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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879287

ABSTRACT

Lung diseases such as lung cancer and COVID-19 seriously endanger human health and life safety, so early screening and diagnosis are particularly important. computed tomography (CT) technology is one of the important ways to screen lung diseases, among which lung parenchyma segmentation based on CT images is the key step in screening lung diseases, and high-quality lung parenchyma segmentation can effectively improve the level of early diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases. Automatic, fast and accurate segmentation of lung parenchyma based on CT images can effectively compensate for the shortcomings of low efficiency and strong subjectivity of manual segmentation, and has become one of the research hotspots in this field. In this paper, the research progress in lung parenchyma segmentation is reviewed based on the related literatures published at domestic and abroad in recent years. The traditional machine learning methods and deep learning methods are compared and analyzed, and the research progress of improving the network structure of deep learning model is emphatically introduced. Some unsolved problems in lung parenchyma segmentation were discussed, and the development prospect was prospected, providing reference for researchers in related fields.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Machine Learning , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-792097

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the causes and correlative factors of high perioperative blood transfusion demand in pa-tients with lung tumor, and to discuss the influence of high blood transfusion demand on patients' postoperative recovery and its predictive factors. Methods From November 2007 to October 2017, clinical data of patients who had underwent surgery for lung tumors in the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences were collected. A total of 83 cases with perioperative transfusion of red blood cells≥5U were classified as high transfusion demand group. Anoth-er 83 cases were selected from the rest of the patients with transfusion of red blood cells <5U as normal transfusion demand group. Related clinical and transfusion data were summarized to analyze the causes of high blood transfusion demand and its effect on postoperative recovery, univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyse correlative factors. Results From November 2007 to October 2017, 23898 patients with lung tumor underwent surgery in our department and the high blood transfusion demand rate was 0. 35%. In the last 10 years, the ratio of high transfusion demand was 0. 61%(46/7503) in the first 5 years versus 0. 23%(37/16395) in the later 5 years(P<0. 01). By contrasting high transfusion demand group and normal transfusion demand group, the ratio of thoracoscopic surgery was 42. 17%(35/83) vs. 26. 51%(22/83)(P<0.05),theratioofpostoperativebloodtransfusionwas39.76%(33/83) vs. 22.90%(19/83)(P<0.05) andtheratioof left upper lung surgery was 24. 10%(20/83) vs. 12. 05%(10/83)(P<0. 05). The ratio of patients with preoperative comor-bidities was 21. 69%(18/83) in the high transfusion demand group versus 8. 43%(7/83) in the normal transfusion demand group(P<0.05),andtheratioofpatientswithanemiawas57.83%(48/83) vs. 52.63%(30/83)(P<0.05). Theinci-dence of complications was 39. 76%(33/83) in the high transfusion demand group versus 18. 07%(15/83) in the normal transfusion demand group(P<0. 01), and the incidence of Infection-related complication were 25. 30%(21/83) vs. 8. 43%(7/83)(P <0. 01). Conclusion For perioperative high blood transfusion demand in lung tumors, there were significant differences between different operation approaches, site of operation and phase of blood transfusion. The perioperative high blood transfusion demand may also increase the risk of postoperative complications, comorbidities or anemia were its predictive factors.

3.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 295-302, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805064

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The role of planned neoadjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy in the non-radical resection of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was unclear. The study aimed to evaluate their therapeutic effect and analyze the prognostic factors.@*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who received neoadjuvant radio therapy (33 patients) and concurrent chemoradiotherapy (119 patients) from January 2004 to December 2016 in our single-institution database.The survival rates were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. The prognostic factors were analyzed by using Log rank test and Cox proportional hazards model.@*Results@#The median follow-up was 29.8 months. One hundred and one patients survived more than 3 years. The rates of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 3 years were 63.9% and 55.6%, respectively.The rates of complete, partial and minimal pathological response of the primary tumor were 50.3%, 38.4%, 11.3%, the corresponding 3-year OS were 75.5%, 57.4%, 27.3% (P<0.001) and 3-year DFS were 72.0%, 44.7%, 17.6% (P<0.001), respectively.The postoperative lymph node metastasis rate was 27.0%. The 3-year OS and DFS of the lymph node positive group was 45.6% and 32.8%, significantly lower than 70.8% and 63.7% of the negative group (both P<0.001). The 3-year OS and DFS of pathologic stage Ⅰ, Ⅱ, ⅢA, ⅢB and Ⅵ A were 76.2%, 57.4%, 64.7%, 35.0%, 33.3% (P<0.001) and 70.1%, 49.3%, 41.2%, 22.1%, 33.3% (P<0.001), respectively.The operation-related mortality was 3.3%. Multivariate analysis showed that chest pain, postoperative respiratory failure, pathological differentiation, more than 15 lymph node dissection and ypTNM stage were the independent prognostic factors of OS (P<0.05 for all).@*Conclusions@#The planned neoadjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy for the non-radical resection of advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma could result in favorable survival. The chest pain, postoperative respiratory failure, pathological differentiation, the number of lymph node resection and ypTNM stage are the independent prognostic factors of the prognosis of these patients.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801030

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To screen the target genes of long non-coding RNA LOC102606465, which was previously identified to be induced by ionizing radiation, in order to examine its potential biological role.@*Methods@#The downstream differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of LOC102606465 were detected by microarray and partially verified by qRT-PCR. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis was performed, and PPI protein interaction network was constructed to screen significant modules and hub genes.@*Results@#The expression of LOC102606465 targeted by siRNA-447 and siRNA-541 was significantly lower than that of siRNA-NC (t=29.095, 13.751, P<0.01). A total of 374 common DEGs were identified(112 up-regulated/262 down-regulated) in both siRNA-447 and siRNA-541. The qRT-PCR was used to validate the expression of DEGs, which was consistent with the microarray result. In GO enrichment analysis, down-regulated DEGs were significantly enriched in " oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-CH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor" (molecular function), " basal lamina" (cellular component), " ammonium ion metabolic process" (biological process). Up-regulated DEGs were mainly enriched in " protein phosphatase inhibitor activity" (molecular function), " SNARE complex" (cellular component), " negative regulation of fibrinolysis" (biological process). In addition, the KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that DEGs were significantly enriched in " metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450" , " dorso-ventral axis formation" , " lysosome glycerophospholipid metabolism" and " p53 signaling pathway" . Based on the STRING database, the PPI network was constructed (including 194 nodes and 268 edges), and one significant module and five key hub genes ACTRT3, CDKN1A, DPYD, TMP4, and PRKACB were identified.@*Conclusions@#LOC102606465 could be a potential biomarker for the regulation of ionizing radiation sensitivity, and the down-regulation of LOC102606465 plays an important role in the response to radiation, which would be an important target for regulating radiation sensitivity.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-796960

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the causes and correlative factors of high perioperative blood transfusion demand in patients with lung tumor, and to discuss the influence of high blood transfusion demand on patients’ postoperative recovery and its predictive factors.@*Methods@#From November 2007 to October 2017, clinical data of patients who had underwent surgery for lung tumors in the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences were collected. A total of 83 cases with perioperative transfusion of red blood cells ≥5U were classified as high transfusion demand group. Another 83 cases were selected from the rest of the patients with transfusion of red blood cells <5U as normal transfusion demand group. Related clinical and transfusion data were summarized to analyze the causes of high blood transfusion demand and its effect on postoperative recovery, univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyse correlative factors.@*Results@#From November 2007 to October 2017, 23 898 patients with lung tumor underwent surgery in our department and the high blood transfusion demand rate was 0.35%. In the last 10 years, the ratio of high transfusion demand was 0.61%(46/7 503) in the first 5 years versus 0.23%(37/16 395) in the later 5 years(P<0.01). By contrasting high transfusion demand group and normal transfusion demand group, the ratio of thoracoscopic surgery was 42.17%(35/83) vs. 26.51%(22/83)(P<0.05), the ratio of postoperative blood transfusion was 39.76%(33/83) vs. 22.90%(19/83)(P<0.05) and the ratio of left upper lung surgery was 24.10%(20/83) vs. 12.05%(10/83)(P<0.05). The ratio of patients with preoperative comorbidities was 21.69%(18/83) in the high transfusion demand group versus 8.43%(7/83) in the normal transfusion demand group(P<0.05), and the ratio of patients with anemia was 57.83%(48/83) vs. 52.63%(30/83)(P<0.05). The incidence of complications was 39.76%(33/83) in the high transfusion demand group versus 18.07%(15/83) in the normal transfusion demand group(P<0.01), and the incidence of Infection-related complication were 25.30%(21/83) vs. 8.43%(7/83)(P<0.01).@*Conclusion@#For perioperative high blood transfusion demand in lung tumors, there were significant differences between different operation approaches, site of operation and phase of blood transfusion. The perioperative high blood transfusion demand may also increase the risk of postoperative complications, comorbidities or anemia were its predictive factors.

6.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 530-533, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-286785

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) esophagectomy has been performed for more than 10 years in China. However, compared with the conventional esophagectomy via right thoracotomy, whether VATS esophagectomy has more advantages or not in the lymph node (LN) dissection and prevention of perioperative complications is still controversial and deserves to be further investigated. The aim of this study was to explore whether there are significant differences in this issue between the two surgical modalities or not.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The results of lymph node dissection and perioperative complications as well as other parameters in the patients treated by VATS esophagectomy and those by conventional esophagectomy via right thoracotomy at our department from May 1, 2009 to July 30, 2013 were compared using SPSS 16.0 in order to investigate whether there was any significant difference between these two treatment modalities in the learning curve stage of VATS esophagectomy.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>One hundred and twenty-nine cases underwent VATS esophagectomy between May 1, 2009 and July 30, 2013, and another part 129 cases with the same preoperative cTNM stage treated by conventional esopahgectomy via right thoracotomy were selected in order to compare the results of lymph node dissection and perioperative complications as well as other parameters between those two groups of patients. There were no significant differences in the sex, age, lesion locations and cTNM stage between these two groups. The total LN metastatic rate in the VATS esophagectomy group was 35.7% and that of the conventional esophagectomy group was 37.2% (P > 0.05). The total average number of dissected lymph nodes was 12.1 vs. 16.2 (P < 0.001). The average dissected LN stations was 3.2 vs. 3.6 (P = 0.038). The total average number of dissected LN along the left recurrent laryngeal nerve was 2.0 vs. 3.7 (P = 0.012). The total average number of dissected LN along the right recurrent laryngeal nerve was 2.9 vs. 3.4 (P = 0.231). However, there was no significant difference in the total average number of dissected LN in the other thoracic LN stations, and in the perioperative complications between the two groups. The total postoperative complication rate was 41.1% in the VATS group versus 42.6% in the conventional group (P = 0.801). The cardiopulmonary complication rate was 25.6% vs. 27.1% (P = 0.777). The death rate was the same in the two groups (0.8%). The VATS group had less blood infusion (23.2% vs. 41.8%, P = 0.001) and shorter hospital stay (15.9 days vs. 19.2 days, P = 0.049) but longer operating time (161.3 min vs. 127.8 min, P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>In the learning curve stage of VATS esophagectomy, compared with the conventional esophagectomy, less LN number and stations can be dissected in the VATS group due to un-skillful VATS manipulation, especially it is more difficult in the LN dissection along the left recurrent laryngeal nerve. Therefore, it is more suitable to select patients with early esophageal cancer without obvious enlarged lymph nodes for VATS esophagectomy in the learning curve stage.</p>


Subject(s)
China , Esophageal Neoplasms , Pathology , General Surgery , Esophagectomy , Methods , Humans , Learning Curve , Length of Stay , Lymph Node Excision , Methods , Lymph Nodes , Operative Time , Postoperative Complications , Epidemiology , Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted , Thoracotomy
7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 747-752, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-253273

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>In order to minimize the injury reaction during the surgery and reduce the morbidity rate, hence reducing the mortality rate of esophagectomy, minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) was introduced. The aim of this study was to compare the postoperative outcomes in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma undergoing minimally invasive or open esophagectomy (OE).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The medical records of 176 consecutive patients, who underwent minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) between January 2009 and August 2013 in Cancer Institute & Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, were retrospectively reviewed. In the same period, 142 patients who underwent OE, either Ivor Lewis or McKeown approach, were selected randomly as controls. The clinical variables of paired groups were compared, including age, sex, Charlson score, tumor location, duration of surgery, number of harvested lymph nodes, morbidity rate, the rate of leak, pulmonary morbidity rate, mortality rate, and hospital length of stay (LOS).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The number of harvested lymph nodes was not significantly different between MIE group and OE group (median 20 vs. 16, P = 0.740). However, patients who underwent MIE had longer operation time than the OE group (375 vs. 300 minutes, P < 0.001). Overall morbidity, pulmonary morbidity, the rate of leak, in-hospital death, and hospital LOS were not significantly different between MIE and OE groups. Morbidities including anastomotic leak and pulmonary morbidity, inhospital death, hospital LOS, and hospital expenses were not significantly different between MIE and OE groups as well.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>MIE and OE appear equivalent with regard to early oncological outcomes. There is a trend that hospital LOS and hospital expenses are reduced in the MIE group than the OE group.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , General Surgery , Esophageal Neoplasms , General Surgery , Esophagectomy , Methods , Female , Humans , Laparoscopy , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Thoracoscopy , Treatment Outcome
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-455394

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effect of small bone flap craniotomy decompression of posterior cranial fossa and duraplasty in the treatment of Chiari malformation type Ⅰ.Methods The clinical data of 45 Chiari malformation type Ⅰ patients who were treated with small bone flap craniotomy decompression of posterior cranial fossa and duraplasty were retrospectively analyzed,31 cases among them with syringomyelia.Results According to Tator etc.standard,1 month after surgery,the excellent in 30 cases,good in 15 cases.Follow up from 6 months to 6 years,the excellent in 37 cases,good in 8 cases.Among 31 patients with syringomyelia,26 cases were syringomyelia subsided,5 cases were not obvious change.Conclusion The small bone flap craniotomy decompression of posterior cranial fossa and duraplasty can make the craniocervical decompression,and has obvious effect of treating syringomyelia,is safe and effective in treatment of Chiari malformation type Ⅰ.

9.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 536-540, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-272339

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the pattern of lymph node metastasis and evaluate the modes and extent of mediastinal lymph node dissection in patients with ≤ 3 cm, clinical stage I primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Data of 270 eligible patients who underwent pulmonary resection with systematic lymph node dissection in our hospital between March 2012 and August 2013 were retrospectively analyzed in order to investigate the relationship between the clinicopathological features and lymph node metastatic patterns. Patients with multiple primary carcinomas or non-primary pulmonary malignancies and those who received any chemotherapy or radiotherapy or did not undergo systematic nodal dissection were excluded. The criteria of systematic nodal dissection included the removal of at least six lymph nodes from at least three mediastinal stations, one of which must be subcarinal. The data were analyzed and compared using Chi-square test.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The postoperative morbidity rate was 14.8% and no death occurred in this series. The imaging findings showed 34 cases of pure ground glass opacity lesions, 47 partial solid nodules, and 189 solid nodules. Apart from 34 p-GGO lesions, among the other 236 cases, ≤ 1 cm lesions were in 22 cases, 1 cm- ≤ 2 cm lesions in 138 cases, and >2 cm- ≤ 3 cm lesions in 76 cases based on radiologic findings. The pathological types included adenocarcinoma (n = 245), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 18) and other rare types (n = 7). The overall lymph node metastasis rate was 18.9% (51/270), and the incidence of lymph node involvement was 0(0/34) in cancers with p-GGO, 2.1% (1/47) in mixed solid nodules, 26.5% (50/189) in solid nodules, 18.2% (4/22) in nodules ≤ 1 cm, 14.5% (20/138) in 1 cm < nodules ≤ 2 cm, and 35.5% (27/76) in 2 cm < nodules ≤ 3 cm. The metastasis rates of non-specific tumor-draining region lymph nodes detected in the patients with positive and negative lobe-specific lymph node involvement were 20.0%-50.0% vs. 0-2.9% (P < 0.001).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Usually NSCLC with p-GGO nodules has no lymph node metastasis, therefore, systematic nodal dissection may be not necessary. The larger the tumor size is, the higher the lymph node metastatic rate is for mixed or solid nodules. Intraoperative frozen-section examination of the lobe-specific lymph nodes should be performed routinely in patients with ≤ 2 cm stage I NSCLC, and systematic nodal dissection should be done if positive, but it may be not necessary if negative. However, the effectiveness of the systematic selective lymph node dissection still needs to be further confirmed.</p>


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Diagnosis , General Surgery , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Methods , Lymph Nodes , General Surgery , Lymphatic Metastasis , Diagnosis , Neoplasm Staging , Retrospective Studies
10.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 143-152, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757719

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), with their extraordinary properties, such as broad-spectrum activity, rapid action and difficult development of resistance, have become promising molecules as new antibiotics. Despite their various mechanisms of action, the interaction of AMPs with the bacterial cell membrane is the key step for their mode of action. Moreover, it is generally accepted that the membrane is the primary target of most AMPs, and the interaction between AMPs and eukaryotic cell membranes (causing toxicity to host cells) limits their clinical application. Therefore, researchers are engaged in reforming or de novo designing AMPs as a 'single-edged sword' that contains high antimicrobial activity yet low cytotoxicity against eukaryotic cells. To improve the antimicrobial activity of AMPs, the relationship between the structure and function of AMPs has been rigorously pursued. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge of α-helical cationic antimicrobial peptides, one of the most common types of AMPs in nature.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Bacteria , Circular Dichroism , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Physiology , Protein Structure, Secondary , Structure-Activity Relationship
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-563942

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the clinical effects of surgical treatment for diabetic retinopathy(DR)with diffuse diabetic retinal edema(DDRE)and massive subretinal hard exudates(MSHE)by vitrectomy,endolaser retinal photocoagulation and long acting gas tamponade via analyzing the long term results.Methods Thirty eyes of twenty five patients with DR with DDRE and MSHE were recruited from October 2001 to December 2006.Among them,17 eyes belonged to 14 male patients and 13 eyes of 11 females.The patients' age was from 36 to 68 years(mean 54.6).The best corrected visual acuity(BCVA),color fundus photography,fundus fluorescein angiography(FFA)and optic coherence tomography(OCT)were performed preoperatively.Pars plana vitrectomy,posterior hyaloid removal,endolaser photocoagulation and long acting gas tamponade were used to treat the affected eyes.Results Preoperative BCVA was finger counting to 0.05 in all the 30 eyes.During 12-23 months of follow up period,2 eyes showed no change in BCVA,vision improvement was observed in 28 eyes(93.3%)with BCVA rising to 0.03-0.04 in 3 eyes,≥0.09 in 25 eyes,and among them the BCVA rose from 0.04 to 1.0 in one eye.The macular retina thickness thinned from preoperative ≥450?m to postoperative 160 220?m,intra-retinal and pre-retinal hemorrhage as well as MSHE was absorbed markedly or completely.Visual acuity decreased in 7 eyes(23.3%)during 24-42 months of follow up,anterior ischemic opticneuropathy occurred in 3 eyes(10%),macular edema recurred in 4 eyes(sub-macular hard exudates appeared in 2 eyes),and macular thickness measured 310-410?m.Scars in sub-fovea and peri-fovea sub-retina were noted in 5 eyes,in which the visual acuity was improved from finger counting to 0.04.Conclusion Vitrectomy,including posterior hyaloid removal,endolaser retinal photocoagulation and long acting gas tamponade may offer satisfactory effects in the treatment for DR complicated with DDME and MSHE.

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