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1.
International Eye Science ; (12): 53-56, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906729

ABSTRACT

@#Microglial activation is one of the main pathogenic factors to cause retinal neuroinflammation. Recently, with the advancement of retinal imaging technologies, hyperreflective foci(HRF), as a novel biomarker in optical coherence tomography(OCT)imaging, have received more attention in retinal neuroinflammation. Current research demonstrated that HRF are the aggregates mainly derived from the activated microglia in retina or mononuclear phagocyte-macrophage from the blood. HRF were defined as discrete and well-circumscribed hyperreflective dot-shaped lesions with the maximum diameter between 20-50μm in retina and choroid imaged with OCT. Under pathological conditions, the number of HRF increases significantly. Under pathological condations, the number of HRF was obviously increased, which might be related to the severity of some retinal diseases. However, the research on the source and function of HRF is still in its infancy. This review is aimed to describe the basic characteristics of HRF and their roles in both retinal inflammatory diseases and neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system. HRF are expected to be a potential and novel biomarker of inflammation for early diagnosis and prognosis of neuroinflammation in both retinal and central nervous system diseases.

2.
International Eye Science ; (12): 322-326, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913046

ABSTRACT

@#AIM: To assess the association of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF)gene polymorphisms(rs2010963 and rs3025039)with diabetic retinopathy(DR)in Li nationality type 2 diabetic(T2DM)patients in Hainan.METHODS: Prospective study. A total of 89 patients with T2DM in the Li nationality in Hainan were randomly categorized(between 09/2016 to 10/2019)into three groups, 30 patients in nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy(NPDR)group, 33 patients in proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR)group, and 26 patients in T2DM without retinopathy(DWR)group as control. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used to determine the polymorphism in the VEGF gene. Differences in allele frequencies and genotype frequencies between cases and controls were compared. RESULTS: Compared with the DWR group, the CC genotype of rs2010963 polymorphic site was significantly increased(<i>P</i><0.016667), and CG genotype was significantly decreased in PDR group(<i>P</i><0.016667). No significant differences were detected in the frequencies of genotype GG and C, G allele distribution among the three groups(<i>P</i>>0.05). Meanwhile, no significant differences were detected in the frequencies of genotype CC, CT, C, and T in rs3025039 among the three groups(all <i>P</i>>0.05). Plasma levels of serum urea and creatinine were significantly increased in PDR group compared to DWR and NPDR groups in Li nationality group in Hainan(all <i>P</i><0.05).CONCLUSION: The polymorphism of the VEGF gene(rs2010963)is associated with DR. CC genotype may be a genetic risk factor for the development of DR, increasing susceptibility to PDR. The rs2010963 related genotype is conferred risk and associated with higher susceptibilities of PDR.

3.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 273-280, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879763

ABSTRACT

Postprostatectomy erectile dysfunction (pPED) remains a current problem despite improvements in surgical techniques. Vacuum therapy is clinically confirmed as a type of pPED rehabilitation. However, its underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Recently, autophagy and apoptosis were extensively studied in erectile dysfunction resulting from diabetes, senescence, and androgen deprivation but not in the context of pPED and vacuum therapy. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the roles of autophagy and apoptosis in pPED and vacuum therapy. Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: the control group, bilateral cavernous nerve crush (BCNC) group, and BCNC + vacuum group. After 4 weeks of treatment, intracavernosal pressure was used to evaluate erectile function. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunohistochemistry were used to measure the molecular expression. TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling staining was used to assess apoptosis. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe autophagosomes. After treatment, compared with those of the BCNC group, erectile function and cavernosal hypoxia had statistically significantly improved (P < 0.05). Apoptosis and the relative protein expression of B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X and cleaved Caspase3 were decreased (P < 0.05). Autophagy-related molecules such as phosphorylated unc-51-like autophagy-activating kinase 1 (Ser757) and p62 were decreased. Beclin1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 A/B, and autophagosomes were increased (P < 0.05). Besides, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway, as a negative regulator of autophagy to some degree, was inhibited. This study revealed that vacuum therapy ameliorated pPED in BCNC rats by inhibiting apoptosis and activating autophagy.

4.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 215-221, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879712

ABSTRACT

Penile length shortening and erectile dysfunction are common complications after radical prostatectomy. Various methods have been used to maintain erectile function, but less attention has been paid to preserving penis length. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has the effect of antioxidation and antifibrotic, which may be beneficial to improve those postoperative complications. This study investigated the effect of NAC on maintaining the penile length and the erectile function after bilateral cavernous nerve crush (BCNC) and its underlying mechanism. Twenty-four male rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, BCNC group, and BCNC + NAC group. NAC or equal volume of saline was daily administrated by intragastric gavage for 4 weeks. The initial and end penile lengths were measured. Intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure (ICP/MAP) ratio was calculated to assess erectile function. Hematoxylin-eosin staining, Masson's trichrome staining, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot were performed to explore cellular and molecular changes of the penis. Compared to the BCNC group, the penile length, ICP/MAP ratio and smooth muscle/collagen ratio in the BCNC + NAC group were improved significantly (all P < 0.05), and the expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, α-smooth muscle actin, glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase 1 were significantly increased after NAC treated (all P < 0.05), along with the decreased expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, transforming growth factor-β1, collagen I, collagen III, collagen IV, malonaldehyde, and lysine oxidase (all P < 0.05). This study demonstrated that NAC could maintain penile length and partly improve erectile function. Possible mechanism is directly and/or indirectly related to antihypoxic and antifibrosis.

5.
Clinical Medicine of China ; (12): 411-415, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909768

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of polyethylene glycol combined with simethicone on boston bowel preparation scale(BBPS) score and tolerance in patients with colonoscopy.Methods:From January 2018 to January 2019, 220 patients who underwent colonoscopy in Beijing Shijitan Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University were selected as the research objects.According to different bowel preparation schemes, they were divided into control group and observation group, 110 cases in each group.In the control group, 4 bags of compound polyethylene glycol electrolyte powder were added with cold boiled water to prepare 4 L solution for intestinal preparation.Starting 6 hours before endoscopy, 1 L solution was taken every hour, and the interval from the last time to the beginning of colonoscopy was≤4 h. On the basis of the control group, the observation group was given 30 mL simethicone emulsion 4 hours before endoscopy on the basis of the control group.The BBPS score, intracavitary liquid volume score, total score, tolerance and adverse reactions were compared between the two groups.Results:The whole colon score (7.16±0.61), left colon score (2.89±0.62), transverse colon score (2.78±0.64) and right colon score (1.58±0.49), intestinal cavity fluid score (1.47±0.48) and total score (8.84±0.87) of the observation group were higher than those of the control group ((5.13±0.76), (2.23±0.86), (2.15±0.76), (1.14±0.16), (0.91±0.55), (7.11±1.04)), and the differences were statistically significant ( t=21.854, 6.532, 6.652, 8.957, 8.054, 13.380, all P<0.05). The tolerance of the observation group (90.00%(99/110)) was higher than that of the control group (81.81%(90/110)), but the difference was not statistically significant( χ 2=3.043, P=0.081). The incidence of abdominal distension in the observation group (1.82%(2/110)) was lower than that in the control group (8.18%(9/110)), the difference was statistically significant(χ 2=4.690, P<0.05), and there was no significant difference in the incidence of electrolyte disorder, nausea and vomiting, hypoglycemia or hunger, palpitation and chest tightness between the two groups (all P>0.05). Conclusion:The application of polyethylene glycol combined with Spanish silicone oil in intestinal preparation can improve the intestinal cleanliness of patients, but does not increase the tolerance of patients compared with polyethylene glycol alone, but significantly reduces the incidence of abdominal distension.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909554

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the cognitive processing characteristics of semantic emotion Stroop and memory recognition in pilots with depression, and to systematically reveal the cognitive processing characteristics of attention and memory.Methods:The semantic emotional Stroop task and memory recognition test were performed in 36 depressed pilots and 36 healthy pilots.The results of attention and memory in cognitive processing were analyzed by repeated measurement analysis of variance using SPSS 18.0 software.Results:In the semantic emotion Stroop, the response time of the depression group was longer than that of the control group ( F(1, 70)=7.03, P=0.008), and the response time of the depression group(579.55±141.62)ms ) was longer than that of the neutral words (565.66±132.60)ms, P=0.003) and positive words (563.09±138.88)ms, P<0.01). In memory recognition, the accuracy of response to emotion words in the depressed group was higher than that in the control group ( F(1, 70)=23.15, P<0.01). The accuracy of response to negative words was higher in the depressed group than that to positive words ((0.50±0.32) vs (0.32±0.21), P=0.006) and neutral words ((0.50±0.32) vs (0.33±0.23), P=0.007). The depression group showed a conservative bias towards negative words ((1.46±0.40), P<0.01), and negative words compared with neutral words ((0.63±0.24), P<0.01) and positive words ((0.57±0.27), P<0.01) were cautious and conservative. Conclusion:Patients with depression have attention bias toward the negative information in semantic information processing, and negative memory bias in memory recognition.

7.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 627-634, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909066

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in regulating apoptosis during malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBE cells) induced by sodium arsenite (NaAsO 2). Methods:HBE cells were treated with 0.0 and 1.0 μmol/L NaAsO 2, which were control group and arsenic exposed group respectively. HBE cells were treated with 1.0 μmol/L NaAsO 2 for 43 passages to establish a malignant transformation model. The dynamic changes of indexes in different passages (0, 1st, 8th, 15th, 22nd, 29th, 36th, and 43rd) after exposure to NaAsO 2 were monitored, including the apoptosis rate detected by flow cytometry and apoptosis-related proteins and Nrf2 protein detected by Western blotting. Nrf2 siRNA was transfected into malignant transformed HBE cells (T-HBE cells) to silence Nrf2. The silencing effect of Nrf2 protein was verified. And, the apoptosis rate and apoptosis-related proteins were detected. Results:With the increase of arsenic exposure, the apoptosis rates of HBE cells decreased (0, 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 36 and 43 passages were 0.370 ± 0.029, 0.443 ± 0.069, 0.357 ± 0.046, 0.330 ± 0.016, 0.273 ± 0.050, 0.160 ± 0.024, 0.110 ± 0.022, 0.097 ± 0.012, respectively, Ftrend = 22.981, P < 0.05). Compared with the 0 passage cells, the apoptosis rates of the 22nd, 29th, 36th and 43rd passages in the arsenite group were lower. The differences between them were statistically significant ( P < 0.05). With the increase of arsenic exposure, the expressions of pro-apoptotic proteins caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-3, C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) associated X protein (Bax) showed downward trends ( Ftrend = 22.356, 3.738, 6.130, 8.061, P < 0.05), while the anti-apoptotic proteins myeloid cell leukemia 1 protein (Mcl-1) and Bcl-2 showed upward trends ( Ftrend = 58.201, 7.691, P < 0.05). Compared with the 0 passage and the control group of the same passage, from the 22nd passage of caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-3, from the 15th passage of CHOP, Mcl-1, and Bcl-2, from the 29th passage of Bax in the arsenite group, the differences of protein were statistically significant ( P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in caspase-8, cleaved-caspase-8, caspase-12 and cleaved-caspase-12 protein expressions in the arsenic group ( P > 0.05). Compared with the 0 passage and the control group of the same passage, from the 8th passage of Nrf2 proteins in the arsenite group, the differences of expressions were statistically significant ( P < 0.05). Compared with T-HBE cells transfected with Con siRNA (control), the apoptosis rate of T-HBE cells transfected with Nrf2 siRNA was higher ( P < 0.05). Compared with T-HBE cells transfected with Con siRNA, the expression levels of Nrf2, Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 in T-HBE cells transfected with Nrf2 siRNA were lower ( P < 0.05), while the expression levels of cleaved-caspase-3/caspase-3, caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-3, CHOP, and Bax were higher ( P < 0.05). Conclusion:Nrf2 may regulate mitochondrial apoptotic pathway through Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and Bax, and endoplasmic reticulum apoptotic pathway through CHOP, so as to inhibit the apoptosis of HBE cells and participate in the process of malignant transformation of HBE cells induced by NaAsO 2.

8.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 2947-2950, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906896

ABSTRACT

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the liver manifestation of metabolic syndrome and is closely associated with the development and progression of colorectal neoplasms. This article reviews the association of NAFLD with colorectal adenoma (CRA) and colorectal cancer (CRC) and possible mechanism, and it is believed that NAFLD promotes the development of CRA and CRC and affects their prognosis, and various factors, such as insulin resistance, adipocytokine, inflammatory response, intestinal flora, and immunity, may be involved in this process.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906509

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effects of Da Jianzhongtang on substance P (SP), mast cells (MC), Toll like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4 on MC model and nuclear transcription factor (NF)-<italic>κ</italic>B p65 in visceral pain rats with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and explore its mechanism of action on IBS visceral pain. Method:Forty-eight 3-day-old SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: the control group (control), irritable bowel syndrome group (IBS), ketotifen group (Ketotifen,0.18 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>), Da Jianzhongtang low, medium and high dose groups (DJZT-L, DJZT-M, DJZT-H,2.16,1.08,0.54 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>), with 8 rats in each group. Intragastric administration lasted for 2 weeks. Maternal separation method was used to establish the IBS visceral pain model in rats. The visceral sensitivity of rats was evaluated at 60, 40 and 20 mmHg (1 mmHg≈0.133 kPa) with Abdominal wall withdrawal response (AWR) scale. SP and NF-<italic>κ</italic>B p65 protein expression levels in colon tissue were detected with Western blotting technique. TLR2 and TLR4 proteins on mast cell membrane were detected by immunofluorescence staining. The degranulation rate of mast cells in colon tissue was detected by toluidine blue staining. Result:Compared with normal rats, AWR scores of model rats significantly increased at 60, 40, and 20 mmHg pressure (<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic>P</italic><0.01), the degranulation rate of mast cells in colon tissue and SP protein expression in colon tissue significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.01), TLR2, TLR4, and nuclear NF-<italic>κ</italic>B p65 expression on mast cell membrane significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with model rats, the AWR scores of DJZT-H group (pressure of 40, 20 mmHg) and DJZT-M group (pressure of 60, 40, 20 mmHg) significantly decreased. Meanwhile, the degranulation rate of colon mast cells, and the SP, TLR2, TLR4, and NF-<italic>κ</italic>B p65 expression also significantly decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:Da Jianzhongtang can affect mast cell activity and finally decrease visceral pain of IBS rats by down-regulating SP in colon tissue.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906412

ABSTRACT

Liver, as a critical organ of metabolism and detoxification, can be damaged by viral infection, drug abuse, and heavy drinking. Liver diseases pose a serious threat to people's health and life in China.At present, drug therapy has been primarily adopted clinically in the treatment of the liver injury.In-depth investigation of the mechanism of liver-protective drugs is of great significance to the prevention and treatment of clinical liver diseases.In recent years, with the development of the medical industry in China, an increasing number of studies have focused on the treatment of liver injury with Chinese medicine.Compared with western medicine, Chinese medicine is advantageous in few side effects and overall regulation, which plays a pivotal role in liver protection.However, its underlying mechanism in liver protection still needs to be further studied due to its complex compositions and diverse targets.Metabolomics, a new approach to studying the metabolic pathway of biological systems, provides integral and systematic views in the investigation of liver protection with Chinese medicine. By virtue of metabolomics, the mechanism of Chinese medicine in multi-target and multi-pathway liver protection can be analyzed comprehensively, and the corresponding biomarkers can also be screened out. The authors analyzed the studies of the treatment of chemical liver injury models induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), α-naphthyl isothiocyanate (ANIT), and alcohol by Chinese medicinal compounds, single herbal medicines, and monomers of Chinese medicine based on metabolomics, and summarized the biomarkers and related metabolic pathways of Chinese medicine in the intervention of each type of liver injury, aiming at providing a reference for the further research and clinical application in the treatment of different types of liver injuries by Chinese medicine.

11.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1213-1224, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902444

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To develop a machine learning (ML) pipeline based on radiomics to predict Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and the future deterioration to critical illness using CT and clinical variables. @*Materials and Methods@#Clinical data were collected from 981 patients from a multi-institutional international cohort with real-time polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19. Radiomics features were extracted from chest CT of the patients. The data of the cohort were randomly divided into training, validation, and test sets using a 7:1:2 ratio. A ML pipeline consisting of a model to predict severity and time-to-event model to predict progression to critical illness were trained on radiomics features and clinical variables. The receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (ROC-AUC), concordance index (C-index), and time-dependent ROC-AUC were calculated to determine model performance, which was compared with consensus CT severity scores obtained by visual interpretation by radiologists. @*Results@#Among 981 patients with confirmed COVID-19, 274 patients developed critical illness. Radiomics features and clinical variables resulted in the best performance for the prediction of disease severity with a highest test ROC-AUC of 0.76 compared with 0.70 (0.76 vs. 0.70, p = 0.023) for visual CT severity score and clinical variables. The progression prediction model achieved a test C-index of 0.868 when it was based on the combination of CT radiomics and clinical variables compared with 0.767 when based on CT radiomics features alone (p < 0.001), 0.847 when based on clinical variables alone (p = 0.110), and 0.860 when based on the combination of visual CT severity scores and clinical variables (p = 0.549). Furthermore, the model based on the combination of CT radiomics and clinical variables achieved time-dependent ROC-AUCs of 0.897, 0.933, and 0.927 for the prediction of progression risks at 3, 5 and 7 days, respectively. @*Conclusion@#CT radiomics features combined with clinical variables were predictive of COVID-19 severity and progression to critical illness with fairly high accuracy.

12.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1213-1224, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894740

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To develop a machine learning (ML) pipeline based on radiomics to predict Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and the future deterioration to critical illness using CT and clinical variables. @*Materials and Methods@#Clinical data were collected from 981 patients from a multi-institutional international cohort with real-time polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19. Radiomics features were extracted from chest CT of the patients. The data of the cohort were randomly divided into training, validation, and test sets using a 7:1:2 ratio. A ML pipeline consisting of a model to predict severity and time-to-event model to predict progression to critical illness were trained on radiomics features and clinical variables. The receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (ROC-AUC), concordance index (C-index), and time-dependent ROC-AUC were calculated to determine model performance, which was compared with consensus CT severity scores obtained by visual interpretation by radiologists. @*Results@#Among 981 patients with confirmed COVID-19, 274 patients developed critical illness. Radiomics features and clinical variables resulted in the best performance for the prediction of disease severity with a highest test ROC-AUC of 0.76 compared with 0.70 (0.76 vs. 0.70, p = 0.023) for visual CT severity score and clinical variables. The progression prediction model achieved a test C-index of 0.868 when it was based on the combination of CT radiomics and clinical variables compared with 0.767 when based on CT radiomics features alone (p < 0.001), 0.847 when based on clinical variables alone (p = 0.110), and 0.860 when based on the combination of visual CT severity scores and clinical variables (p = 0.549). Furthermore, the model based on the combination of CT radiomics and clinical variables achieved time-dependent ROC-AUCs of 0.897, 0.933, and 0.927 for the prediction of progression risks at 3, 5 and 7 days, respectively. @*Conclusion@#CT radiomics features combined with clinical variables were predictive of COVID-19 severity and progression to critical illness with fairly high accuracy.

13.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1271-1288, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922636

ABSTRACT

Whether direct manipulation of Parkinson's disease (PD) risk genes in the adult monkey brain can elicit a Parkinsonian phenotype remains an unsolved issue. Here, we used an adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9)-delivered CRISPR/Cas9 system to directly co-edit PINK1 and DJ-1 genes in the substantia nigras (SNs) of two monkey groups: an old group and a middle-aged group. After the operation, the old group exhibited all the classic PD symptoms, including bradykinesia, tremor, and postural instability, accompanied by key pathological hallmarks of PD, such as severe nigral dopaminergic neuron loss (>64%) and evident α-synuclein pathology in the gene-edited SN. In contrast, the phenotype of their middle-aged counterparts, which also showed clear PD symptoms and pathological hallmarks, were less severe. In addition to the higher final total PD scores and more severe pathological changes, the old group were also more susceptible to gene editing by showing a faster process of PD progression. These results suggested that both genetic and aging factors played important roles in the development of PD in the monkeys. Taken together, this system can effectively develop a large number of genetically-edited PD monkeys in a short time (6-10 months), and thus provides a practical transgenic monkey model for future PD studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Dependovirus/genetics , Haplorhini , Phenotype , Protein Kinases/genetics
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4363-4372, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921512

ABSTRACT

4,6-α-glucosyltransferases (4,6-α-GTs), which converts amylose into α(1-6) bonds-containing α-glucan, possesses great application potential in enzymatic synthesis of dietary fiber. Primers were designed according to the conserved motifs existing in the amino acid sequence of 4,6-α-GTs, and used to amplify a putative GTFB-Like 4,6-α-GTs gene (named as gtf16) from the genomic DNA of Lactobacillus. The gtf16 gene was cloned into the plasmid pET15b, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), followed by purification and characterization. The optimum pH and the optimum temperature of the purified enzyme were 5.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The biotransformation product of this enzyme was systematically characterized by thin-layer chromatography, NMR spectroscopy, and hydrolysis reaction. The Gtf16-catalyzed product shows a similar structure to that of the isomalto/malto-polysaccharide (IMMP), which is the amylose-derived product catalyzed by GtfB from Lactobacillus reuteri 121. Moreover, The Gtf16-catalyzed product contains up to 75% of α(1-6) bonds and has an average molecular weight of 23 793 Da. Furthermore, the content of the anti-digestive components was 88.22% upon hydrolysis with digestive enzymes.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Glucans , Glucosyltransferases/genetics , Lactobacillus fermentum/enzymology
15.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2340-2352, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921125

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Emerging evidence indicates that the sineoculis homeobox homolog 1-eyes absent homolog 1 (SIX1-EYA1) transcriptional complex significantly contributes to the pathogenesis of multiple cancers by mediating the expression of genes involved in different biological processes, such as cell-cycle progression and metastasis. However, the roles of the SIX1-EYA1 transcriptional complex and its targets in colorectal cancer (CRC) are still being investigated. This study aimed to investigate the roles of SIX1-EYA1 in the pathogenesis of CRC, to screen inhibitors disrupting the SIX1-EYA1 interaction and to evaluate the efficiency of small molecules in the inhibition of CRC cell growth.@*METHODS@#Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were performed to examine gene and protein levels in CRC cells and clinical tissues (collected from CRC patients who underwent surgery in the Department of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, between 2016 and 2018, n = 24). In vivo immunoprecipitation and in vitro pulldown assays were carried out to determine SIX1-EYA1 interaction. Cell proliferation, cell survival, and cell invasion were determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, clonogenic assay, and Boyden chamber assay, respectively. The Amplified Luminescent Proximity Homogeneous Assay Screen (AlphaScreen) method was used to obtain small molecules that specifically disrupted SIX1-EYA1 interaction. CRC cells harboring different levels of SIX1/EYA1 were injected into nude mice to establish tumor xenografts, and small molecules were also injected into mice to evaluate their efficiency to inhibit tumor growth.@*RESULTS@#Both SIX1 and EYA1 were overexpressed in CRC cancerous tissues (for SIX1, 7.47 ± 3.54 vs.1.88 ± 0.35, t = 4.92, P = 0.008; for EYA1, 7.61 ± 2.03 vs. 2.22 ± 0.45, t = 6.73, P = 0.005). The SIX1/EYA1 complex could mediate the expression of two important genes including cyclin A1 (CCNA1) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) by binding to the myocyte enhancer factor 3 consensus. Knockdown of both SIX1 and EYA1 could decrease cell proliferation, cell invasion, tumor growth, and in vivo tumor growth (all P < 0.01). Two small molecules, NSC0191 and NSC0933, were obtained using AlphaScreen and they could significantly inhibit the SIX1-EYA1 interaction with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 12.60 ± 1.15 μmol/L and 83.43 ± 7.24 μmol/L, respectively. Administration of these two compounds could significantly repress the expression of CCNA1 and TGFB1 and inhibit the growth of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Overexpression of the SIX1/EYA1 complex transactivated the expression of CCNA1 and TGFB1, causing the pathogenesis of CRC. Pharmacological inhibition of the SIX1-EYA1 interaction with NSC0191 and NSC0933 significantly inhibited CRC cell growth by affecting cell-cycle progression and metastasis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Genes, Homeobox , Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Mice , Mice, Nude , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases/genetics
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912186

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore whether the regular feedback system in opportunistic screening of colorectal cancer can improve the adenoma detection rate (ADR) of endoscopists.Methods:This study was an observational study, divided into three stages: the baseline stage before intervention (the pre-intervention period), the regular feedback stage (the intervention period) and the post-intervention stage (the post-intervention period). In the pre-intervention period, all patients who underwent opportunistic screening of colorectal cancer in Department of Gastroenterology in Beijing Shijitan Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University from June 2017 to May 2018 were reviewed, and the ADR of each endoscopist was calculated. In the intervention period from June 2018 to November 2018, colonoscopies were performed on patients for opportunistic screening of colorectal cancer by endoscopists who participated in the feedback. The ADR of each endoscopist during the previous month was calculated at the beginning of each month and feedback was provided in the form of a report. In the post-intervention period from December 2018 to January 2019, colonoscopies were performed on patients for opportunistic screening of colorectal cancer by endoscopists who participated in the feedback. The ADR of each endoscopist was calculated after the feedback stopped. ADR and polyp detection rate (PDR) of three stages were compared.Results:A total of 1 768, 1 308 and 344 patients were enrolled for opportunistic screening of colorectal cancer during the pre-intervention, the intervention and the post-intervention period respectively. Eight endoscopists participated in the whole process of this study. The total ADR increased from 23.70% (419/1 768) in the pre-intervention period to 33.72% (441/1 308) in the intervention period ( χ2=37.449, P<0.05). Two months after intervention, ADR decreased slightly to 33.14% (114/344), but was still higher compared with before ( χ2=13.602, P<0.05). The total PDR increased from 47.17% (834/1 768) in the pre-intervention period to 52.68% (689/1 308) in the intervention period ( χ2=9.111, P<0.05). Two months after the intervention, PDR increased slightly to 53.78% (185/344), and still higher compared with before ( χ2=5.035, P<0.05). Conclusion:Regular feedback to endoscopists can improve ADR in opportunistic screening of colorectal cancer.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910855

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the relationship between abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and cardiometabolic risk (CMR) through quantitative computed tomography (QCT).Methods:The present study included 76226 participants. Abdominal fat areas were measured using the QCT Pro Model 4 system. Cardiometabolic indices were collected, including systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterols CMR score was the sum of abnormal blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Restricted cubic spline and ordered logistic regression models were applied.Results:The mean age was 50±13 years and the percentage of men was 58.8%. The level of VAT area was higher in men than in women (191.7±77.1 cm 2 vs 116.4±56.2 cm 2, P<0.0001 for all). After adjustment for age, the cardiometabolic indices except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased with increasing VAT area. When VAT area was 300 cm 2, age-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of a CMR score ≥ 1 were 14.61 (13.31, 16.04) for men and 5.46 (4.06, 7.36) for women, and the age-adjusted probability of a CMR score ≥ 3 was 31.7% for men and 31.3% for women. Conclusions:QCT-derived VAT is closely related to CMR. The findings suggest that measurement of visceral fat is recommended for the management of abdominal obesity in subjects who agree to undergo lung cancer screening via low-dose CT without additional radiation exposure.

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Chinese Journal of Digestion ; (12): 112-117, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885738

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effect of multi-channel health education model by professional team on drug compliance, disease knowledge and recurrence in rate of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, so as to provide basis for formulating scientific health education measures.Methods:From February 2016 to February 2019, IBD patients visited First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University were selected. According to whether they received health education, the patients were divided into intervention group (100 cases) and control group (138 cases). Morisky medication adherence scale-8 (MMAS-8) and Chinese version of Crohn′s and colitis knowledge score (CCKNOW) were used to evaluate treatment compliance and disease knowledge. The score of MMAS-8, the proportion of poor drug compliance, CCKNOW score and recurrence rate at 48 weeks of follow-up were compared between the intervention group and control group. Two sample t test and chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results:The total scores of MMAS-8 and CCKNOW of the intervention group were both higher than those of the control group (5.58±1.96 vs. 4.47±1.44, 10.87±4.21 vs. 9.23±4.65), and the differences were statistically significant ( t=-5.06 and -2.79, both P<0.05). The proportion of patients with poor drug compliance and recurrence rate at 48 weeks of follow up of the intervention group were both lower than those of the control group (56.0%, 56/100 vs. 86.2%, 119/138; 20.0%, 20/100 vs. 31.9%, 44/138), and the differences were statistically significant ( χ2=38.18 and 4.17, both P<0.05). Conclusions:Multi-channel health education by professional team can effectively improve the drug compliance and disease knowledge in IBD patients, improve patient self-management ability, and reduce the recurrence rate.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885725

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the diagnostic value of conventional endoscopy (CE) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for invasion depth prediction of superficial gastric cancer.Methods:A total of 84 patients with superficial gastric cancer underwent both CE and EUS before treatment at Beijing Shijitan Hospital from January 2011 to December 2019. The patients were divided into CE affirmation group (47 cases) and CE non-affirmation group (37 cases) according to the endoscopist′s affirmation in the results of CE. Diagnostic accuracy of each method was compared with the histology of the resected specimen. And influential factors for the diagnosis were analyzed.Results:The overall accuracy in determining the invasion depth of superficial gastric cancer was 73.8% (62/84) for CE and 81.0% (68/84) for EUS respectively ( P=0.092). In CE affirmation group, the diagnostic accuracy of CE was significantly higher than that in the CE non-affirmation group [93.6% (44/47) VS 48.7% (18/37), χ2=21.656, P<0.001]. Twenty (23.8%) of 84 lesions were over-staged by CE, dignosed as surgical candidates, and 8 (40.0%) of the over-staged diagnosis were modified by additional EUS assessment. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that influential factors associated with observer affirmation included uneven surface of lesion ( OR=5.076, 95% CI: 1.628-15.821, P=0.005), margin elevation ( OR=3.831, 95% CI: 1.238-11.857, P=0.020) and undifferentiated carcinoma ( OR=6.887, 95% CI: 1.882-25.204, P=0.004). Conclusion:For patients of CE affirmation in the invasion depth, the diagnostic accuracy is high. For those of non-affirmation, additional EUS can improve the diagnostic accuracy and help to develop a more appropriate regime.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885638

ABSTRACT

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are fibrous structures released by neutrophils and the formation process is called NETosis. NETs participate in the host innate immunity. Recent research has found that NETs is a double-edged sword. Under normal conditions, the formation of NETs can play a role in clearing pathogens and maintain the host homeostasis. However, when NETs are overproduced or not cleared in time, they can take part in the pathogenesis of many diseases. This article reviewed the formation of NETs, the mechanisms involved in NETosis and the role of NETs in the secretion of multiple cytokines in different diseases.

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