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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828074

ABSTRACT

Pre-formulation physicochemical properties of the component-based Chinese medicine of Qinqi Fengshi Fang were investigated to provide a research basis for the design of the dosage form for component-based Chinese medicine of Qinqi Fengshi Fang. The macroporous resin adsorption and refining technology was used to prepare the total glycosides extract of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix, Panacis Majoris Rhizome and Corni Fructus respectively in the prescription of Qinqi Fengshi Fang. Their physicochemical properties were investigated, including solubility, wettability, hygroscopicity, equilibrium solubility, oil-water partition coefficient, and stability. The results showed that the total glycosides of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix, Panacis Majoris Rhizome and Corni Fructus all had good solubility and wettability. The solubility index of each total glycoside component was greater than 85%, and the water absorption index was greater than 50%. In the range of pH 2.0-7.4, the equilibrium solubility of three kinds of total glycosides all increased with the increase of pH, showing a consistent change trend of solubility. The hydrophilicity was also suitable and similar. Overall, three kinds of total glycosides showed good stability, but strong hygroscopicity. The degree of hygroscopicity was as follows: total glycosides of Gen-tianae Macrophyllae Radix > total glycosides of Corni Fructus > total glycosides of Panacis Majoris Rhizome. Therefore, the hygroscopi-city needed to be considered in the preparation of the component-based Chinese medicine of Qinqi Fengshi Fang. The excipients and packaging materials can be properly selected to reduce the hygroscopicity of the preparation. This study provides a reference for the dosage form design of the component-based Chinese medicine of Qinqi Fengshi Fang.


Subject(s)
Cornus , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glycosides , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Rhizome
2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 95-103, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-778672

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Jujubae Fructus (JF) on the gastrointestinal toxicity and diuretic effect of Crotonis Semen Pulveratum (CT). Forty-eight mice were randomly divided into the control group, low dose of CT group (0.039 g·kg-1·d-1, CTL), high dose of CT group (0.078 g·kg-1·d-1, CTH), JF group (9.75 g·kg-1·d-1), low dose of CT combined with JF group (CT 0.039 g·kg-1·d-1 and JF 9.75 g·kg-1·d-1, JFCTL), high dose of CT combined with JF group (CT 0.078 g·kg-1·d-1 and JF 9.75 g·kg-1·d-1, JFCTH). On the 9th day of oral administration, the urine output of all mice was measured. After oral administration for ten days, fresh fecal samples were collected, and the 16S rDNA sequencing method was used to study the changes of intestinal bacteria when CT used alone and combined with JF. All experimental protocols were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine. The results showed that JF slowed down the rapid diuretic effect of CT, and significantly increased serum interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), gastrin (GAS), somatostatin (SS). JF also reduced small intestine injury and improved the disorder of intestinal flora caused by CT. Low dose CT combined with JF significantly decreased the relative abundance of Sphingomonas and Oscillospira. The level of Bilophila was decreased after the combined application of high dose CT and JF. The results suggest that JF exhibited a tendency to reduce the toxicity of CT in the aspects of serum immune index, intestinal movement, intestinal damage, and intestinal microflora structure. In addition, the JF could also slow down the rapid diuretic effect of CT, behaving a tendency to reduce the clinical effect of CT.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777470

ABSTRACT

Based on the toxic characteristics caused by the compatibility between "Zaoji Suiyuan" and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, which was found in the previous studies, the expanded study was carried out on the incompatibility mechanism between Crotonis Semen Pulveratum(CT) and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma(GU) with the diuretic effect and intestinal flora as the characteristic indexes. The results showed that GU could slow down the rapid diuretic effect of CT, which suggested a tendency of decreasing the efficacy. Both the high and low dose of CT could significantly induce the intestinal injury and change the intestinal bacteria structure of mice. Low dose CT combined with GU could significantly increase the levels of Streptococcus and Rikenellaceae_ukn. The relative abundance of Desulfovibrio and Streptococcaceae_ukn were increased after the combined application of high dose CT and GU. It also suggested that there was a risk of inflammation in the liver and intestines when combined application of these two herbs. The results revealed that the combination of CT and GU has a tendency to reduce the clinical effect and increase the toxicity from the aspects of its traditional efficacy and its effect on intestinal microflora structure, which could provide the data for the clinical use of CT.


Subject(s)
Animals , Croton , Chemistry , Diuretics , Drug Interactions , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Glycyrrhiza , Chemistry , Intestines , Mice , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Seeds , Chemistry
4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2267-2276, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780331

ABSTRACT

Uremic toxins are harmful substances that accumulate in the body when the renal function declines in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is an important factor contributing to accelerated progression of CKD. There is no effective treatment for reducing uremic toxins. As an extensively used medicine for treatment of CKD in the clinic, Huangkui capsule is effective but the mechanism of its action remains unclear. This study investigated the effect of Huangkui on the accumulation of uremic toxins in CKD rats, with the discussion about its mechanism of action. UPLC-TQ/MS was used to detect the accumulation of uremic toxins in CKD rats after oral gavage with Huangkui. 16S rDNA sequencing technology was used to analyze the gut bacteria composition in rats. HPLC-FLD was used to detect the uremic toxins and their molecular precursors in feces. The effect and mechanism of Huangkui on the uremic toxin precursor in gut bacteria were studied by anaerobic culture system in vitro. All procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine. The results showed that Huangkui (0.675 g·kg-1) could effectively inhibit the accumulation of uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate (IS) in CKD rats, with IS concentration in rat's plasma, liver and kidney decreased by 49.5%, 68.9% and 40.6%, respectively. Huangkui didn't affect the metabolic pathway of IS in host liver, didn't intervene the process of the IS precursor molecule indole conversion to IS. Instead, Huangkui significantly decreased the indole content in gut, with the indole in CKD rat's feces decreased by 46.4%, suggesting that the gut bacteria may be a target for intervene IS biosynthesis by Huangkui. Huangkui didn't affect the abundance of enterobacteriaceae bacteria (the main gut flora of indole synthesis) in CKD rats, suggesting that Huangkui didn't interfere with indole biosynthesis by directly affecting the abundance of indole synthesis related bacteria. Huangkui at 4 000, 400, 40, and 4 μg·mL-1 showed a dose-dependent inhibition of the indole production by gut bacteria in vitro. The bacteria tryptophan transport concentration decreased from 83.4 μmol·L-1 to 43.6 μmol·L-1 after co-incubated with Huangkui for 12 h, suggesting that Huangkui inhibited indole production of gut bacteria by interfering with tryptophan transportation. These results indicate that gut bacteria may be a potential target for alleviation of uremic toxin accumulation and for delaying CKD progression.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-790235

ABSTRACT

Although compatibility is highly advocated in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), inappropriate com-bination of some herbs may reduce the therapeutic action and even produce toxic effects. Kansui and licorice, one of TCM"Eighteen Incompatible Medicaments", are the most representative cases of improper herbal combination, which may still be applied simultaneously under given conditions. However, the potential mechanism of their compatibility and incompatibility is unclear. In the present study, two different ratios of kansui and licorice, representing their compatibility and incompatibility respectively, were designed to elucidate their interaction by comparative plasma/tissue metabolomics and a heatmap with relative fold change. As a result, glycocholic acid, prostaglandin F2a, dihydroceramide and sphin-ganine were screened out as the principal alternative biomarkers of compatibility group; sphinganine, dihydroceramide, arachidonic acid, leukotriene B4, acetoacetic acid and linoleic acid were those of in-compatibility group. Based on the values of biomarkers in each tissue, the liver was identified as the compatible target organ, while the heart, liver, and kidney were the incompatible target organs. Furthermore, important pathways for compatibility and incompatibility were also constructed. These results help us to better understand and utilize the two herbs, and the study was the first to reveal some innate characters of herbs related to TCM"Eighteen Incompatible Medicaments".

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687272

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the effect and mechanism of aerial parts of Salvia miltiorrhiza(SM) on high sugar-induced Drosophila melanogaster metabolic disorder model. The levels of glucose, triglyceride and protein in SM were detected; nymphosis time was recorded, and the reliability of metabolic disorder model as well as the mechanism of aerial parts of SM were evaluated based on metabonomics. The results showed that the levels of glucose and triglyceride in model group were significantly higher than those in normal control group(<0.05). As compared with the model group, the glucose level was significantly decreased in gliclazide(GLZ) group, SM medium(SM-M) and high(SM-H) dose groups(<0.05, <0.01); the triglyceride level was significantly decreased in GLZ group and SM-H group(<0.05, <0.01). By principal component analysis(PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA), the metabolic level of model ones was recovered to a certain degree after intervention by aerial parts of SM. Seventeen marker compounds and four major metabolic pathways were obtained by screening differential metabolites, comparing literature and retrieving the database. The aerial parts of SM may regulate glycolipid metabolism through the impact on histidine metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, pentose and glucuronate interconversions, cysteine and methionine metabolism and glycerolipid metabolism. Extract from aerial parts of SM can regulate the glycolipid metabolism of D. melanogaster metabolic disorder model and make it return to normal condition. This paper provides reference for the value discovery and resource utilization of the aerial parts of S. miltiorrhiza.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771728

ABSTRACT

The study was based on the toxic characteristics of the compatibility between "Zaojisuiyuan" and Gancao, with intestinal tract and intestinal bacteria as subject. From the angle of intestinal barrier function, motor function, steady state of intestinal flora and metabolism genes, the toxic and side effects of the compatibility between Qianjinzi and Gancao with similar properties, bases and chemical composition and types were further explored. The results showed that the combined application of Qianjinzi and Gancao enhanced intestinal mucosa damage, and led to abnormal changes in intestinal bacteria structure and metabolic function. It improved the degradation functions of mucus and aromatic amino acids on intestinal bacteria, which may increase the risk of disease and derived from intestinal urotoxin and other toxic substances. This study considered intestinal bacteria as an important target to study the interactions of traditional Chinese medicine. The "drug-intestinal bacteria-metabolism-toxicity" was applied in the experiment. Meanwhile, it provides ideas for exploring incompatible mechanism of traditional Chinese medicines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Chemistry , Intestinal Mucosa , Pathology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
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