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1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2037-2044, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887636

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the importance of vaccines in epidemic prevention and public health has become even more obvious than ever. However, the emergence of multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants worldwide has raised concerns about the effectiveness of current COVID-19 vaccines. Here, we review the characteristics of COVID-19 vaccine candidates in five platforms and the latest clinical trial results of them. In addition, we further discuss future directions for the research and development of the next generation of COVID-19 vaccines. We also summarize the serious adverse events reported recently after the large-scale vaccination with the current COVID-19 vaccines, including the thromboembolism caused by the AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1289-1298, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878153

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The significant morbidity and mortality resulted from the infection of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) call for urgent development of effective and safe vaccines. We report the immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, KCONVAC, in healthy adults.@*METHODS@#Phase 1 and phase 2 randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trials of KCONVAC were conducted in healthy Chinese adults aged 18 to 59 years. The participants in the phase 1 trial were randomized to receive two doses, one each on Days 0 and 14, of either KCONVAC (5 or 10 μg/dose) or placebo. The participants in the phase 2 trial were randomized to receive either KCONVAC (at 5 or 10 μg/dose) or placebo on Days 0 and 14 (0/14 regimen) or Days 0 and 28 (0/28 regimen). In the phase 1 trial, the primary safety endpoint was the proportion of participants experiencing adverse reactions/events within 28 days following the administration of each dose. In the phase 2 trial, the primary immunogenicity endpoints were neutralization antibody seroconversion and titer and anti-receptor-binding domain immunoglobulin G seroconversion at 28 days after the second dose.@*RESULTS@#In the phase 1 trial, 60 participants were enrolled and received at least one dose of 5-μg vaccine (n = 24), 10-μg vaccine (n = 24), or placebo (n = 12). In the phase 2 trial, 500 participants were enrolled and received at least one dose of 5-μg vaccine (n = 100 for 0/14 or 0/28 regimens), 10-μg vaccine (n = 100 for each regimen), or placebo (n = 50 for each regimen). In the phase 1 trial, 13 (54%), 11 (46%), and seven (7/12) participants reported at least one adverse event (AE) after receiving 5-, 10-μg vaccine, or placebo, respectively. In the phase 2 trial, 16 (16%), 19 (19%), and nine (18%) 0/14-regimen participants reported at least one AE after receiving 5-, 10-μg vaccine, or placebo, respectively. Similar AE incidences were observed in the three 0/28-regimen treatment groups. No AEs with an intensity of grade 3+ were reported, expect for one vaccine-unrelated serious AE (foot fracture) reported in the phase 1 trial. KCONVAC induced significant antibody responses; 0/28 regimen showed a higher immune responses than that did 0/14 regimen after receiving two vaccine doses.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Both doses of KCONVAC are well tolerated and able to induce robust immune responses in healthy adults. These results support testing 5-μg vaccine in the 0/28 regimen in an upcoming phase 3 efficacy trial.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#http://www.chictr.org.cn/index.aspx (No. ChiCTR2000038804, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=62350; No. ChiCTR2000039462, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=63353).


Subject(s)
Adult , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Double-Blind Method , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1182-1191, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827629

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and its natriuretic peptide receptors A (NPR-A) and C (NPR-C) are involved in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological process of blood pressure. The present study aimed to determine the role of NPR-C in the development of salt-sensitive hypertension.@*METHODS@#The Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) and salt-resistant (DR) rats were used in this study. Animals were matched according to their age and weight, and then placed on either a high-salt (HS, 8%) or a normal-salt (NS, 0.4%) diet for 6 weeks randomly using random number table. The systolic blood pressure (SBP), plasmatic sodium concentration (PLNa), urinary sodium excretion (UVNa), and serum creatinine concentration (Scr) were measured. The concentration of ANP in blood and tissues (heart and kidney) was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of ANP, NPR-A, and NPR-C in kidney was evaluated with western blot analysis. Regarding renal redox state, the concentration changes in malondialdehyde (MDA), lipofuscin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in kidney were detected by a spectrophotometric method. The kidney damage was evaluated using pathological techniques and the succinodehydrogenase (SDHase) examination. Furthermore, after an intra-peritoneal injection of C-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)4-23 (C-ANP4-23), an NPR-C receptor agonist, the SBP, biochemical values in blood and urine, and renal redox state were evaluated. The paired Student's t test and analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni test were performed for statistical analyses of the comparisons between two groups and multiple groups, respectively.@*RESULTS@#The baseline SBP in all groups was within the normal range. At the end of the 6-week experiment, HS diet significantly increased the SBP in DS rats from 116.63 ± 2.90 mmHg to 162.25 ± 2.15 mmHg (t = -10.213, P  0.05). The significant increase of PLNa, UVNa, and Scr related to an HS diet was found in both DS and DR rats (all P < 0.05). However, significant changes in the concentration (t = -21.915, P < 0.001) and expression of renal ANP (t = -3.566, P = 0.016) and the expression of renal NPR-C (t = 5.864, P = 0.002) were only observed in DS hypertensive rats. The significantly higher desmin immunochemical staining score (t = -5.715, P = 0.005) and mitochondrial injury score (t = -6.325, P = 0.003) accompanied by the lower SDHase concentration (t = 3.972, P = 0.017) revealed mitochondrial pathologic abnormalities in podocytes in DS rats with an HS diet. The distinct increases of MDA (t = -4.685, P = 0.009), lipofuscin (t = -8.195, P = 0.001), and Nox (t = -12.733, P < 0.001) but not NOS (t = -0.328, P = 0.764) in kidneys were also found in DS hypertensive rats. C-ANP4-23 treatment significantly decreased the SBP induced by HS in DS rats (P < 0.05), which was still higher than NS groups with the vehicle or C-ANP4-23 treatment (P < 0.05). Moreover, the HS-induced increase of MDA, lipofuscin, Nox concentrations, and Nox4 expression in DS rats was significantly attenuated by C-ANP4-23 treatment as compared with those with HS diet and vehicle injection (all P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The results indicated that the renal NPR-C might be involved in the salt-sensitive hypertension through the damage of mitochondria in podocytes and the reduction of the anti-oxidative function. Hence, C-ANP4-23 might serve as a therapeutic agent in treating salt-sensitive hypertension.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779531

ABSTRACT

Herpes zoster (HZ) is more common in middle-aged and elderly people, and is caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV) that is latent in sensory ganglia. In recent years, due to various reasons, especially the aging of China's population has become more serious, the incidence of HZ in China has risen sharply. Although HZ is self-limited, its complications will still reduce the quality of life of patients and increase the economic burden of patients' families and society. In order to reduce the incidence and improve the quality of life of the elderly in their later years, the development of safe and effective HZ vaccine may be an important and effective measure. This article aims to make a brief review of the progress in research for clinical trials of HZ vaccines, so as to provide a reference for the use of HZ vaccine and the prevention and control of HZ disease in China.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777955

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a dynamic model of hand foot and mouth disease in Jiangsu Province, analyze the epidemic of hand foot and mouth disease in Jiangsu, predict the trend of this disease and simulate the effect of EV71 vaccination on the control of hand foot and mouth disease caused by EV71. Methods A compartmental model of hand foot and mouth disease was constructed.A group of differential equations was established. The incidence data of hand foot and mouth disease was used to fit the model and calculate the basic reproduction number of this disease in Jiangsu. Then, vaccination was added to the model and the incidence of hand foot and mouth disease under different vaccination coverage rates was simulated. Results The basic reproduction numbers of hand foot and mouth disease in Jiangsu between 2013 and 2016 were 1.31 (IQR:0.99-1.48), 1.37 (IQR:0.97-1.52), 1.34 (IQR:1.00-1.61) and 1.38 (IQR:1.00-1.76) , respectively. With the increase of immunization coverage of EV71 vaccine, the cases of hand foot and mouth disease caused by EV71 decreased accordingly. When the annual immunization rate of EV71 vaccine was maintained at a high level (75%), the annual incidence of hand foot and mouth disease caused by EV71 after 5 years reduced to 10% of that in the same year when there was no vaccination. Conclusions The epidemic trend of hand foot and mouth disease in Jiangsu is stable from 2013 to 2016. Vaccination plays an important role in controlling hand foot and mouth disease caused by EV71.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-699929

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore an method for comfort evaluation of the military ambulance to enhance ride comfort during casualty transport. Methods The method executed quantitative evaluation of vibrational comfort by the existing vibration comfortableness evaluation ways for non-ambulatory casualty, different reactions of casualty to vibrational excitement and annoyance rate analysis based on psychophysics, which took considerations on the ratio of injured sites at war or natural disaster conditions as well as susceptibility analysis. Trials of the the method were carried out on the vibrational comfort analysis of some military ambulance during the road test.Results The method had feasibility for vibration comfortableness evaluation of non-ambulatory casualty,and improved the traditional ways in quantitative analysis.Conclusion The method gains advantages over the international ways, and contributes to the related researches on vibration reduction.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-258822

ABSTRACT

Norovirus (NoV) is a pathogen that commonly causes viral diarrhea in children. Studies indicate that NoV recognizes human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as cell attachment factors. In order to explore the correlation between of NoV infection and HBGAs, a cross-sectional study was conducted in children less than five years old who were hospitalized with diarrhea in two areas of China between November 2014 and February 2015. Of the paired stool and saliva samples taken from 424 children, NoV was detected in 24 (6%) children, with viral genotypes GII.3 (n=5), GII.4 (n=14), GII.12 (n=1), and GII.17 (n=4). All of the individuals having NoV infection were either secretors (Lea-b+/Lex-y+) or partial secretors (Lea+b+/Lex+y+) except one GII.3 infection of a non-secretor (Lea+b-/Lex+y-). These results suggest that secretor positive is associated with NoV infection, although non-secretors are not absolutely protected from NoV infection.


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens , Genetics , Caliciviridae Infections , Blood , Virology , Child, Preschool , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea , Blood , Virology , Feces , Virology , Gastroenteritis , Blood , Virology , Genotype , Humans , Infant , Norovirus , Physiology
8.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1343-1347, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-261871

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of microRNA-193b (miR-193b) on C-KIT protein expression and biological behaviors in K562 cells. The FAM-labeled miR-193b mimic and negative control were respectively transfected into K562 cells using HiPerFect transfection reagent. The percentage of FAM-positive cells was monitored by flow cytometry. The levels of C-KIT and phosphorylated C-KIT protein were detected by Western blot. The cell growth was measured by CCK-8 reagent. The apoptosis of cells were analyzed by flow cytometry with Annexin V staining. The differentiation of cells were analyzed by flow cytometry with anti-CD11b or anti-CD15 staining. The results demonstrated that the percentage of FAM-positive cells was about 80% in miR-193b or negative control-transfected K562 cells. Compared with the negative control group, overexpression of miR-193b in K562 cells significantly inhibited the levels of C-KIT and phosphorylated C-KIT protein. Meanwhile, the cell growth was inhibited and the percentages of apoptotic cells, CD11b- or CD15-positive cells increased. It is concluded that miR-193b can reduce C-KIT expression and inhibit cell growth in K562 cells. The growth-inhibitory activity of miR-193b is associated with apoptosis and granulocytic differentiation. This study contributed to further investigate the role of miR-193b in leukemogenesis.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation , Genetics , Cell Proliferation , Humans , K562 Cells , MicroRNAs , Genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit , Genetics , Metabolism , Transfection
9.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 116-119, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-295912

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the distribution and characteristics on genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the relationship between Beijing genotype and drug-resistant phenotypes in Tianjin city. Methods 656 clinical strains were collected from Tianjin Center for Tuberculosis Control and ten other Tuberculosis Institute in Tianjin from January 2008 to June 2009.Information regarding administration, clinical as well as laboratory findings of patients were collected.Proportion method was adopted to detect the susceptibility on four anti-tuberculosis drugs, namely streptomycin (SM), isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RFP) and ehambutol (EMB). Both Beijing and non-Beijing genotypes were differentiated by multiplex PCR. The relationship between Beijing genotype and drug-resistant phenotypes was analyzed. Results In this study, the overall resistance rate of MTB was 26.98%, with multidrug-resistant rate was 6.25%. Among 656 MTB strains, 600isolates (91.46% ) belonged to Beijing genotype. There was significant difference between Beijing and non-Beijing genotype (x2=4.26, P=0.039) among the Tianjin household registered population.Concerning the drug resistance, there was no significant difference between the two groups.Conclusion Beijing genotype strains were the predominant one in Tianjin. The proportion of people infected with the Beijing genotype strains in Tianjin household registration of patients was significantly higher than the proportion of patients in the floating population in the same region.Results from the statistical analysis did not reveal any statistically significant association between Beijing genotype and drug resistance.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-291553

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a non-parametric probabilistic model for evaluation of Chinese dietary exposure and to improve the assessment accuracy while integrating into the global risk assessment on food safety.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Contamination data was from the national food contamination monitoring program during 2000 - 2006, including heavy metals, pesticides and mycotoxins, amounting to 135 contaminants with 499 commodities and 487 819 samples. Food consumption data was obtained from the national diet and nutrition survey conducted in 2002 with three consecutive days by 24-hour recall method, and 66 172 consumers were included. Monte Carlo simulation was applied to derive the intake distribution, and the uncertainty of each percentile was estimated using the Bootstrap sampling.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Different non-parametric probabilistic models for dietary exposure evaluation on heavy metals, pesticides and some of the toxins were established for Chinese people, and intake distributions with 95% confidence intervals of these contaminants were estimated. Taking acephate as an example, the results of its model shows that, for the 7 - 10 year-old children, the median dietary exposure in urban and rural areas were 1.77 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1) and 2.48 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1) respectively, with a 95% confidence interval of (1.59 - 2.06) microg x kg(-1) x d(-1) and (2.33 - 2.80) microg x kg(-1) x d(-1) respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The non-parametric probabilistic model can quantify the variability and uncertainty of exposure assessment and improve the assessment accuracy.</p>


Subject(s)
China , Consumer Product Safety , Diet Surveys , Humans , Models, Statistical , Risk Assessment , Statistics, Nonparametric
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-291551

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To develop the dietary exposure evaluation model software accredited of Chinese intellectual property rights and to verify the rationality and accuracy of the results from the probabilistic model in Chinese dietary exposure evaluation model software according to international standards.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The software of SAS was used to build various evaluation model based on the data from Chinese dietary survey and the chemical compound in food surveillance and to design an operation interface. The results from probabilistic dietary exposure model for children 2 - 7 years old were compared with that from duplicate portion study of 2-7 years children dietary exposure in Jinhu, Jiangsu province in order to analyze the rationality of model. The results from probabilistic model of dietary exposure were compared with the results from @Risk software to verify the correction of the probabilistic model by using the same data of randomly selected 10 000 study subjects from national dietary survey. While, the mean drift was used as an internal index to illustrate the accuracy of the computation.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Chinese dietary exposure evaluation software was developed successfully. On the rationality, the results from probabilistic model were lower than that from the point estimation (e.g., cucumber: the result of point estimation of acephate was 4.78 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1), while the results of probabilistic model which was 0.39 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1)). Meanwhile the results from probabilistic model were higher than the results of duplicate portion study (on the P95, the result of probabilistic model of Pb exposure in children was 11.08 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1), while the results of duplicate portion study was 5.75 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1)). On accuracy, the results from @Risk and the probabilistic model were highly consistent (on the P95, the result of probabilistic assessment of acephate diet exposure was 4.27 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1), while the results of duplicate portion study was 4.24 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1)), and the mean drift was of random distribution, the drift region varied from 0.05% to 11.9%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The results computed by the software of Chinese dietary exposure evaluation model are reliable and reasonable, which is a meaningful step to improve the dietary exposure evaluation technique in China.</p>


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , China , Consumer Product Safety , Diet , Humans , Models, Statistical , Software Design , Software Validation
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-243544

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To examine whether ischemic preconditioning (IPC) can protect neuron against delayed death in CA1 subfield of hippocampus following reperfusion of a lethal ischemia in rats, and explore the role of p53 and bax in this process.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We examined the effect of IPC on delayed neuron death, neuron apoptosis, expressions of p53 and bax gene in the CA1 area of hippocampus in the rats using HE staining, flow cytometry, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry technique.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>IPC enhanced the quantity of survival cells in the CA1 region of hippocampus (216 +/- 9 cells/0.72 mm2 vs. 30 +/- 5 cells/0.72 mm2, P < 0.01) , decreased the percentages of apoptotic neurons of hippocampus caused by ischemia/reperfusion (2.06% +/- 0.21% vs. 4.27% +/- 0.08%, P < 0.01 ), and weakened the expressions of p53 and bax gene of hippocampus compared with ischemia/reperfusion without IPC.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>IPC can protect the neurons in the CA1 region of hippocampus against apoptosis caused by ischemia/reperfusion, and this process may be related to the reduced expressions of p53 and bax.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Gene Expression Regulation , Genes, p53 , Hippocampus , Wounds and Injuries , Ischemic Preconditioning , Methods , Neurons , Physiology , Rats , Reperfusion Injury , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 , Genetics , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Genetics
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-266845

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate effects of total flavonoid fraction of Asttragalus complanatus on blood pressure in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats(SHR) and hemodynamics in anesthetized SHR.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Blood pressure was recorded with tail-culf method and hemodynamics was recorded with polygraph after administration of total flavonoid fraction of Asttragalus complanatus.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Total flavonoid fraction of Asttragalus complanatus (100, 200 mg.kg-1) could decrease blood pressure of conscious SHR(decreasing 7.1%, P < 0.05 and 9.3%, P < 0.01 respectively). Meanwhile, there was no significant change in heart rate(HR). R Br (200 mg.kg-1) could decrease total peripheral resistance (TPR) (decreasing 20%, P < 0.05) but did not influence the cardiac output(CO) and heart rate in anesthetized SHR.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Total flavonoid fraction of Asttragalus complanatus possesses obvious hypotensive effect, mainly by means of decreasing the TPR.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Antihypertensive Agents , Pharmacology , Astragalus Plant , Chemistry , Blood Pressure , Cardiac Output , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Female , Flavonoids , Pharmacology , Heart Rate , Hemodynamics , Hypertension , Male , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR , Vascular Resistance
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