dosage of the drug once a day for 4 weeks of continuous intervention. After the administration,we observed the pathological changes of rat kidneys by the technology of Masson staining, silverhexylamine iodate (PASM) staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunofluorescence technology (IF) was used to detect immunoglobulin(Ig)G deposition in rat kidneys. The levels of interleukin-1<italic>β</italic> (IL-1<italic>β</italic>), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-<italic>α</italic> (TNF-<italic>α</italic>) in rat serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-<italic>κ</italic>B), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), transforming growth factor-<italic>β</italic><sub>1</sub> (TGF-<italic>β</italic><sub>1</sub>), <italic>α</italic>-smooth muscle actin (<italic>α</italic>-SMΑ) and type Ⅳ Collagen (Collagen Ⅳ) in rat kidney tissues. Result:Compared with normal group, the kidney tissue of the model group was obviously fibrotic, the serum levels of IL-1<italic>β</italic>, IL-6, and TNF-<italic>α</italic> were significantly increased(<italic>P</italic><0.05), and the expressions of MCP-1, ICAM-1, NF-<italic>κ</italic>B, TLR4, PAI-1, TGF-<italic>β</italic><sub>1</sub>, <italic>α</italic>-SMA and Collagen Ⅳ mRNA and protein in kidney tissue were significantly increased(<italic>P</italic><0.05). Compared with model group, modified Shengjiangsan and benazepril significantly improved renal fibrosis in rats, reduced the levels of IL-1<italic>β</italic>, IL-6, and TNF-<italic>α</italic> in the serum of MN rats(<italic>P</italic><0.05), down-regulated MCP-1, ICAM-1, NF-<italic>κ</italic>B, TLR4, PAI-1, TGF-<italic>β</italic><sub>1</sub>, <italic>α</italic>-SMA and Collagen Ⅳ mRNA and protein expression in kidney tissue(<italic>P</italic><0.05). Conclusion:Modified Shengjiangsan can reduce the release and expression of inflammatory factors by down-regulating the TLR4/NF-<italic>κ</italic>B signaling pathway, inhibit renal fibrosis, and reduce renal damage in MN rats.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906427

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the effect of Yiqiyangyin Huoxuetongluo prescription on janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) signaling pathway and cell apoptosis in rats with diabetic nephropathy (DN), and to explore the mechanism of its intervention in DN. Method:A total of 100 SD rats were randomly divided into an experimental group (<italic>n</italic>=80) and a normal group (<italic>n</italic>=20). The DN model was induced by high-sugar and high-fat diet combined with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) in the experimental group, and confirmed by the pathological changes of kidney tissues in rats (three in each group) observed under light and electron microscopes. The model rats were randomly divided into a model group (normal saline, equal volume), low-, medium-, and high-dose (5.775, 11.550, and 23.100 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) Yiqiyangyin Huoxuetongluo prescription groups, and an irbesartan group (irbesartan tablets, 0.016 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>). After drug intervention (<italic>i.g</italic>., once a day for 16 consecutive weeks), the 24-hour urine total protein (UTP), serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), creatinine (SCr), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels of the rats were measured. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the protein expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and actinin-4 in rat kidney tissues. Result:Compared with the normal group, the model group exhibited elevated UTP, serum TC, TG, BUN, and SCr levels (<italic>P</italic><0.05), severe pathological damage of rat kidney tissues, up-regulated expression of phospho-JAK2 (p-JAK2), phospho-STAT3 (p-STAT3), and Bax, increased renal cell apoptosis, and diminished expression of Bcl-2, ZO-1, and actinin-4 (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Compared with the model group, the Yiqiyangyin Huoxuetongluo prescription group and the irbesartan group showed dwindled UTP, serum TC, TG, BUN, and SCr levels (<italic>P</italic><0.05), relieved pathological damage of rat kidney tissues, down-regulated p-JAK2, p-STAT3, and Bax expression, and up-regulated expression of Bcl-2, ZO-1, and actinin-4 (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Conclusion:Yiqiyangyin Huoxuetongluo prescription can reduce renal cell apoptosis and improve the prognosis of DN by inhibiting the activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906393

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the effects of Yishen Tongluo prescription (YTP) on autophagy-related proteins in rats with membranous nephropathy (MN) and explore its possible molecular mechanism in protecting the kidney. Method:Twenty of 80 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly selected as the normal control, and the rest rats were pre-immunized and injected with cationized bovine serum albumin (C-BSA) through the tail vein to induce MN. The SD rats that were successfully modeled were randomized into the model group, benazepril hydrochloride group (10 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>), and low- (6.61g·kg<sup>-1</sup>), medium- (13.22 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>), and high-dose (26.44 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) YTP groups, and administered with the corresponding drugs by gavage, once a day, for four consecutive weeks. Then the changes in such quantitative indicators as plasma albumin (ALB), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and 24-hour urinary total protein (UTP) were detected, followed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, Masson's trichrome staining, and periodic Schiff-methenamine (PASM) staining for observing the pathological changes in kidney under the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The deposition of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and complement 3 (C3) in the glomerulus was detected by fluorescence immunoassay. The expression levels of autophagy marker proteins Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3Ⅱ (LC3Ⅱ), and p62 were measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and those of related proteins in the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase / mechanisic target of rapamycin/Unc-51-like kinase 1 (AMPK/mTOR/ULK1) signaling pathway were determined by Western blot assy. Result:Compared with the normal group, the model group exhibited significantly increased UTP (<italic>P</italic><0.01) and serum TG and TC (<italic>P</italic><0.01), decreased ALB (<italic>P</italic><0.01), disordered glomerular structure, enlarged volume, thickened basement membrane, vacuolated renal tubules, excessively deposited collagen fibers and fuchsinophilic proteins, extensively fused podocyte foot processes, and diffusely deposited IgG and C3 in glomerular capillary loops. Besides, the expression levels of Beclin-1, LC3II, and phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK) decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.01), while those of p62, phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), and phosphorylated ULK1 (p-ULK1) increased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). The comparison with the model group revealed that the TG, TC, and UTP levels in the low-, medium-, and high-dose YTP groups and the benazepril hydrochloride group were reduced to varying degrees (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), whereas the ALB level was increased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in SCr or BUN level. The pathological damages were alleviated. The expression levels of Beclin-1, LC3Ⅱ, and p-AMPK were up-regulated (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), while those of p62, p-mTOR, and p-ULK1 were down-regulated (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:YTP protects the kidney of rats with MN possibly by regulating related proteins in the AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 signaling pathway and activating the autophagy.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906051

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the intervention effect of modified Shengjiangsan on hypoxia-inducible factor-1<italic>α </italic>(HIF-1<italic>α</italic>)/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (NOX4) signaling pathway in membranous nephropathy (MN) rats and to explore its mechanism to reduce oxidative stress and apoptosis in renal tissues. Method:Cationized bovine serum albumin (C-BSA) was injected into the tail vein of rats to replicate the MN model. Rats were randomly divided into a model group, a modified Shengjiangsan group, and a benazepril group after modeling, and administered by gavage once a day accordingly. At the end of the 4<sup>th</sup> week, the 24-h urine total protein (UTP), urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (SCr) levels of each group were detected. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA)was used to detect the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in renal tissues of rats. In situ end labeling(TUNEL) staining was used to detect the cell apoptosis rate. The mRNA and protein expression levels of HIF-1<italic>α</italic> and NOX4 were detected by real-time fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR)and Western blot, respectively. The immunohistochemistry method was used to detect the protein expression levels of B-cell lymphomas -2 (Bcl-2), B-cell lymphomas xl (Bcl-xl), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), Bcl-2 cell death regulator antibody (Bim). Result:Compared with the normal group, the model group showed increased UTP (<italic>P</italic><0.05), decreased SOD, elevated MDA and ROS (<italic>P</italic><0.05), up-regulated mRNA and protein expression of HIF-1<italic>α</italic> and NOX4 (<italic>P</italic><0.05), enhanced protein expression of Bax and Bim, declining protein expression of Bcl-xl and Bcl-2 (<italic>P</italic><0.05), and increased cell apoptosis in renal tissues. Compared with the model group, the modified Shengjiangsan group and the benazepril group displayed declining UTP (<italic>P</italic><0.05), up-regulated SOD, decreased MDA and ROS (<italic>P</italic><0.05), down-regulated mRNA and protein expression of HIF-1<italic>α</italic> and NOX4 (<italic>P</italic><0.05), diminished protein expression of Bax and Bim, elevated protein expression of Bcl-xl and Bcl-2 (<italic>P</italic><0.05), and reduced cell apoptosis in renal tissues (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Conclusion:The protective effect of modified Shengjiangsan on the kidney is presumedly achieved by reducing the oxidative stress and apoptosis in renal tissues of MN rats via inhibiting the HIF-1<italic>α</italic>/NOX4 signaling pathway.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905829

ABSTRACT

Objective:The purpose of this article was to observe the effect of modified Shengjiangsan on podocyte apoptosis in membranous nephropathy (MN) rats, to explore the molecular mechanism of its treatment of MN and to provide experimental basis for its clinical application. Method:The MN rat model was established by injection of cationic bovine serum albumin into the tail vein of rats. The successfully modeled rats were then randomly divided into model group (equal volume of normal saline), modified Shengjiangsan group (27.3 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) and benazepril group (10 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>), with corresponding drug dosage once a day for 4 weeks of continuous intervention. After drug administration, the 24-hour urine protein (UTP) was detected. Real time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) and immunohistochemical (IHC) methods were used to detect Podocalyxin, Nephrin, Podocin, Synaptopodin mRNA and protein expression levels in rat kidney tissue. terninal-deoxynucleoitidyl transferase medsated nick and labeling (TUNEL) method was used to detect cell apoptosis rate in rat kidney tissue, and Western blot was used to detect Notch1, Hes1, B lymphoblastoma-2 (Bcl-2) associated X protein (Bax), and Bcl-2 protein expression levels in rat kidney tissue. Result:Compared with the normal group, UTP in the model group increased significantly, renal tissue cell apoptosis increased significantly, podocyte marker proteins podocalyxin, Nephrin, Podocin, Synaptopodin mRNA and protein expression levels decreased significantly, and Notch1, Hes1, Bax protein expression increased significantly, and Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly reduced(<italic>P</italic><0.05). Compared with the model group, UTP levels in MN rats were significantly reduced in modified Shengjiangsan and benazepril groups, with reduced rate of renal cell apoptosis, increased mRNA and protein expression levels of podocalyxin, Nephrin, Podocin, and Synaptopodin in renal tissue, decreased Notch1, Hes1, Bax protein expression, and increased Bcl-2 protein expression(<italic>P</italic><0.05). Conclusion:Modified Shengjiangsan can inhibit the Notch signaling pathway, reduce the apoptosis of rat kidney tissue podocytes, and reduce the kidney injury of MN rats.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872820

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the intervention effect of modified Shengjiangsan in rats with membranous nephropathy (MN) and its related mechanism. Method:Rats were injected with cationized bovine serum Albumin (C-BSA) in the tail vein to establish a rat model of membranous nephropathy. The normal group, model group, modified Shengjiangsan group (27.3 g·kg-1) and benazepril group (10 mg·kg-1) were established in this study. Each group was given corresponding dosage of the drug once a day for 4 weeks of continuous intervention. After the administration, the levels of 24-hour urine protein (UTP), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), total protein (TP), Albumin (Alb), creatinine (SCr), urea nitrogen (BUN) level was detected. we observed the pathological changes of rat kidneys by the technology of Masson staining, silver hexylamine iodate (PASM) staining and transmission electron microscopy. immunofluorescence technology was used to detect immunoglobulin (Ig)G deposition in rat kidneys. Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of key proteins in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/proline protein kinase B/rapamycin target protein (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) signaling pathway and autophagy marker proteins LC3 and Beclin1. Result:Compared with normal group, the UTP, serum TC and TG levels were significantly increased, TP and Alb levels were significantly reduced in model group(P<0.05). We detected the kidney pathological changes include of glomerulus enlargement, basement membrane thickening,vacuolar degeneration, pheotropin deposition, glomerular capillary loop IgG diffuse deposition, electron dense deposits of varying sizes and podocytes under the epithelium extensive integration of foot processes, the expression of p-PI3K, p-Akt and p-mTOR protein was significantly increased (P<0.05). The expression of autophagy marker proteins LC3 and Beclin1 protein decreased significantly(P<0.05). Compared with model group, the UTP, serum TC and TG levels were decreased in the benazepril group and modified Shengjiangsan group, and the TP and Alb levels were increased (P<0.05), the histopathological changes of rat kidney were all reduced, the expression of p-PI3K, p-Akt and p-mTOR protein was significantly reduced(P<0.05), autophagy marker proteins LC3 and Beclin1 protein expression were significantly increased. Conclusion:Modified Shengjiangsan can reduce urinary protein, reduce kidney pathological damage and delay disease progression, which is related to its inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and activation of renal autophagy.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802239

ABSTRACT

Objective: To detect the effect of modified Shengjiangsan on the expression of reactive oxygen species(ROS) in mitochondria of renal foot cells of rats, in order to study the mechanism of modified Shengjiangsan. Method: After be fed for 7 days,the 60 SD male rats were randomly divided into four groups:blank control group, model group, positive medicine group and traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) treatment group. After establishment of the rat model of membranous nephropathy, model group, positive medicine group and TCM treatment group were treated differently. After 4 weeks, all of the rats were put to death, and the expressions of ROS, 24-hour urinary protein quantity,total cholesterol,triglyceride,total protein,albumin,urea nitrogen,creatinine were detected by Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction Real-time PCR. Result: The expression of 24-hour urinary protein quantity,total cholesterol,triglyceride in positive medicine group and TCM treatment group were reduced,and the expressions of total protein,albumin in positive medicine group and TCM treatment group were reduced compared with those of model group (PPConclusion: Modified Shengjiangsan can effectively control the development of ROS in mitochondria of renal foot cells of rats, and repair the renal function of membranous nephropathy rats by recovering foot cells.

9.
Chinese Journal of Immunology ; (12): 388-392, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-702739

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of Astragalus polysaccharides on apoptosis,transdifferentiation and ROS content in renal tubular epithelial cells of diabetic nephropathy.Methods:HK-2 cells were divided into low glucose group,high glucose group and astragalus polysaccharide+high glucose group,cell proliferation was detected by CCK-8 assay after 48 h;cell apoptosis and ROS content was detected by flow cytometry;the expression of E-cadherin,α-SMA,STAT1,STAT3,p-STAT1,p-STAT3 protein were detected by Western blot.Results:The survival rate of cells in high glucose group was significantly lower than low sugar group (P<0.01),cell apoptosis rate,ROS content and E-cadherin,α-SMA,p-STAT1 and p-STAT3 protein expression was significantly higher than low sugar group (P<0.01),the cell survival rate in high glucose+astragalus polysaccharide group was significantly higher than high glucose group,cell apoptosis rate,ROS content and E-cadherin,α-SMA,p-STAT1 and p-STAT3 protein expression was significantly lower than high glucose group (P<0.01).Conclusion:Astragalus polysaccharides can promote the proliferation of renal tubular epithelial cells induced by high glucose,inhibit apoptosis and transdifferentiation,and the mechanism is related to down regulation of JAK/STAT signaling pathway.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-242308

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the mechanism of Zishen Shengxue Recipe (ZSR) in treating renal anemia by observing its effect on serum level of endogenous erythropoietin in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sixty renal anemia patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis were randomly and equally assigned to two groups. The treated group was treated with subcutaneous injection of erythropoiesis stimulating factor (rHuEpo) combined with oral intake of ZSR, and the control group treated with rHuEpo alone. They were observed for eight weeks, and the blood levels of endogenous human erythropoietin (Epo), hemoglobin (Hgb), hematocrit (Hct), as well as the residual renal function (RRF) in the two groups were compared.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Serum Epo level in the control group was unchanged after treatment (P>0.05), while that in the treated group increased significantly, and showed significant difference in comparing with that in the control group (P<0.05). Levels of Hgb and Hct increased and RRF decreased in both groups (P<0.01), but the treated group showed higher increments and lesser decrement than those in the control group (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>ZSR can enhance the blood levels of Hgb, Hct and Epo, postpone the descent of RRF, and correct the anemic status in patients. Its mechanism of action is possibly through alleviating the inhibition of uremic toxin on erythropoiesis, in the meanwhile of promoting the secretion of Epo.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Anemia , Blood , Therapeutics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Erythropoiesis , Erythropoietin , Blood , Female , Hematinics , Therapeutic Uses , Hematocrit , Hemoglobins , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Dialysis
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