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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886643

ABSTRACT

Objective:This study aimed to investigate the time duration of norovirus shedding among day-care children and students during norovirus outbreaks, as well as influencing factors affecting the viral shedding. Methods:Suspected cases of norovirus infection and their close contacts were collected from child care and school settings during norovirus outbreaks in Xuhui District, Shanghai, from 2017 through 2019. Specimens were detected using real-time RT-PCR to determine whether children had been infected with norovirus. Subsequently, further specimens were collected every 3-7 days from infected children until specimens tested negative for norovirus. Results:A total of 76 outbreaks were reported involving 1 014 suspected cases. In the 421 suspected cases, 311 confirmed cases were diagnosed after examination. Furthermore, a total of 58 confirmed cases participated in this study with informed consent, with a participation rate of 18.65%. The average time duration of norovirus shedding was (16.24±13.80) days, in which 79.31% had viral shedding more than 7 days, 37.93% more than 14 days and 17.24% more than 21 days. A Cox proportional-hazards model showed that children with more severe symptoms (HR=2.06,P=0.040), day-care children (HR=4.13,P=0.012), and confirmed cases in 2019 (HR=0.11,P<0.001) had longer duration of viral shedding. Conclusion:Children may remain shedding norovirus after their recovery and back to class. Improvement in sanitation for these recovered children in child care and schools is especially necessary, which may avert secondary transmission.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907127

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo analyze the epidemiological characteristics and incidence trend of influenza-like illness in Xuhui District from 2010 to 2019, in order to understand the patterns of influenza epidemic of Xuhui District,and to provide evidence for the prevention and control of influenza in the future. MethodsSurveillance data of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Xuhui District from 2010 to 2019 were collected from the National Influenza Surveillance System for statistical description and trend analysis. ResultsFrom 2010 to 2019, the overall proportion of influenza-like illness was 0.54%. The annual proportions of ILI were between 0.35%~1.14%.The majority of cases were reported in age group of 25~59, accounted for 54.50% of the total ILI. A total of 9 053 throat swab specimens from ILI patients were collected and tested, from which 2 137 specimens were positive, with a positive rate of 23.61%. The most frequent subtype of influenza virus detected was influenza A virus (accounting for 67.62%). The proportion of ILI and the positive rate of influenza virus nucleic acid detection reached the peak in summer and winter over time. There was a positive correlation between the proportion of ILI and the positive rate of influenza (r=0.666, P<0.01). From 2010 to 2019, both ILI% and nucleic acid positive rate of influenza virus showed a downward trend. ConclusionThe incidence of influenza shows a downward trend in Xuhui District, with two peaks in summer and winter. The most susceptible individuals are in 25~59 age group. The dominant strains of influenza virus alternate regularly, influenza A(H3N2) dominate the summer epidemic peak while the epidemic peak in winter is dominated by influenza A(H1N1) and influenza B.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907104

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo analyze the epidemiological characteristics and incidence trend of influenza-like illness in Xuhui District from 2010 to 2019, in order to understand the patterns of influenza epidemic of Xuhui District,and to provide evidence for the prevention and control of influenza in the future. MethodsSurveillance data of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Xuhui District from 2010 to 2019 were collected from the National Influenza Surveillance System for statistical description and trend analysis. ResultsFrom 2010 to 2019, the overall proportion of influenza-like illness was 0.54%. The annual proportions of ILI were between 0.35%~1.14%.The majority of cases were reported in age group of 25~59, accounted for 54.50% of the total ILI. A total of 9 053 throat swab specimens from ILI patients were collected and tested, from which 2 137 specimens were positive, with a positive rate of 23.61%. The most frequent subtype of influenza virus detected was influenza A virus (accounting for 67.62%). The proportion of ILI and the positive rate of influenza virus nucleic acid detection reached the peak in summer and winter over time. There was a positive correlation between the proportion of ILI and the positive rate of influenza (r=0.666, P<0.01). From 2010 to 2019, both ILI% and nucleic acid positive rate of influenza virus showed a downward trend. ConclusionThe incidence of influenza shows a downward trend in Xuhui District, with two peaks in summer and winter. The most susceptible individuals are in 25~59 age group. The dominant strains of influenza virus alternate regularly, influenza A(H3N2) dominate the summer epidemic peak while the epidemic peak in winter is dominated by influenza A(H1N1) and influenza B.

4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 178-184, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in high temperature requirement serine peptidase A1 (HTRA1) gene are responsible for cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL). Recently, increasing evidence has shown that heterozygous HTRA1 mutations are also associated with cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. This study was aimed to analyze the genetic and clinical characteristics of HTRA1-related autosomal dominant CSVD.@*METHODS@#We presented three new Chinese cases of familial CSVD with heterozygous HTRA1 mutations and reviewed all clinical case reports and articles on HTRA1-related autosomal dominant CSVD included in PUBMED by the end of March 1, 2020. CARASIL probands with genetic diagnosis reported to date were also reviewed. The genetic and clinical characteristics of HTRA1-related autosomal dominant CSVD were summarized and analyzed by comparing with CARASIL.@*RESULTS@#Forty-four HTRA1-related autosomal dominant CSVD probands and 22 CARASIL probands were included. Compared with typical CARASIL, HTRA1-related autosomal dominant probands has a higher proportion of vascular risk factors (P < 0.001), a later onset age (P < 0.001), and a relatively slower clinical progression. Alopecia and spondylosis can be observed, but less than those in the typical CARASIL. Thirty-five heterozygous mutations in HTRA1 were reported, most of which were missense mutations. Amino acids located close to amino acids 250-300 were most frequently affected, followed by these located near 150∼200. While amino acids 250∼300 were also the most frequently affected region in CARASIL patients, fewer mutations precede the 200th amino acids were detected, especially in the Kazal-type serine protease domain.@*CONCLUSIONS@#HTRA1-related autosomal dominant CSVD is present as a mild phenotype of CARASIL. The trend of regional concentration of mutation sites may be related to the concentration of key sites in these regions which are responsible for pathogenesis of HTRA1-related autosomal dominant CSVD.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Infarction , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases/genetics , Heterozygote , High-Temperature Requirement A Serine Peptidase 1/genetics , Humans , Leukoencephalopathies/genetics , Mutation/genetics
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296536

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the association between selenium levels and diabetes in an older population with life-long natural exposure to selenium in rural China. A total of 1856 subjects aged 65 years or older from four Chinese rural counties with different environmental selenium levels were evaluated. Analysis of covariance models and logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between nail selenium levels and serum glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance [using the Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR)], and the risk of diabetes. The mean nail selenium level was 0.461 μg/g and the prevalence rate of diabetes was 8.3% in this population. The mean nail selenium level was significantly higher in the group with diabetes than in the group without diabetes (P<0.0001). The adjusted odds ratios for diabetes were 2.65 (95% CI: 1.48 to 4.73), 2.47 (95% CI: 1.37 to 4.45), and 3.30 (95% CI: 1.85 to 5.88) from the second selenium quartile to the fourth quartile, respectively, compared with the first quartile group. The mean serum glucose and HOMA-IR in the higher selenium quartile groups were significantly higher than those of the lowest quartile group. However, no significant differences in insulin were observed among the four quartile groups. A long-term, higher level of exposure to selenium may be associated with a higher risk of diabetes. Future studies are needed to elucidate the association between selenium and insulin resistance.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Nails , Metabolism , Rural Population , Selenium , Metabolism
6.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 205-209, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327642

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the status of HBV infection among family members with HBV infected persons in Shanghai and to probe the determinants of HBV infection so as to provide evidence for improving the related strategies on hepatitis B prevention and control.Methods Three hundred and four hepatitis B patients together with 288 HBsAg carriers from 6 districts in Shanghai were randomly sampled in 2010.All the said persons and their families members were asked to fill in questionnaires and to be drawn 5 ml venous blood for HBV serologic indicators detection.The subjects were divided into case group and control group according to their status of HBV infection.Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were carried out to identify the determinants of HBV infection among family members.Results Among 1485 subjects from 592 households,a total of 1137 persons were infected by HBV,with the overall infection rate as 76.57%.Fifteen infection modes were noticed,in which double positive of anti-HBs and anti-HBc,triple positive of HBsAg,anti-HBe and anti-HBc,together with triple positive of anti-HBs,anti-HBe and anti-HBc accounted for the top three,with the proportions as 30.69%,26.65% and 10.03% respectively.The differences between the years of carrying HBV and the proportions of numbers that carrying HBV in families,were not statistically significant.The infection rate among children (42.86%) was significantly lower than that of their parents (87.54%)(P<0.001).Results from both univariate and multivariate analysis showed that gender,age,utensil sharing,histories of receiving hepatitis B vaccines and dental outpatient service were determinants of HBV infection among families members (P<0.05),with OR values being 9.009 for persons without immunization history of hepatitis B vaccines,3.817 for persons above 40 years old and 2.283 for persons of 21-40 years old,2.222 for families members who sharing utensil,2.124 for persons with history of dental outpatient service and 1.339 for male members,respectively.Conclusion Family clustering of HBV infection in was seen in Shanghai.In order to reduce the number of HBV infection in families,hepatitis B vaccination program need to be carried out.Healthy lifestyle should be emphasized to prevent HBV infection due to close contact.The risk of iatrogenic HBV transmission should also be prevented.

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