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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879102

ABSTRACT

As the most advanced environment-friendly production model in the international society, ecological agriculture of Chinese materia medica(CMM) is the only way for the development of modern agriculture. With the proposal of the declaration on ecolo-gical agriculture of CMM, "Don't grab land from farmland, don't be enemies of grass and insects, don't be afraid of barren slopes and forests, and live up to the green and green mountains", the ecological planting of CMM has blossomed all over the country, and formed a scientific theory, technology and model. Based on the theory and method of economics, this paper expounds the comprehensive benefits and development advantages of ecological agriculture of CMM from the perspectives of farmers(producers), patients(consumers) and the country. From the perspective of medicinal farmers, the input and output income of conventional agriculture and ecological agriculture of CMM such as Panax ginseng, Astragalus propinquus, Atractylodes lancea, and Bupleurum chinense were compared, and it was found that ecological agriculture of CMM had obvious advantages in net income, average annual income and input-output ratio, which could better promote farmers' income. From the perspective of patients, according to the same dose, the content of active ingredients in ecologically planted CMMs is significantly higher than that in conventionally-planted herbs, and the amount of effective substances taken by patients is also higher, so as to achieve better therapeutic effect. At the national level, ecological planting of CMM is the key to ensuring the high-quality development of CMM industry, increasing farmers' income, ensuring the safety of people's drug use and promoting the sustainable development of agriculture. It is also an important part of realizing the harmonious development of economy, society and environment and promoting ecological civilization. In general, the declaration on ecological agriculture of CMM embo-dies the core characteristics and goals of ecological agriculture, and also points of the path and vision of ecological agriculture of CMM in the future. The declaration will guide production practice, promote the benefit of farmers, and lay the foundation for the sustainable development of CMM industry.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879005

ABSTRACT

Coptis chinensis is one of bulk traditional herbal medicines in China. In recent years, the occurrence of various diseases has caused great yield loss and quality reduction of C. chinensis, which has become an important threat of herbal medicine industry. Here we reviewed the symptoms, pathogens, epidemiology and control methods of 6 common diseases of C. chinensis including root rot, southern blight, violet root rot, leaf spot, powdery mildew, and anthracnose. This review aims at providing guidance for the disease diagnostic, pathogen identification, and control strategies of the diseases on C. chinensis, and facilitate the growth of traditional medicine industry.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota , China/epidemiology , Coptis , Plants, Medicinal
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827987

ABSTRACT

Numerous studies showed that the growth of medicinal plants in their native areas was simultaneously affected by abiotic stress combinations. Compared with single stress, plants have unique responses to a combination of different abiotic stresses and cannot be inferred directly from plants' responses to each individual stress. The effect of combined stresses on plants usually has three types of synergistic antagonism or independence. The secondary metabolism in the process of medicinal plant stress combination response also played a vital role, and environmental stresses can spur the accumulation of secondary metabolites, but under the stress combination, plants induce specific gene expression of key enzymes on secondary metabolic pathways, in turn, the accumulation of secondary metabolites against stress is formed. When plants are subjected to stress combination, the interaction of multiple signaling pathways makes it highly complex for plants to respond to stress combination. This paper summarized the effects of stress combination on physiological and secondary metabolism of medicinal plants, and discussed the related physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms. It provides theoretical basis for improving the adaptability of medicinal plants to adversity, improving the quality of Chinese medicinal materials, and further optimizing the cultivation of medicinal plants.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Plants, Medicinal , Secondary Metabolism , Stress, Physiological
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774523

ABSTRACT

Rhizosphere bacteria play a vital role in plant nutrition absorption,growth and disease resistance. In this study,high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the rhizosphere bacterial communities of Salvia miltiorrhiza and S. miltiorrhiza f. alba. Moreover,the function of dominant rhizosphere bacterial communities was analyzed. We found that Sphingobacteriales,Sphingomonadales and Nitrosomonadaceae were both dominant and specific bacteria in the rhizosphere of S. miltiorrhiza. The main functions of dominant rhizosphere bacteria communities in both species include promoting transformation of soil nutrients,improving plant immunity and ability of stress tolerance. This study was the first to compare rhizobacterial communities structure and function of S. miltiorrhiza and S. miltiorrhiza f. alba,which provided a new theoretical reference for studing the rhizosphere mechanism of healthy S. miltiorrhiza planting in the future.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Classification , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Rhizosphere , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Microbiology , Soil Microbiology
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802436

ABSTRACT

Objective: To obtain the glycosyltransferase gene involved in modification reaction of phytoalexin from Sorbus pohuashanensis suspension cell,and conduct sequence analysis and prokaryotic expression analysis. Method: Based on the transcriptome data,specific primers were designed to obtain 2 cDNA sequences of SaUGTs genes,construct prokaryotic expression vector HIS-MBP-pET28a-SaUGTs and induce the expression of recombinant SaUGTs protein. Result: SaUGT1 and SaUGT2 sequences were cloned and obtained from glycosyltransferases,then bioinformatic analysis of the sequence and prokaryotic expression analysis were conducted. SaUGT1 gene contained 1 458 bp open reading frame (ORF),encoding a polypeptide of 485 amino acids,with a relative molecular weight of 54.27 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 5.50.SaUGT2 gene contained 1 431 bp ORF,encoding a polypeptide of 476 amino acids,with a relative molecular weight of 53.49 kDa and theoretical pI of 5.63. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that SaUGT1 and SaUGT2 protein had no signal peptide,and the conserved domains of glycosyltransferase family were detected. Phylogenetic results showed that SaUGT1 and SaUGT2 proteins had the closest relationship with the UGT85 family of A. thaliana. Differential expression analysis revealed that the relative expression levels of SaUGT1 and SaUGT2 were increased significantly after being induced by yeast extract (YE), with the highest expression level found at 24 h and 12 h. The recombinant SaUGT1 and SaUGT2 proteins were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli DE3 cells and finally,the recombinant SaUGT1 and SaUGT2 proteins were purified through Ni2+ affinity chromatography. Conclusion: The glycosyltransferase gene was cloned from the S. aucuparia for the first time,and the prokaryotic expression vector was successfully constructed,laying foundation for further study of the function of this gene.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771659

ABSTRACT

The soil fertility has great impacts on the yielding of Chinese medicinal materials, as well as the generation of major components. The practices showed that soil fertility has been decayed with the growth of cultivation years,which is leading to adverse effect on quality and quantity of Chinese medicinal materials. However, there was a lack of domestic unified standard for assessment of soil fertility of Chinese medicinal material cultivation, which has seriously limited the soil management and quality control. In this text, we reviewed the progress on research of soil fertility evaluation, built the soil fertility evaluation index including soil texture,soil bulk density,soil organic matter,soil acidity and alkalinity,soil available nitrogen,soil available phosphorus, soil available potassium,soil animals and soil microorganisms. It would provide the direction and thought for standard-settin on soil fertility evaluation of Chinese medicinal material cultivation.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Nitrogen , Chemistry , Phosphorus , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Potassium , Chemistry , Soil , Chemistry
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776396

ABSTRACT

The traditional sulfur fumigation processing method has been widely used in the initial processing and storage of traditional Chinese medicinal materials due to its economy, efficiency, convenience, high operability and effect on mold and insect prevention. However, excessive sulfur fumigation of traditional Chinese medicinal materials would lead to the changes in chemical compositions, and even endanger human health. This study showed that traditional Chinese medicinal materials were sulfur fumigated directly after being harvested for quick drying, or fumigated after being weted in the storage process for preventing mold and insects. We found that the sulfur dioxide limits for traditional Chinese medicinal materials were stricter than those for foods. Based on the existing limit standards, we obtained the data of sulfur dioxide residues for 35 types of traditional Chinese medicinal materials in a total of 862 batches. According to the limit standard in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (150, 400 mg·kg⁻¹), the average over-standard rate of sulfur dioxide was as high as 52.43%, but it was reduced to 29.47% if calculated based on the limit for vegetable additive standard (500 mg·kg⁻¹). Sulfur fumigation issue shall be considered correctly: sulfur dioxide is a type of low toxic substance and less dangerous than aflatoxin and other highly toxic substances, and a small amount of residue would not increase the toxicity of traditional Chinese medicinal materials. However, sulfur fumigation might change the content of chemical substances and affect the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal materials. Furthermore, the exposure hazards of toxic substances are comprehensively correlated with exposure cycle, exposure frequency, and application method. In conclusion, it is suggested to strengthen the studies on the limit standard of traditional Chinese medicinal materials, formulate practical and feasible limit standard for sulfur dioxide residues in traditional Chinese medicinal materials that are consistent with the medication characteristics of traditional Chinese medicinal materials and can guarantee people's demand for safe medication.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Fumigation , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Sulfur , Sulfur Dioxide , Reference Standards
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776395

ABSTRACT

Studies on the characteristic chemical markers of sulfur fumigation have become an effective auxiliary way for quality control of traditional Chinese medicine. This study established a quantitative analysis method for the determination of -hydroxybenzyl hydrogen sulfite (-HS) in Gastrodiae Rhizoma (GR) based on UPLC-MS/MS. Then, 37 batches of GR were screened, and the results showed that 27 batches of them were sulfur-fumigated. Especially, the GR samples in Yunnan producing areas were sulfur-fumigated more seriously. Based on the stability of -HS after different storage time and heat treatment methods, it was found that the content of -HS was stable and reliable in the storage period of 8 months and under normal heat treatment (50, 60, 70, 80 °C) conditions. In conclusion, this study shows a high sensitivity, good selectivity and good stability of -HS, which can provide reference for the quality control and sulfur fumigation screening of GR.


Subject(s)
China , Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Reference Standards , Fumigation , Gastrodia , Chemistry , Quality Control , Rhizome , Chemistry , Sulfites , Sulfur , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776394

ABSTRACT

As Gastrodiae Rhizoma (GR) is one of the herbs more seriously affected by sulfur fumigation, so its quality has been always of a great concern. In this paper, GR samples collected from eight main producing areas and in three forms were fumigated with sulfur and quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed based on UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. The results showed that the contents of gastrodin, parishin, parishin B and parishin C were decreased, while the content of parishin E was increased after sulfur fumigation treatment. Besides, a new sulfur marker named p-hydroxybenzyl hydrogen sulfite was produced in sulfur-fumigated GR samples. As compared with producing origins, forms had a greater impact on the quality of GR, especially in Hongtianma and Wutianma. Besides, the contents of gastrodins and parishins in Hongtianma from Jilin were lowest as compared with those in other producing areas. This might be correlated with planting patterns and environmental factors. In conclusion, sulfur fumigation has a more obvious impact on the quality of GR than origins and forms, which is attributed to the generation of new sulfur fumigated markers.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Fumigation , Gastrodia , Chemistry , Quality Control , Rhizome , Chemistry , Sulfur , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776393

ABSTRACT

To study the effect of different storage time on the chemical compositions and sulfur dioxide residues of sulfur-fumigated Gastrodiae Rhizoma (GR), and provide scientific basis for solving the quality and safety issues of sulfur-fumigated traditional Chinese medicinal materials. GR, sulfur-fumigated GR and its medicinal slices were stored under the same conditions, and then 8 active ingredients and sulfur dioxide residues were measured respectively. The results showed that the content of gastrodins in sulfur-fumigated GR and its medicinal slices was significantly lower than that in the non-fumigated GR. Moreover, the content of sulfur dioxide residue in sulfur-fumigated GR was significantly higher than that in its medicinal slices. That is to say, sulfur fumigation degree had significantly higher effect on GR quality as compared with its medicinal slices. During the whole storage time (8 months), the content of the eight chemical components in GR was not changed greatly in general. However, after the storage for 4 months, the content of 8 components and sulfur dioxide residues in all of GR samples were significantly changed. In particular, the content of sulfur dioxide residue in GR medicinal materials decreased up to 50% or more.


Subject(s)
Drug Storage , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Fumigation , Gastrodia , Chemistry , Rhizome , Chemistry , Sulfur , Sulfur Dioxide
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-698772

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Currently, regulation of stem cell differentiation by mechanical stresses or microenvironment has become a popular issue in the tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. OBJECTIVE: To review the progress in the effects of mechanical stress on neural differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in the last decade, providing theoretical basis for stem cell replacement therapy in the treatment of degenerative diseases. METHODS: A search of Web of Science and PubMed database was done to retrieve articles addressing the effects of mechanical stresses on the neural differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. After systematical analysis and summarization, 104 articles were finally selected and analyzed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Mechanical stimulation and extracellular physical environment factors have important influence on the neural differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from the bone marrow, adipose tissues, dental pulp and endometrium. PI3K-AKT-mTOR, Wnt/beta-catenin, Rho, MAPK signaling pathways may be involved in the mechanical stresses regulated neural differentiation. However, the clear molecular mechanism needs further studies.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775388

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, the cultivation of traditional Chinese medicinal materials is faced with the problems of pesticides illegal uses and pesticides residues. In the early period of eco-agriculture of Chinese materia medica, the uses of pesticides in special time is still inevitable. However, the registration of pesticides for Chinese medicinal materials now is far from enough to meet demand. So it is necessary to publish policies to expand the pesticides registration for Chinese medicinal materials. We collected and analyzed the data of pesticide registration for Chinese medicinal materials, the results showed that till March 2018, there were 10 kinds of Chinese medicinal materials, 91 pesticide products and 46 kinds of pesticide ingredients registered. Based on the current status of the pesticide management in China and the experience of the registration pesticide for minor crops in countries around the world, we point out that the pesticide registration for Chinese medicinal materials should be carried out in the form of minor crops and some specific methods are also provided in this paper.


Subject(s)
China , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pesticide Residues , Pesticides , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-658972

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture at Baihui (GV20) in treating post-stroke executive dysfunction.Method Fifty-six eligible patients with post-stroke executive dysfunction were randomized into a treatment group (30 cases) and a control group (26 cases). The treatment group was intervened by acupuncture at Baihui and the control group was intervened by ordinary acupuncture. Before and after the intervention, the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) and Trail Making Test (TMT) were adopted to evaluate the executive function, and Modified Barthel Index (MBI) was used to estimate the activities of daily living (ADL).Result Before the intervention, there were no significant differences in comparing the BADS, TMT and MBI scores between the two groups (P>0.05); after the treatment, each scale was improved significantly in both groups (P<0.05). The scores of Rule Shift Cards Test (RSCT), Key Search Test (KST), Temporal Judgment Test (TJT), Zoo Map Test (ZMT) and total point of BADS, TMT-A and MBI scores in the treatment group were superior to those in the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion Acupuncture at Baihui works effectively in improving the executive function of cerebral stroke patients.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-661891

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture at Baihui (GV20) in treating post-stroke executive dysfunction.Method Fifty-six eligible patients with post-stroke executive dysfunction were randomized into a treatment group (30 cases) and a control group (26 cases). The treatment group was intervened by acupuncture at Baihui and the control group was intervened by ordinary acupuncture. Before and after the intervention, the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) and Trail Making Test (TMT) were adopted to evaluate the executive function, and Modified Barthel Index (MBI) was used to estimate the activities of daily living (ADL).Result Before the intervention, there were no significant differences in comparing the BADS, TMT and MBI scores between the two groups (P>0.05); after the treatment, each scale was improved significantly in both groups (P<0.05). The scores of Rule Shift Cards Test (RSCT), Key Search Test (KST), Temporal Judgment Test (TJT), Zoo Map Test (ZMT) and total point of BADS, TMT-A and MBI scores in the treatment group were superior to those in the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion Acupuncture at Baihui works effectively in improving the executive function of cerebral stroke patients.

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