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1.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 967-973, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876267

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To study the effec ts of Tibetan Codonopsis tralictrifolia extract (called“ZDS”for short ) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA)model rats and its mechanism. METHODS :Eight of 48 rats were randomly selected as normal control group (normal saline ),and the remaining 40 rats were used to establish CIA model. After successful modeling ,the rats were randomly divided into model group (normal saline ),ZDS low-dose ,medium-dose and high-dose groups (0.44,0.88,1.76 g/kg,by crude drug ),dexamethasone group (positive control ,0.002 5 g/kg),with 8 rats in each group. They were given relevant medicine intragastrically ,the volume of 400 μL,once a day ,for consecutive 28 days. The body weight of rats were weighed before medication (0 d),7,14,21 and 28 days after medication ;and arthritis indexes were scored. The pathological changes of the knee joint synoviual tissue were observed after last medication. The thymus index ,spleen index ,the levels of serum inflammatory factors (IL-1β,TNF-α,IL-6),protein expressions of NF-κB p65,p-NF-κB p65,IκB and p-IκB in synovial tissue were detected. RESULTS :Compared with normal control group ,the body weight (14,21,28 days after administration )of rats in model group was significantly reduced (P<0.05);the arthritis index score (before administration and different administration time)was significantly increased (P<0.05);the joint synovial tissue was pathologically damaged ;the thymus and spleen index , inflammation factor level ,the protein expression of p-NF-κB p65 and p-IκB were increased significantly(P<0.05),while the protein expression of IκB was decreased significantly(P<0.05). Compared with model group ,the level of IL- 1β was decreased significantly in ZDS low-dose group (P<0.05). Body weight of rats (21,28 days after administration )were increased significantly in ZDS medium-dose and high-dose groups ,dexamethasone group (P<0.05),while arthritis index score (14,21,28 days after administration ) was decreased significantly (P<0.05). The pathological damage of joint synovial tissue was significantly relieved ;thymus and spleen index ,inflammation factor level ,the protein expression of p-NF-κB p65 and p-IκB were significantly reduced,while the protein expression of IκB was significantly increased (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS :ZDS can improve CIA model rats to some extent ,and its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway.

2.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 911-914, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876258

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To d iscuss the monitoring platform of rational use management indexes of key monitored drugs ,and to provide reference for improving their clinical application management. METHODS :The method of literature research and expert demonstration was adopted ,the indexes of key monitored drugs in medical institutions were put forward. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS:Finally,Eight general indexes as the list of top 20 drugs purchased by medical institutions ,the specifications of key monitored drugs purchased ,the utilization rate of key monitored drugs of inpatient ,the proportion of key monitored drugs revenue,the increase in the cost of key monitored drugs of inpatient ,the increase in the cost of key monitored drug of single inpatient,the increase of the cost per time of key monitored drugs of inpatient ,the proportion of doctor ’s order review for key monitored drugs were defined. Four major data acquisition projects as the general information of medical institutions ,medical record homepage ,inpatient medication data ,and medical institution drug procurement data were also defined. The monitoring platform of key monitored drugs in medical institutions can provide reference for improving the management of clinical application of key monitored drugs.

3.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 385-388, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875703

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the sleep quality and influencing factors of the first batch of college students returning to school during COVID-19 epidemic, so as to provide scientific basis for taking corresponding measures.@*Methods@#An anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among the first batch of college students returning from a certain university by cluster sampling, which included general demographic characteristics, Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(PSQI).@*Results@#The detection rate of sleep disorders was 19.33%(522/2 701). The mother s education level was high school or technical secondary school or below(OR=2.24, 95%CI=1.47-3.41), never eat breakfast(OR=3.25, 95%CI=1.86-5.68), families were damaged during the outbreak (OR=1.48, 95%CI=1.17-1.87) and negative coping (OR=1.15, 95%CI=1.12-1.17) were risk factors for sleep disorders(P<0.05). Compared to having a very poor relationship with parents, the relationship between parents was average(OR=0.23, 95%CI=0.06-0.89), better(OR=0.23, 95%CI=0.06-0.87), very good (OR=0.19, 95%CI=0.05-0.74) were protective factors for sleep disorders(P<0.05). Exercise once or twice a week during the epidemic(OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.58-1.00), positive coping (OR=0.93, 95%CI=0.91-0.96) were protective factors for sleep disorders(P<0.05).@*Conclusion@#In this COVID-19 epidemic, the sleep quality of returning college students was affected to different extent, and the relationship between parents, sports, mother s education, breakfast habits, and family damage during the COVID-19 were factors affecting their sleep quality. Targeted psychological intervention measures should be given to returning college students in the early stage.

4.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 261-267, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872674

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To explore the mechanism of risk sharing and transfer of drug marketing authorization holders (MAH)based on drug defects ,and to promote the smooth implementation of MAH system in China. METHODS :Firstly,the types of drug defects in the whole drug life cycle were analyzed ,and then the sources and “fault party ”of different types of drug defects in the open commissioning environment of the industry chain under the MAH system were also analyzed. Based on it ,the mechanism of risk sharing and transfer of MAH was established combined with foreign experience and China ’s actual situation. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS :Drug defects were divided into design defects ,manufacturing & operation & storage & transportation quality defects and use defects ,among which design defects and manufacturing & operation & storage & transportation quality defects were the two most important defects. Design defects mainly included those caused by human factors and those could not be found by current level of science and technology ,the“fault party ”according to different circumstances may be both the research and development institutions and may be the MAH. The “fault party ”of production & operation & storage & transportation quality defects was the drug production & operation & storage & transportation enterprises. For design defects ,it was recommended to establish China ’s adverse drug reaction compensation mechanism through a combination of insurance and relief. For production & operation & storage & transportation quality defects ,it was recommended that the drug quality liability insurance as the main ,contractual agreement as the supplement ,so that the “fault party ”should assume due responsibility.

5.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 321-326, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885499

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the incidence, drug sensitivity and drug resistance characteristies, and theraputic effect of staphylococcal peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis (PDAP), aim to provide clinical evidences for standardizing treatment therapy of staphylococcal PDAP. Methods:Clinical data of PDAP patients admitted to the Second Hospital of Jilin University, the First Hospital of Jilin University-the Eastern Division, Jilin Central Hospital and Jilin First Automobile Work General Hospital during January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2019 were retrospectively collected. The results of etiology, drug sensitivity and drug resistance of staphylococcal PDAP patients were collected. According to the pathogenic bacteria, patients were divided into staphylococcus aureus group ( n=48) and coagulase-negative staphylococcus group ( n=232). According to the results of methicillin resistance, patients were divided into drug-resistant group ( n=71) and drug-sensitive group ( n=30). The prognosis of antibiotic therapy in each group were compared. Poisson regression was used to test the changing trend of the incidence of staphylococcal PDAP. The changes of drug sensitivity and drug resistance of staphylococcus were compared between 2013 and 2019 by linear trend χ2 test. Results:A total of 1 085 cases of PDAP occurred in 625 patients were screened, and 280 cases of staphylococcal PDAP were finally included. The incidences of staphylococcal PDAP, staphylococcus aureus PDAP and coagulase-negative staphylococcal PDAP were 0.063 times per patient year, 0.010 times per patient year and 0.053 times per patient year respectively. In addition, the incidence of PDAP caused by staphylococcus, staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcus decreased year by year (all P<0.05). With the change of years, the sensitivity rate of staphylococcus to rifampicin increased, while the sensitivity rate of staphylococcus to moxifloxacin decreased (both P<0.05). The drug resistance rate of staphylococcus to levofloxacin increased ( P<0.05). The staphylococcus aureus group was more prone to refractory PDAP and catheter removal than that in coagulase-negative staphylococcus group, and the recurrence rate was higher than that in coagulase-negative staphylococcus group (all P<0.05). The proportion of vancomycin used during the whole course of antibiotic therapy in drug-resistant group was higher than that in drug-sensitive group ( P<0.05). Conclusions:The incidence of staphylococcal PDAP decreases year by year, and the drug sensitivity characteristics of staphylococcus also change. The therapeutic outcomes of staphylococcus aureus PDAP are worse than that of coagulase-negative staphylococcus.

6.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 641-645, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-884936

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the changes of blood pressure and heart rate in patients aged over 80 years undergoing intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF)drugs under topical anesthesia without anesthetic monitoring in ophthalmology surgery, and to analyze the potential risk for surgery-induced acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events.Methods:This was a prospective observational cohort study.A total of 100 patients(aged 80 to 95 years, 47 males and 53 females)included 85 cases of wet age-related macular degeneration, 14 cases of retinal vein occlusion with macular edema, and 1 case of diabetic macular edema.These patients received anti-VEGF drugs injection, with accumulated injections of 1 to 36 times per patient.Blood pressure and heart rate were measured at visit to a medical clinic(as baseline), before operation, 0 min and 30 min after operation.The operation anxiety and pain scores were investigated by questionnaires.Comparison of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate among four different time points was performed by Wilcoxon symbol rank test.Results:At four different time points i. e.at the baseline, before injection, 0 min and 30 min after injection, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate showed an important regularity.The median systolic blood pressure at the four time points was 130(120-140)mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa), 142(129-149)mmHg, 153(139-164)mmHg and 143(130-151)mmHg, with ranges of 100-160 mmHg, 106-176 mmHg, 118-197 mmHg and 115-187 mmHg, respectively.The median diastolic blood pressure at the four time points was 70(65-75)mmHg, 76(69-83)mmHg, 81(73-87)mmHg and 75(69~81)mmHg, with ranges of 45-90 mmHg, 55-98 mmHg, 58-99 mmHg and 50-93 mmHg, respectively.The median heart rate at the four time-points was 70(65-80)beats/min, 72.5(65-81)beats/min, 73(66-80)beats/min and 70(65-76)times/min, with ranges of 50-95 beats/min, 48-101 beats/min, 51-93 beats/min and 50-87 beats/min, respectively.Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were significantly increased from preoperative time to 0 min and 30 min after operation( P<0.01). Compared to the baseline, heart rate was increased before operation( P<0.01)and was decreased at 30 minutes after operation( P<0.01). Conclusions:Blood pressure fluctuation may exceed the safe range with an obvious increase of systolic blood pressure during the current intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF drugs in the patients aged over 80 years.Systolic blood pressure rises significantly before operation and falls back after operation, but it may last till 30 minutes after operation.The range of heart rate change is relatively small.Perioperative management and monitoring measures should be strengthened to reduce the risk of acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events.

7.
Chinese Journal of Rheumatology ; (12): 171-175,F3, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-884385

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the expression of interleukin (IL)-38 in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and to explore the regulatory effect of IL-38 on IκB kinase complex.Methods:The gene expression levels of IL-38 and IκB kinase complex were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum IL-38 levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of IκB-kinase complex (IκK)α/β and phospho IκKα/β protein weredetermined by Western blotting analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted with or Mann-Whitney rank test.Results:① The expression level of IL-38 mRNA in active SLE patients (0.36±0.09) was significantly lower than that in the normal control group (1.00±0.17) ( Z=-4.07, P<0.01); the expression level of IL-38 protein in active SLE patients (5.86±2.76) significantly reduced as compared with normal control group (18.48±1.35) ( Z=-4.76, P<0.05). ② The expression level of IκKα mRNA (7.45±0.31) and IκKβ mRNA (6.01±1.51) in active SLE patients was significantly higher than that in normal control group (1.16±0.04) and (1.16±0.14) ( Z=-4.67, P<0.05; Z=-4.37, P<0.01), and the expression level of IL-38 mRNA was negatively correlated with IκKα mRNA and IκKβ mRNA in active SLE patients ( r=-0.78, P<0.05; r=-0.83, P<0.05). ③ IκKα/β and phosphorylated IκKα/β protein expression in active SLE patients (2.38±0.03) and (1.90±0.03) increased significantly compared with healthy controls (1.00±0.04) and (1.00±0.08) ( Z=-1.96, P<0.05; Z=-1.99, P<0.05). ④ In vitro experiment, IL-38 caused a significant decrease in the expression level of IκKα mRNA (1.70±0.12) and IκKβ mRNA (2.52±0.10) from active SLE patientscompared with untreated cells (2.56±0.28) and (3.82±0.38) ( Z=-1.96, P<0.05; Z=-1.37, P<0.05). ⑤ In vitro experiment, IL-38 caused a significant decrease in the expression level of IκKα/β (1.54±0.06) and phosphoryl-ated IκKα/β (0.970±0.012) protein expression in active SLE patients compared with untreated cells (2.93±0.08) and (1.572±0.051)( P<0.05). Conclusion:The de-crease of IL-38 level in SLE patients result in the excessive activation of IκB kinase complex IκKα and IκKβ, and therefore triggersystemic lupus erythematosus.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883945

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the influence of mindfulness on perceived stress in psychiatric nurses and the mediating effect of resilience.Methods:A total of 427 psychiatric nurses from a psychiatric hospital in Beijing were selected.Five-facet mindfulness questionnaire(FFMQ), Chinese-version perceived stress scale (CPSS) and Connor-Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC) were used in this survey.Pearson correlation analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis were performed using SPSS 24.0.And mediating effect was performed using AMOS 24.0.Results:The total score of psychiatric nurses' perceived stress was (37.89±7.16). Among all psychiatric nurses, 66.74% were under high pressure and 20.84% were under great pressure.The perceived stress was negatively correlated with mindfulness(123.69±10.82, r=-0.65, P<0.01) and resilience(85.40±17.87, r=-0.67, P<0.01), and mindfulness was positively correlated with resilience ( r=0.50, P<0.01). The direct effect of mindfulness on perceived stress was -0.15, the indirect effect was -0.34, and the total effect was -0.49. Conclusion:Resilience plays a partial mediating role between mindfulness and perceived stress psychiatric nurses.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883351

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of 3.5% lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel for eye surface anesthesia.Methods:A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial was conducted in 10 hospitals in China from August 2018 to April 2019 under the approval of an Ethics Committee of Beijing Hospital (No.2018BJYYEC-014-02). A total of 220 fellow eyes of 220 subjects who received ocular surgery in one eye were actually enrolled according to a same included criteria in different institutes.The 220 eyes were randomly divided into control group and trail group.Two drops of lidocaine hydrochloride gel were dropped at about 5 mm away from corneal limbus at 6 o'clock direction of experimental eye of the trail group, and the blank gel was used in the eyes of the control group in the same way.The pain sensation was assessed with a 0.3 mm toothless micro forceps on conjunctiva within a specified time, and ''pain'' or ''no pain'' was answered by the subjects.The primary effective indexes, namely the number of eyes and percentage of ''no pain'' within 5 minutes following dropping, as well as the secondary indexes including the onset time point of the drug and the duration of anesthesia were recorded and evaluated.Safety evaluation took ocular and system adverse events into account.Results:Within 5 minutes after dropping, ''no pain'' occurred in 104 eyes (94.55%) and 29 eyes (26.36%) in the trail group and control group, respectively, showing a significant difference between the two groups ( χ2=106.948, P<0.001). And there was a significant difference in anesthesia onset time between the trail group and control group (40.0 seconds vs. 300.0 seconds) ( Z=-15.17, P<0.001). The duration of anesthesia was 860.5 (577.5, 1 180.0) seconds in the trail group and 676.0 (280.0, 1 401.0) seconds in the control group, with no statistically significant difference between the two groups ( Z=0.898, P>0.05). The incidence of adverse events in the trail group and control group were 5.45% (6/110) and 4.55% (5/110), respectively, without statistical significance between them ( P=1.000). Conclusions:The 3.5% lidocaine hydrochloride is a safe, effective, easy to use and high-quality surface anesthesia drug for eye surgery.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882843

ABSTRACT

Anaphylaxis is increasingly in children, which is currently undernotified, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in China.In order to further improved the understanding and management of anaphylaxis, this issue reviews the pathogenesis, triggers and risk factors, clinical diagnosis and management of anaphylaxis, thus offers the recommedations of anaphylaxis in Chinese children based on previous published evidence-based guidelines and practice parameters.Recommendation aims to develop guiding principles for the diagnosis and management of anaphylaxis in children, and provide a framework for the development of new guidelines.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882636

ABSTRACT

The Philippines’ medical system is mainly based on the provincial responsibility system and the limited hierarchical. The Philippine government implement Philhealth program which can provide medical insurance for most people. The top 10 fatal diseases in this country includes ischemic heart disease, stroke, lower respiratory tract infection and so on. Of these diseases, the increasing rate of hypertensive heart disease, chronic kidney disease and diabetes are fast. Bone setting, massage and herbal medicine are the major form of traditional medicine in the Philippines. The acceptance of acupuncture and moxibustion by the government and local people is relatively high acupuncture and moxibustion therapy has been included in its medical insurance. There are many limitations on the development of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory and Chinese herbal medicine in the Philippines, and the clinical application of acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine is still limited. TCM education in the Philippines is still not systematic. Therefore, it is suggested to improve the education system of TCM, strengthen the promotion of acupuncture and moxibustion, give full play of the advantages of TCM for native high-risk diseases, and to make use of modern technologies such as telemedicine.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882624

ABSTRACT

Malaysia is a multi-ethnic and multi-cultural constitutional monarchy and federal system located in Southeast Asia. The top three diseases that cause deaths are ischemic heart disease, lower respiratory tract infections and stroke. Lower respiratory tract infections, colorectal cancer and Alzheimer’s disease have been the fastest growing diseases in recent years. The health insurance system complements public and private health care system. Traditional medicine in Malaysia includes Malaysian Medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Indian Medicine, Islamic Medicine and homeopathy. Although TCM, such as acupuncture, has not been covered by health insurance, it is widely used under the impetus of the local Chinese people. At present, in Malaysia, the TCM public acceptance and education need promotion, and scientific researches need to be improved. It is hoped that in the future, the development of TCM in Malaysia will be better developed and disseminated by promoting TCM relevant legislation, increasing public awareness, focusing on education and training, and carrying out international scientific research cooperation.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882622

ABSTRACT

Thailand is a constitutional monarchy located in the central and southern part in Southeast Asia. It mainly implements the civil service insurance plan, the social insurance plan and the "Thai 30" plan, and the government bears the main health expenditures. The Thai traditional and alternative medicine system includes Thai traditional medicine, indigenous medicine and alternative medicine. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) belongs to the category of alternative medicine. Currently, Thai traditional medicine and Chinese acupuncture have been included in medical insurance. With Thailand’s approval of doctors to use Chinese medicine to treat diseases published (Notification No.1 of BE 2543), a series of activities such as the establishment of national TCM center, the certification of TCM doctors, and the set of TCM courses and training have promoted TCM development in Thailand. However, the application of Chinese herbal medicine is restricted by Thai medicine laws; the practical skills of acupuncture and moxibustion is insufficient; and the TCM education is not systematic and complete. Therefore, it is recommended to carry out extensive and continuous publicity in the future to promote policy and legislative support; to strengthen research and development of Chinese patent medicine on popular diseases in Thailand and promote localization; to establish a special practice training center to improve acupuncture clinical operation capacity; to add and refine the content of TCM regarding university education system as well as short-term training; and to encourage cooperation between China and Thailand in talent exchanges and scientific researches, promoting the development of TCM in Thailand.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882607

ABSTRACT

The popularization of medical insurance in Panama has been basically completed. The coverage of health insurance is high, but with the problem of polarization. The major causes of death in Panama are is chemic heart disease, stroke, AD and diabetes. In recent years, the chronic kidney disease and COPD are increasing significantly. Panamanian native medicine, considered as complementary and alternative medicine, is recognized by local laws and usedby most of indigenous groups and rural people. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in Panama is at the starting stage, and there is no relevant legislation. However, this country attaches great importance to indigenous traditional medicine, and more and more people gradually accept it. TCM has great development potential in this country. It is suggested to promote the development of TCM in Panama. By culture as the pathway, exploring various forms of cooperation and exchange, taking the research and development of traditional herbal medicine as the breakthrough point, and increasing the spead of acupuncture usage, etc.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882606

ABSTRACT

The medical insurance is provided by the Unified Health System (SUS) covering most of Brazilians and alsocombined with private insurance, and every Brazilan could get access to basic health services. The major diseaseas leading to death in Brazil are ischemic heart disease, stroke and lower respiratory infection. The incidence of AD, chronic kidney disease and diabetes are increasing in recent years. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), which was represented by acupuncture, was introduced to Brazil in the early 19th. At present, acupuncture has been widely accepted and used, which was included in SUS. A number of universities have acupuncture courses. However, the specialities and advantages of TCM needs to be strengthened, the local practioners lack the understanding of TCM theory, the appropriate use of herbal medicine, and there lacks TCM education standards, all these limit the development of TCM. Thus, in order to promote the development and dissemination of TCM in Brazil, it is suggested to give full play of the characteristics of TCM in preventing disease, increase the research and development input of herbal medicine, standardize the education stystem of TCM, etc.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882605

ABSTRACT

American medical insurance is mainly composed of public medical insurance borne by the government and private medical insurance. The main cause of death in this country are ischemic heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and lung cancer. The motality rate mainly caused by drug use disorders, chronic kidney disease and Alzheimer’s disease. The development of Chinese herbal medicine is relatively slow and difficult. The education system has covered Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). However, there still exist certain challenges of the development of TCM acupuncture faces the challenge of localization; Chinese herbal medicine still lacks standardization and TCM education needs to be standardized. Based on the current situation, it is suggested to focus on the development of acupuncture and moxibustion, to promote the registration and declaration of Chinese herbal medicine products for treating difficult diseases, and to strengthen the international exchange of TCM education, so as to promote the development and spread of TCM in the United States.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882590

ABSTRACT

Serbia is a parliamentary republic country in Southeast Europe. It implements a health security system with social insurance as the mainstay and social assistance as a supplement. Ischemic heart disease, stroke and Alzheimer’s disease are the major causes of death, and the mortality rates of cardiomyopathy and chronic kidney disease are increasing. Serbia has relevant legislation on traditional medicine. Acupuncture, as the main form of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), has been introduced to Serbia in an early stage. Acupuncture was recognized as a legal medical method in 2005, and then the corresponding educational institutions of TCM were established soon. However, the limitation of acupuncture treatment application, difficulty in access to Chinese medicine, and undeveloped of TCM education system, all of them restrict the development of TCM in Serbia. It is recommended to improve the development and dissemination of Chinese medicine in Serbia, like to increase the promotion of acupuncture, pay attention to the Chinese medicine for preventive health care, and strengthen TCM education.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882589

ABSTRACT

Indonesia is an island country in Southeast Asia. In 2014, Indonesia established the National Health Insurance System (NHIS), and until 2019, the NHIS hadcovered 82% residents. The leading causes of death in Indonesia were stroke, ischemic heart disease, diabetes, tuberculosis and cirrhosis. In 1996, the Indonesian Ministry of Health allowed acupuncturists to enter Indonesian medical institutions to practice acupuncture. After that acupuncture was included in college education as a major course. However, there are still some problems, such as insufficient policy and legislation support of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), imperfect education and talent training system of TCM, and low acceptance of TCM theories. Therefore, it is recommended that the local societies and organizations could actively promote the government’s legislation on TCM; local TCM schools could build a team of excellent teachers, improve teaching quality, and cultivate local TCM talents; strengthen the cooperation and exchanges of traditional medicine between the two countries to promote the spread and development of TCM in Indonesia.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882588

ABSTRACT

Turkey is a presidential republic country located in the Eurasian continent, which has a universal health coverage since the health reform in 2003. The leading causes of death in this country are ischemic heart disease, stroke, and lung cancer. Besides, lower respiratory infections, chronic kidney disease, and hypertensive heart disease are the diseases which have a fastest growing rate. Chinese acupuncture was officially recognized by Turkey in 1991 with the promulgation of Acupuncture Treatment Legislation. At present, only trained practitioners and dentist could conduct acupuncture treatment, which was stated in Regulation of Tradition and Complementary Medicine Practice. The application of Turkish acupuncture and moxibustion is still applied in a simplified way that lack of TCM theory. Moreover, Chinese herbal medicine is still not officially recognized and still under control of the Ministry of Agriculture. Therefore, it is suggested to introduce TCM theory in the spread of acupuncture, to promote acupuncture research and clinical practice, to clarify the different standards between the two countries, and to cooperate in Chinese medicine researches, especially those related to the local high incidence and refractory disease so as to promote the development of TCM in Turkey and provide medical services for local residents.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882569

ABSTRACT

The Algerian medical health system provides free medical care. The incidence of non-communicable diseases, such as ischemic heart disease, stroke and Alzheimer’s disease, are high. Acupuncture has become a popular treatment recognized by the public with certain influence. However, some problems restrict the development of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in Algeria, like insufficient training of TCM talents; lack of TCM related knowledge, and medical insurance policy uncoving TCM. Based on the status quo of TCM, we suggested promotion and dissemination of TCM development in Algeria, including breaking through education limitation to expand the talent team, carrying out targeted publicity to expand the influence of TCM, promoting the inclusion of TCM in medical insurance and government legislative protection. Only in these ways, could we increase and expand the strength and scope of TCM influence, and promote the development of TCM in Algeria.

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