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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e252-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001078

ABSTRACT

Background@#Ralstonia mannitolilytica is a causative organism of nosocomial infections, particularly associated with contaminated water, and resistant to various antibiotics, including carbapenems. Several clusters of R. mannitolilytica infections appeared in children at our institute from August 2018 to November 2019. @*Methods@#From March 2009 to March 2023, all patients admitted to Asan Medical Center Children’s Hospital in Seoul, Korea, with culture-confirmed R. mannitolilytica and corresponding clinical signs of infection were identified. Epidemiological and environmental investigations were conducted. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for the genes of OXA-443 and OXA-444 on R. mannitolilytica isolates. @*Results@#A total of 18 patients with R. mannitolilytica infection were included in this study, with 94.4% (17/18) and 5.6% (1/18) being diagnosed with pneumonia and central line-associated bloodstream infection, respectively. All-cause 30-day mortality rate was 61.1% (11/18), and seven of the fatal cases were caused by R. mannitolilytica infection itself. The resistance rates to meropenem and imipenem werew 94.4% (17/18) and 5.6% (1/18), respectively. Although four out of nine meropenem-resistant R.mannitolilytica isolates had positive PCR results for OXA-443 and OXA-444 genes, there were no significant differences in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Environmental sampling identified R. mannitolylica at two sites: a cold-water tap of a water purifier and an exhalation circuit of a patient mechanical ventilator.After implementing and improving adherence to infection control policies, no additional R. mannitolilyticainfection cases have been reported since December 2019. @*Conclusion@#R. mannitolilytica can cause life-threatening infections with high mortality in fragile pediatric populations. To prevent outbreaks, healthcare workers should be aware of R. mannitolilytica infections and strive to comply with infection control policies.

2.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 46-53, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000669

ABSTRACT

Pleuroperitoneal communication (PPC) is a rare mechanical complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD), which causes dialysate to move from the peritoneal cavity to the pleural cavity, resulting in pleural effusion. Typically, PPC is discovered through pleural effusion in PD patients who are not in volume overload status. A unique characteristic of the pleural effusion caused by PPC is that it is not resolved by increasing ultrafiltration by dialysis. In this report, we present a 7-year-old girl with PD after birth with the history of various infectious PD-related complications, presenting with fever ongoing for 6 months. PPC-associated pleuritis was suspected as the cause of fever, which eventually developed after long-term PD and induced complicated pleural effusion, lung inflammation, and prolonged fever for 6 months.

3.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 294-304, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968248

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We aimed to investigate whether image standardization using deep learning-based computed tomography (CT) image conversion would improve the performance of deep learning-based automated hepatic segmentation across various reconstruction methods. @*Materials and Methods@#We collected contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT of the abdomen that was obtained using various reconstruction methods, including filtered back projection, iterative reconstruction, optimum contrast, and monoenergetic images with 40, 60, and 80 keV. A deep learning based image conversion algorithm was developed to standardize the CT images using 142 CT examinations (128 for training and 14 for tuning). A separate set of 43 CT examinations from 42 patients (mean age, 10.1 years) was used as the test data. A commercial software program (MEDIP PRO v2.0.0.0, MEDICALIP Co. Ltd.) based on 2D U-NET was used to create liver segmentation masks with liver volume. The original 80 keV images were used as the ground truth. We used the paired t-test to compare the segmentation performance in the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and difference ratio of the liver volume relative to the ground truth volume before and after image standardization. The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) was used to assess the agreement between the segmented liver volume and ground-truth volume. @*Results@#The original CT images showed variable and poor segmentation performances. The standardized images achieved significantly higher DSCs for liver segmentation than the original images (DSC [original, 5.40%–91.27%] vs. [standardized, 93.16%–96.74%], all P < 0.001). The difference ratio of liver volume also decreased significantly after image conversion (original, 9.84%–91.37% vs. standardized, 1.99%–4.41%). In all protocols, CCCs improved after image conversion (original, -0.006–0.964 vs. standardized, 0.990–0.998). @*Conclusion@#Deep learning-based CT image standardization can improve the performance of automated hepatic segmentation using CT images reconstructed using various methods. Deep learning-based CT image conversion may have the potential to improve the generalizability of the segmentation network.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e127-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976940

ABSTRACT

Background@#The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has contributed to the change in the epidemiology of many infectious diseases. This study aimed to establish the pre-pandemic epidemiology of pediatric invasive bacterial infection (IBI). @*Methods@#A retrospective multicenter-based surveillance for pediatric IBIs has been maintained from 1996 to 2020 in Korea. IBIs caused by eight bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella species) in immunocompetent children > 3 months of age were collected at 29 centers. The annual trend in the proportion of IBIs by each pathogen was analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 2,195 episodes were identified during the 25-year period between 1996 and 2020. S. pneumoniae (42.4%), S. aureus (22.1%), and Salmonella species (21.0%) were common in children 3 to 59 months of age. In children ≥ 5 years of age, S. aureus (58.1%), followed by Salmonella species (14.8%) and S. pneumoniae (12.2%) were common. Excluding the year 2020, there was a trend toward a decrease in the relative proportions of S. pneumoniae (rs = −0.430, P = 0.036), H. influenzae (rs = −0.922, P 3 months of age. These findings can be used as the baseline data to navigate the trend in the epidemiology of pediatric IBI in the post COVID-19 era.

5.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 13-24, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925172

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Breast cancer is mainly diagnosed using core needle biopsy (CNB), although other biopsy methods, including vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB), may also be used. We compared differences in clinical characteristics and prognoses of patients with breast cancer according to biopsy methods used for diagnosis. @*Methods@#A total of 98,457 patients who underwent various biopsy methods (CNB, fine-needle aspiration [FNA], VAB, and excisional biopsy) for diagnosing breast cancer were recruited. Using CNB as a reference, related clinicopathological factors and prognostic differences between biopsy methods were analyzed retrospectively using large-scale data from the Korean Breast Cancer Society Registration System. The associations between biopsy methods and clinicopathological factors were compared using multinomial logistic regression analysis, and the prognoses of patients undergoing the different biopsy methods, as breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and overall survival (OS), were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model. @*Results@#Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that unlike FNA, both VAB and excisional biopsy were significantly associated with tumor size, palpability, tumor stage, and histologic grade as relatively good prognostic factors compared to CNB. In particular, VAB showed lower odds ratios for these factors than excisional biopsy. In the univariate analysis, the prognosis of patients undergoing VAB was better than that of those undergoing CNB with respect to BCSS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.188, p < 0.001) and OS (HR, 0.359; p < 0.001). However, in the multivariate analysis, there were no significant prognostic differences from CNB in both BCSS and OS; differences were only evident for FNA. @*Conclusion@#In this study, we showed that the characteristics of breast cancer differed according to various biopsy methods. Although VAB is not a standard method for breast cancer diagnosis, it showed no prognostic differences to CNB.

6.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e313-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915438

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although the combination tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) is recommended at adolescence in developed countries, the tetanus and diphtheria toxoid vaccine (Td), which is less costly, is recommended instead in some parts of the world. A new Td, BR-TD-1001, was developed by a Korean manufacturer for distribution to endemic regions and for use in the initial step of novel Tdap development. @*Methods@#This phase 3, randomized, double-blind, multi-center trial, conducted in Korea, aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of BR-TD-1001. Healthy children aged 10 to 12 years were randomized 1:1 to receive either BR-TD-1001 or the control Td (Td-pur, GlaxoSmithKline). Antibodies were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. @*Results@#A total of 218 subjects (BR-TD-1001, n = 108; control, n = 110) were enrolled and included in the safety analysis. Vaccine-mediated antibody responses were similar in both groups. We confirmed the non-inferiority of BR-TD-1001 against the control, Td; 100% of both groups achieved seroprotection against diphtheria and tetanus. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between groups in the proportion of participants who demonstrated boost responses against diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. The incidence of solicited local and systemic adverse events (AEs), unsolicited AEs, and serious AEs did not differ significantly between groups. @*Conclusion@#The BR-TD-1001 satisfied the immunological non-inferiority criterion against diphtheria and tetanus, with a clinically acceptable safety profile.

7.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 82-91, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903145

ABSTRACT

Background@#The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between antibiotic use and the antimicrobial resistance of gram-negative bacteria isolated from blood cultures in a pediatric population. @*Methods@#From January 2014 to June 2018, the antibiotic resistance pattern of Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa obtained from bacteremic patients aged ≤18 years hospitalized at Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital was analyzed and the parenteral antibiotic consumption data were retrieved. @*Results@#During the study period, the blood culture was positive for K. pneumoniae (6.4%; 105/1,628), E. coli (5.6%; 91/1,628), P. aeruginosa (3.3%; 54/1,628), and A. baumannii (2.5%; 41/1,628), and the extended-spectrum antibiotic resistance rate of gram-negative bacteria was consistently high. The overall resistance rate of E. coliand K. pneumoniae to extendedspectrum cephalosporin was 49.3% and 54.4%, respectively. Carbapenem-resistant E. coli was first detected in 2014; its overall resistance rate to carbapenem was 5.3%. There was a linear correlation between the usage of 3rd generation cephalosporin and the resistance of A. baumannii (r2 =0.96, P=0.004) and carbapenem usage and the resistance of K. pneumoniae (r2 =0.79, P=0.045). @*Conclusions@#A positive linear correlation was observed between antibiotic resistance and the corresponding antibiotic usage in 3rd generation cephalosporin resistant A. baumanniiand carbapenem resistant K. pneumoniae. The judicious use of antibiotics in healthcare settings is important to minimize selection for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenem resistance in gram-negative bacteria.

8.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 131-139, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897022

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) is a systematic and standardized scheme of the radiological findings of breast. However, there were different BI-RADS categories between breast cancers as the clinical characteristics in previous studies. We analyzed the association of BI-RADS categories with the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of breast cancer. @*Methods@#A total of 44,184 patients with invasive breast cancers assigned to BI-RADS category 3, 4, or 5 in preoperative mammography or ultrasonography were analyzed retrospectively using large-scale data from the Korean Breast Cancer Society registration system. The difference in the clinicopathological factors and prognoses according to the BI-RADS categories (BI-RADS 3–4 and BI-RADS 5) were compared between the mammography and ultrasonography groups. Comparisons of the clinicopathological factors in both groups were made using logistic regression analysis, while the prognoses were based on the breast cancer-specific survival using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model. @*Results@#The factors associated with BI-RADS were T stage, N stage, palpability, histology grade, and lymphovascular invasion in the mammography group; and N stage, palpability, histology grade, and lymphovascular invasion in the ultrasonography group. In the survival analysis, there were significant differences in the breast cancer-specific survival of the BI-RADS category groups in both of the mammography (hazard ratio [HR], 3.366; P < 0.001) and ultrasonography (HR, 2.877; P < 0.001) groups. @*Conclusion@#In this study, the BI-RADS categories of preoperative mammography and ultrasonography of patients with invasive breast cancer were associated with prognosis and could be an important factor in making treatment decisions.

9.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 82-91, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895441

ABSTRACT

Background@#The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between antibiotic use and the antimicrobial resistance of gram-negative bacteria isolated from blood cultures in a pediatric population. @*Methods@#From January 2014 to June 2018, the antibiotic resistance pattern of Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa obtained from bacteremic patients aged ≤18 years hospitalized at Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital was analyzed and the parenteral antibiotic consumption data were retrieved. @*Results@#During the study period, the blood culture was positive for K. pneumoniae (6.4%; 105/1,628), E. coli (5.6%; 91/1,628), P. aeruginosa (3.3%; 54/1,628), and A. baumannii (2.5%; 41/1,628), and the extended-spectrum antibiotic resistance rate of gram-negative bacteria was consistently high. The overall resistance rate of E. coliand K. pneumoniae to extendedspectrum cephalosporin was 49.3% and 54.4%, respectively. Carbapenem-resistant E. coli was first detected in 2014; its overall resistance rate to carbapenem was 5.3%. There was a linear correlation between the usage of 3rd generation cephalosporin and the resistance of A. baumannii (r2 =0.96, P=0.004) and carbapenem usage and the resistance of K. pneumoniae (r2 =0.79, P=0.045). @*Conclusions@#A positive linear correlation was observed between antibiotic resistance and the corresponding antibiotic usage in 3rd generation cephalosporin resistant A. baumanniiand carbapenem resistant K. pneumoniae. The judicious use of antibiotics in healthcare settings is important to minimize selection for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenem resistance in gram-negative bacteria.

10.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 131-139, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889318

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) is a systematic and standardized scheme of the radiological findings of breast. However, there were different BI-RADS categories between breast cancers as the clinical characteristics in previous studies. We analyzed the association of BI-RADS categories with the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of breast cancer. @*Methods@#A total of 44,184 patients with invasive breast cancers assigned to BI-RADS category 3, 4, or 5 in preoperative mammography or ultrasonography were analyzed retrospectively using large-scale data from the Korean Breast Cancer Society registration system. The difference in the clinicopathological factors and prognoses according to the BI-RADS categories (BI-RADS 3–4 and BI-RADS 5) were compared between the mammography and ultrasonography groups. Comparisons of the clinicopathological factors in both groups were made using logistic regression analysis, while the prognoses were based on the breast cancer-specific survival using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model. @*Results@#The factors associated with BI-RADS were T stage, N stage, palpability, histology grade, and lymphovascular invasion in the mammography group; and N stage, palpability, histology grade, and lymphovascular invasion in the ultrasonography group. In the survival analysis, there were significant differences in the breast cancer-specific survival of the BI-RADS category groups in both of the mammography (hazard ratio [HR], 3.366; P < 0.001) and ultrasonography (HR, 2.877; P < 0.001) groups. @*Conclusion@#In this study, the BI-RADS categories of preoperative mammography and ultrasonography of patients with invasive breast cancer were associated with prognosis and could be an important factor in making treatment decisions.

11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e38-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874770

ABSTRACT

Background@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks emerged at two universityaffiliated hospitals in Seoul (hospital A) and Uijeongbu City (hospital S) in the metropolitan Seoul area in March 2020. The aim of this study was to investigate epidemiological links between the outbreaks using whole genome sequencing (WGS) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). @*Methods@#Fifteen patients were enrolled in the study, including four non-outbreak (A1–A4) and three outbreak cases (A5–A7) in hospital A and eight cases (S1–S8) in hospital S. Patients' hospital stays, COVID-19 symptoms, and transfer history were reviewed. RNA samples were submitted for WGS and genome-wide single nucleotide variants and phylogenetic relationships were analyzed. @*Results@#The index patient (A5) in hospital A was transferred from hospital S on 26 March.Patients A6 and A7 were the family caregiver and sister, respectively, of the patient who shared a room with A5 for 4 days. Prior to transfer, A5 was at the next bed to S8 in the emergency room on 25 March. Patient S6, a professional caregiver, took care of the patient in the room next to S8's room for 5 days until 22 March and then S5 for another 3 days.WGS revealed that SARS-CoV-2 in A2, A3, and A4 belong to clades V/B.2, S/A, and G/B.1, respectively, whereas that of A5–A7 and S1-S5 are of the V/B.2.1 clade and closely clustered. In particular, SARS-CoV-2 in patients A5 and S5 showed perfect identity. @*Conclusion@#WGS is a useful tool to understand epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2. It is the first study to elucidate the role of patient transfer and caregivers as links of nosocomial outbreaks of COVID-19 in multiple hospitals.

12.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 147-157, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903127

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We investigated the trend of antibiotic susceptibility of Haemophilus influenzae over 5 consecutive years. @*Methods@#We analyzed the antibiotic susceptibility of H. influenzae isolated from children aged <18 years, who were admitted to the Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital from March 2014 to April 2019. Antibiotic susceptibility of H. influenzae was determined by the disk diffusion test according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing guidelines. @*Results@#Excluding duplicates, 69 isolates were obtained over the past 5 years. The median age of the patients was 5 years (range, 2.8–8.6 years). The antibiotic susceptibility patterns were as follows: ampicillin (AMP)-susceptible/amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC)-susceptible (AS/ACS; n=15 [21.7%]), AMP-resistant/AMC-susceptible (AR/ACS; n=21 [30.4%]), and AMP-resistant/ AMC-resistant (AR/ACR; n=33 [47.8%]). The prevalence of isolates with AR/ACR phenotype tended to increase from 42.1% in 2014–2015 to 54.5% in 2018–2019 (P=0.342). Compared to 2014–2015, the resistance rates to cefuroxime and ceftriaxone in 2018–2019 increased from 31.6% to 77.3% and from 0.0% to 59.1%, respectively (P=0.003 and P<0.001, respectively). @*Conclusions@#Over the last 5 years, H. influenzae isolates with AR/ACR phenotype and ceftriaxone resistance were frequently observed at our institute. The incidence of resistance to cefuroxime and ceftriaxone has increased significantly.

13.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science ; : 670-674, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902932

ABSTRACT

We experienced an extremely rare case of proximal epithelioid sarcoma (PES) of the vulva in a 77-year-old woman. After history taking and physical examination, the patient was tentatively diagnosed as having Bartholin’s cyst in the right labium. Based on histopathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) findings, however, a final diagnosis of PES of the vulva was made. After receiving CyberKnife treatment, the patient survived but with recurrent episodes and poor prognosis. In conclusion, our case indicates that patients with PES of the vulva should be appropriately managed with radiotherapy after a differential diagnosis based on histopathological and IHC findings.

14.
Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing ; : 274-284, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902578

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and characteristics of health care programs for pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Korea. This study was conducted according to the Cochrane Collaboration’s systematic literature review handbook and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses reporting guideline. We searched eight international and domestic electronic databases for relevant studies. Two reviewers independently selected the studies and extracted data. For each study, information on the research method, participants, characteristics of the program, and results were extracted using a previously established coding table. The National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency’s risk of bias assessment tool for non-randomized studies was used to assess the risk of bias of the included articles. A qualitative review of the selected studies was performed because the interventions differed considerably and the measured outcomes varied. Out of 128 initially identified papers, seven were included in the final analysis. The risk of bias was evaluated as generally low. Health care programs for pregnant women with GDM showed positive effects on blood glucose control. Anxiety and depression were reduced, and self-management and self-care behavior, self-efficacy, and maternal identity improved. Our study provides clinical evidence for the effectiveness of health care programs for pregnant women with GDM, and its results can be used to support the development of health care programs for GDM. More well-designed research is needed on GDM, especially studies that deal with emotional stress and apply a family-oriented approach.

15.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 92-99, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899021

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Palpability is known to be a poor prognostic factor for breast cancer. The present study analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of palpable and nonpalpable breast cancers using big data. @*Methods@#Between January 2005 and May 2019, a total of 15,141 patients were enrolled. All patients were diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinomas. Patients with unclear medical records, multiple tumors, bilateral breast cancers, inflammatory breast cancers, inoperable breast cancers and distant metastasis were excluded. Patients were divided into the palpable and nonpalpable breast cancer groups based on physicians’ clinical examinations. The clinicopathological characteristics and disease-specific survivals (DSS) were analyzed. @*Results@#Patients with palpable breast cancers were younger, had larger tumors, and higher tumor-node-metastasis stage (p<0.001) than patients with nonpalpable breast cancers. Palpable breast cancer cases had higher rates of lympho-vascular invasion, higher histologic and nuclear grades than nonpalpable breast cancer cases (p<0.001). The positive proportion of hormone receptor was higher in the nonpalpable breast cancer group than in the palpable breast cancer group, but that of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 was higher in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). The Ki-67 index was higher in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). Total mastectomy and axillary dissection were performed more frequently in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered more frequently in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group. However, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy were performed more frequently in nonpalpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). According to a multivariate analysis, younger age, lower body mass index, larger tumor size, tumor location, higher stage, higher histologic grade and higher Ki-67 index were associated with palpability (p<0.001). DSS was significantly lower in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). @*Conclusion@#Palpable breast cancers tend to be triple negative breast cancers and have higher histologic grade and, Ki-67 index and worse prognosis than nonpalpable breast cancers. Therefore, based on the results of the present study, treating palpable breast cancers requires careful attention.

16.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 600-610, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898593

ABSTRACT

Background@#The timeline of infections after lung transplantation has been changed with the introduction of new immunosuppressants and prophylaxis strategies. The study aimed to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of infectious diseases after lung transplantation in the current era. @*Materials and Methods@#All patients who underwent lung or heart–lung transplantation at our institution between October 29, 2008 and April 3, 2019 were enrolled. We retrospectively reviewed the patients' medical records till April 2, 2020. @*Results@#In total, 100 consecutive lung transplant recipients were enrolled. The median follow-up period was 28 months after lung transplantation. A total of 127 post–lung transplantation bacterial infections occurred. Catheter-related bloodstream infection (25/84, 29.8%) was the most common within 6 months and pneumonia (23/43, 53.5%) was the most common after 6 months. Most episodes (35/40, 87.5%) of respiratory viral infections occurred after 6 months, mainly as upper respiratory infections. The remaining episodes (5/40, 12.5%) mostly manifested as lower respiratory tract infections. Seventy cytomegalovirus infections observed in 43 patients were divided into 23 episodes occurring before and 47 episodes occurring after discontinuing prophylaxis. Of 10 episodes of cytomegalovirus disease, four occurred during prophylaxis and six occurred after prophylaxis.Of 23 episodes of post–lung transplantation fungal infection, 7 were aspergillosis and all occurred after the discontinuation of prophylaxis. @*Conclusion@#Lung transplant recipients experienced a high burden of infection even after 6 months, especially after the end of the prophylaxis period. Therefore, these patients should be continued to be monitored long-term for infectious disease.

17.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 283-290, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896969

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the standard axillary procedure in early breast cancer patients. In a randomized trial, the survival rates were not different when axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was omitted in patients with 1 or 2 lymph node metastases who underwent breast conserving surgery. This study aimed to compare the outcomes in patients who underwent total mastectomy (TM) with 1 or 2 metastatic nodes according to the types of axillary surgery. @*Methods@#In total, 79,058 patients registered in the Korean Breast Cancer Society database who underwent TM were included in the analysis. The inclusion criteria were history of TM and SLNB, pathologic T stage 1 or 2, clinically negative axillary lymph nodes, 1 or 2 metastatic axillary lymph nodes, no radiation therapy, and no neoadjuvant therapy. We divided the patients into the SLNB only and SLNB + ALND groups. The groups were matched by propensity scores. We retrospectively analyzed the differences in the overall survival (OS) between the 2 groups. @*Results@#A total of 883 patients were matched in a 1:4 ratio for the SLNB only and SLNB + ALND groups in the cohort from 1999 to 2014. There were no significant differences in OS between the 2 groups (P = 0.413). Subgroup analysis revealed a significant survival benefit in the SLNB + ALND group in the T2 subgroup (P = 0.013). @*Conclusion@#OS did not differ between the 2 groups in early breast cancer patients with 1 or 2 metastatic axillary lymph nodes who underwent TM. Omission of ALND may be considered in selected patients.

18.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 147-157, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895423

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We investigated the trend of antibiotic susceptibility of Haemophilus influenzae over 5 consecutive years. @*Methods@#We analyzed the antibiotic susceptibility of H. influenzae isolated from children aged <18 years, who were admitted to the Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital from March 2014 to April 2019. Antibiotic susceptibility of H. influenzae was determined by the disk diffusion test according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing guidelines. @*Results@#Excluding duplicates, 69 isolates were obtained over the past 5 years. The median age of the patients was 5 years (range, 2.8–8.6 years). The antibiotic susceptibility patterns were as follows: ampicillin (AMP)-susceptible/amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC)-susceptible (AS/ACS; n=15 [21.7%]), AMP-resistant/AMC-susceptible (AR/ACS; n=21 [30.4%]), and AMP-resistant/ AMC-resistant (AR/ACR; n=33 [47.8%]). The prevalence of isolates with AR/ACR phenotype tended to increase from 42.1% in 2014–2015 to 54.5% in 2018–2019 (P=0.342). Compared to 2014–2015, the resistance rates to cefuroxime and ceftriaxone in 2018–2019 increased from 31.6% to 77.3% and from 0.0% to 59.1%, respectively (P=0.003 and P<0.001, respectively). @*Conclusions@#Over the last 5 years, H. influenzae isolates with AR/ACR phenotype and ceftriaxone resistance were frequently observed at our institute. The incidence of resistance to cefuroxime and ceftriaxone has increased significantly.

19.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science ; : 670-674, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895228

ABSTRACT

We experienced an extremely rare case of proximal epithelioid sarcoma (PES) of the vulva in a 77-year-old woman. After history taking and physical examination, the patient was tentatively diagnosed as having Bartholin’s cyst in the right labium. Based on histopathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) findings, however, a final diagnosis of PES of the vulva was made. After receiving CyberKnife treatment, the patient survived but with recurrent episodes and poor prognosis. In conclusion, our case indicates that patients with PES of the vulva should be appropriately managed with radiotherapy after a differential diagnosis based on histopathological and IHC findings.

20.
Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing ; : 274-284, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894874

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and characteristics of health care programs for pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Korea. This study was conducted according to the Cochrane Collaboration’s systematic literature review handbook and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses reporting guideline. We searched eight international and domestic electronic databases for relevant studies. Two reviewers independently selected the studies and extracted data. For each study, information on the research method, participants, characteristics of the program, and results were extracted using a previously established coding table. The National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency’s risk of bias assessment tool for non-randomized studies was used to assess the risk of bias of the included articles. A qualitative review of the selected studies was performed because the interventions differed considerably and the measured outcomes varied. Out of 128 initially identified papers, seven were included in the final analysis. The risk of bias was evaluated as generally low. Health care programs for pregnant women with GDM showed positive effects on blood glucose control. Anxiety and depression were reduced, and self-management and self-care behavior, self-efficacy, and maternal identity improved. Our study provides clinical evidence for the effectiveness of health care programs for pregnant women with GDM, and its results can be used to support the development of health care programs for GDM. More well-designed research is needed on GDM, especially studies that deal with emotional stress and apply a family-oriented approach.

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