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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879004

ABSTRACT

Rhei Radix et Rhizoma is a kind of commonly used Chinese medicinal materials. Due to the overharvesting, the wild resource is endangering. Large market demand caused severely adulterant of commercial Rhei Radix et Rhizoma medicinal materials and decoction pieces. This manuscript reviewed the advances of the original species authentication in the industrial chain of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma during the latest decade, including characteristics and microscopic features, phytochemical analysis on anthraquinones, and molecular authentication based on DNA barcoding. Accordingly, an original species authentication route for the industrial chain of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma was summarized:(1)the identification of seeds and seedlings by DNA barcoding;(2) the selection of high variable sites based on the chloroplast genome;(3)biomonitoring of the Rhei Radix et Rhizoma medicinal materials and decoction pieces by two-dimensional DNA barcode;(4)traceability of Chinese patent medicines by third-generation sequencing. In conclusion, the combination of molecular identification and traditional identification methods provides a new idea for the identification of the original species of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma in the industrial chain and a essential guidance for the research of drug safety and efficacy of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anthraquinones , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Plant Roots , Rheum , Rhizome
2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 879-889, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876534

ABSTRACT

Although the guiding principles for molecular identification of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) using DNA barcoding have been recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, there is still a lack of systematic research on its application to commercial TCM decoctions. In this study, a total of 212 commercial TCM decoctions derived from different medicinal parts such as root and rhizome, fruit and seed, herb, flower, leaf, cortex, and caulis were collected to verify applicability and accuracy of the method. DNA barcodes were successfully obtained from 75.9% (161/212) of the samples, while other samples failed to be amplified due to genomic DNA degradation. Among the 161 samples, 85.7% of them were identified as recorded species in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2020 edition). In addition, 14 samples could be identified as species recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and their closely related species in the same genus. Morphological identification for the unconfirmed samples showed that eight were genuine species and three were adulterants, while the other three were unidentifiable due to lack of morphological characteristics. Furthermore, the DNA barcodes of seven samples accurately mapped to the sequences of adulterants. Remarkably, counterfeit products were detected in two samples. These results demonstrate that DNA barcoding is suitable for the identification of commercial TCM decoctions. The method can effectively detect adulterants and is appropriate for use throughout the industrial chain of TCM production and distribution, and by the supervisory agencies as well.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827210

ABSTRACT

Camptotheca acuminata produces camptothecin (CPT), a monoterpene indole alkaloid (MIA) that is widely used in the treatment of lung, colorectal, cervical, and ovarian cancers. Its biosynthesis pathway has attracted significant attention, but the regulation of CPT biosynthesis by the APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factors (TFs) remains unclear. In this study, a systematic analysis of the AP2/ERF TFs family in C. acuminata was performed, including phylogeny, gene structure, conserved motifs, and gene expression profiles in different tissues and organs (immature bark, cotyledons, young flower, immature fruit, mature fruit, mature leaf, roots, upper stem, and lower stem) of C. acuminata. A total of 198 AP2/ERF genes were identified and divided into five relatively conserved subfamilies, including AP2 (26 genes), DREB (61 genes), ERF (92 genes), RAV (18 genes), and Soloist (one gene). The combination of gene expression patterns in different C. acuminata tissues and organs, the phylogenetic tree, the co-expression analysis with biosynthetic genes, and the analysis of promoter sequences of key enzymes genes involved in CPT biosynthesis pathways revealed that eight AP2/ERF TFs in C. acuminata might be involved in CPT synthesis regulation, which exhibit relatively high expression levels in the upper stem or immature bark. Among these, four genes (CacAP2/ERF123, CacAP2/ERF125, CacAP2/ERF126, and CacAP2/ERF127) belong to the ERF-B2 subgroup; two genes (CacAP2/ERF149 and CacAP2/ERF152) belong to the ERF-B3 subgroup; and two more genes (CacAP2/ERF095 and CacAP2/ERF096) belong to the DREB-A6 subgroup. These results provide a foundation for future functional characterization of the AP2/ERF genes to enhance the biosynthesis of CPT compounds of C. acuminata.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827208

ABSTRACT

As abscisic acid (ABA) receptor, the pyrabactin resistance 1-like (PYR/PYL) protein (named PYL for simplicity) plays an important part to unveil the signal transduction of ABA and its regulatory mechanisms. Glycyrrhiza uralensis, a drought-tolerant medicinal plant, is a good model for the mechanism analysis of ABA response and active compound biosynthesis. However, knowledge about PYL family in G. uralensis remains largely unknown. Here, 10 PYLs were identified in G. uralensis genome. Characterization analysis indicated that PYLs in G. uralensis (GuPYLs) are relatively conserved. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GuPYL1-3 belongs to subfamily I, GuPYL4-6 and GuPYL10 belong to subfamily II and GuPYL7-9 belongs to subfamily III. In addition, transcriptome data presented various expression levels of GuPYLs under different exogenous ABA stresses. The expression pattern of GuPYLs was verified by Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The study proved that GuPYL4, GuPYL5, GuPYL8 and GuPYL9 genes are significantly up-regulated by ABA stress and the response process is dynamic. This study paves the way for elucidating the regulation mechanism of ABA signal to secondary metabolites and improving the cultivation and quality of G. uralensis using agricultural strategies.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1784-1791, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-825174

ABSTRACT

DNA barcoding technology, a method of identifying biological species through a standard sequence, is widely used in the identification of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), promoting the renaissance of TCM authentication discipline. The whole industrial chain of TCM includes three sections: the planting and collecting in the upstream chain, the production of TCM in the midstream chain and the circulation in the downstream chain. DNA barcoding technology, which possesses accurate, common, and objective advantages, plays an important role in the whole industrial chain of TCM. In the upstream, it is used to identify the seeds, seedlings and medicinal plants, ensuring the original source is correct. In the middle, it is used to identify Chinese medicinal materials, Chinese herbal slices and Chinese patent medicines, ensuring the materials of enterprises are correct and the clinical medication is safe. In the downstream, it participates in the establishment of traceability system for TCM, achieving the recording, inquiry and traceability of information. Therefore, DNA barcoding technology should help to control the whole production process, to protect the rights and interests of consumers and contribute to the supervision of TCM. Combined with some study cases in recent years, this paper introduces the application of DNA barcoding technology in the whole industrial chain of TCM, which is of great significance to promote the modernization of TCM industry and their internationalization.

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1056-1066, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821688

ABSTRACT

italic>Dendrobium moniliforme is an important source of Dendrobii Caulis and one of the main sources of authentic Fengdou. The complete chloroplast genome of D. moniliforme was sequenced using Illumina Hiseq technology and its gene map and genomic structure were analyzed. Then comparative and phylogenetic analysis of the complete chloroplast genomes of D. moniliforme and its related species were conducted. The chloroplast genome of D. moniliforme was 150 754 bp in length and had a typical quadripartite structure with a large single copy (LSC, 84 818 bp), a small single copy (SSC, 14 124 bp) and two inverted repeats (IRs, 25 906 bp each). A total of 123 chloroplast genes were annotated, including 77 protein-coding genes, 38 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA genes, of which 17 genes contained introns. Bioinformatics analysis identified 53 SSR sites, most of which had A-T base preference. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the chloroplast genome sequences of 33 Dendrobium species. The results showed that Dendrobium complex species were clustered in a single large branch, indicating that they were closely related. This study provides a scientific basis for the identification of D. moniliforme and the phylogenetic relationship of D. moniliforme complex species necessary for Herbgenomics research.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878779

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are the leading cause of death for residents in China. Danhong Injection(DHI) decoction piece is prepared from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Carthami Flos, with the function of promoting the blood circulation, removing the blood stasis, relaxing the sinews and dredging the collaterals. In recent years, about 100 million bottles of DHI have been sold. Consequently, its safety and effectiveness are very important to a large number of patients. Raw materials are the source and foundation for production of traditional Chinese medicine injections. In this article, we reviewed the identification of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Carthami Flos, resource distribution, cultivation, quality control, and detection of xenobiotic pollutants, in order to guide the production of high-quality, stable, and pollution-free raw materials. This will be a benefit in ensuring the safety and effectiveness of DHI and reducing the incidence of adverse reactions from the raw materials. By comparing the similarities and differences between the quality standards of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Carthami Flos and DHI, we provided some comments for improving the quality standards and post-marketing reevaluation of DHI, and provided some theoretical supports for the production of high-quality herbal raw materials.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control
8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 746-752, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780163

ABSTRACT

The molecular identification of Ophiocordyceps sinensis and its adulterants was carried out by real-time fluorescent PCR with TaqMan probe. Genomic DNA was extracted from 100 samples of Ophiocordyceps sinensis and its adulterants. MEGA 7.0 software was used for comparative analysis to define the variable sites between Ophiocordyceps sinensis and its adulterants according to the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). A set of specific primers and TaqMan probe were designed using Primer Premier 6.0 software, and sensitivity and specificity studies were performed on two different real-time fluorescent PCR systems (Genesig q16 and Bio-Rad CFX96). The sensitivity study showed that the detectable DNA template concentration of Ophiocordyceps sinensis for the real-time fluorescent PCR was 0.016 ng·μL-1 in the Bio-Rad CFX96 system and 15.527 ng·μL-1 in the Genesig q16 system, respectively. Meanwhile, this method had good specificity for Ophiocordyceps sinensis on Genesig q16 and Bio-Rad CFX96 systems, so Ophiocordyceps sinensis could be clearly distinguished from Ophiocordyceps nutans, Cordyceps gunnii, Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps cicadae, Cordyceps liangshanensis, Cordyceps gracilis. Our results indicate that real-time fluorescent PCR with TaqMan probe can be used to accurately identify Ophiocordyceps sinensis from its adulterants. This provides a technical method that has wide applications for market management and quality control of Chinese materia medica.

9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 435-439, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-342020

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>The pathogenesis of postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the changes and significance of sulfur dioxide (SO) in patients with POTS.</p><p><b>Methods</b>The study included 31 children with POTS and 27 healthy children from Peking University First Hospital between December 2013 and October 2015. A detailed medical history, physical examination results, and demographic characteristics were collected. Hemodynamics was recorded and the plasma SOwas determined.</p><p><b>Results</b>The plasma SOwas significantly higher in POTS children compared to healthy children (64.0 ± 20.8 μmol/L vs. 27.2 ± 9.6 μmol/L, respectively, P < 0.05). The symptom scores in POTS were positively correlated with plasma SOlevels (r = 0.398, P < 0.05). In all the study participants, the maximum heart rate (HR) was positively correlated with plasma levels of SO(r = 0.679, P < 0.01). The change in systolic blood pressure from the supine to upright (ΔSBP) in POTS group was smaller than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The ΔSBP was negatively correlated with baseline plasma SOlevels in all participants (r = -0.28, P < 0.05). In the control group, ΔSBP was positively correlated with the plasma levels of SO(r = 0.487, P < 0.01). The change in HR from the supine to upright in POTS was obvious compared to that of the control group. The area under curve was 0.967 (95% confidence interval: 0.928-1.000), and the cutoff value of plasma SOlevel >38.17 μmol/L yielded a sensitivity of 90.3% and a specificity of 92.6% for predicting the diagnosis of POTS.</p><p><b>Conclusions</b>Increased endogenous SOlevels might be involved in the pathogenesis of POTS.</p>

10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 494-499, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779620

ABSTRACT

Bubali cornu (water buffalo horn) has been used as the substitute for Cornu rhinoceri asiatici (rhino horn) in clinical applications, and is the essential ingredient of Angong Niuhuang Wan. In recent years, there are a number of adulterants on the commercial herbal medicine markets. An efficient tool is required for species identification. In this study, 155 Bubali cornu samples have been taken from original animals and collected from commercial herbal medicine markets. 153 COI sequences have been successfully obtained from 155 samples through DNA extraction, PCR amplification, bidirectional sequencing and assembly. 93 COI sequences have been added to the DNA barcoding database of traditional Chinese animal medicine after validation using DNA barcoding GAP and tree-based methods. The species identification of the 62 commercial Bubali cornu medicines has been accomplished on the DNA barcoding system for identifying herbal medicine using the updated animal medicine database (www.tcmbarcode.cn). Except two samples failed to obtain COI sequences, 54.8% of the commercial Bubali cornu medicines were water buffalo horns and 29% were yak horns. Our results showed that yak horn was the major adulterant of Bubali cornu and the DNA barcoding method may accurately discriminate Bubali cornu and their adulterants. Therefore, we recommend that supervision on the herbal medicine markets should be strengthened with this new method to warren the effectiveness of herbal medicines.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275490

ABSTRACT

A typical clinical case of taking Dictamni Cortex(Baixianpi) powder was analyzed to study liver damage caused by Dictamni Cortex. Liver damage was diagnosed according to the integrated evidence chain method recommended by the Guideline for Diagnosis and Treatment of Herb-Induced Liver Injury. By analyzing clinical history and biochemistry and imaging examinations, underlying diseases, such as viral hepatitis, autoimmune liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, were excluded. Through the investigation of medication history, we made it clear that the patient only took Dictamni Cortex powder during the period, and thus suspected that the liver injury was induced by Dictamni Cortex. Furthermore, the quality of the drug was tested, and the results showed it was consistent with the quality standard of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. DNA barcoding showed that the drug was 100% similar with Dictamnus dasycarpus. Moreover, exogenous harmful substances and chemical drug additions were tested, and the results showed that the content of heavy metal, pesticide residues and microbial toxin were consistent with the required standards, and no chemical drug additions were found in Agilent Fake TCM-Drugs database. In summary, we confirmed that the clinical case of drug-induced liver injury was induced by D. dasycarpus with the dose of 15 g•d⁻¹, which exceeded the prescribed amount of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. According to the Guideline for Diagnosis and Treatment of Herb-Induced Liver Injury, the case of drug-induced liver injury induced by D. dasycarpus was confirmed, which provided a direct and reliable evidence for the study of risk of liver injury induced by D. dasycarpus and its relevant preparations.

12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1784-2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779372

ABSTRACT

To identify the commercial medicinal materials of Bombyx Batryticatus, two-dimensional DNA barcode was used to construct the "Internet Plus" identification system for Chinese medicine, which should benefit the cross-platform communication of DNA barcode information. Bombyx Batryticatus contained Bombyx mori Linnaeus and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillant. Both COI and ITS sequences were obtained via PCR amplification for total genomic DNA extracted from raw materials using the animal genomic DNA kit, while only ITS but no COI sequences was obtained when using the plant genomic DNA kit. The ITS sequences obtained using the animal genomic DNA kit were consistent with those using plant genomic DNA kit. The medicinal materials yielded COI sequences and identified as B. mori. According to analysis of ITS sequences, the main species of the medicinal materials were identified as B. bassiana and few were identified as other fungi. NJ trees analysis based on ITS sequences suggests that it can be easily distinguished from other fungi. Our results showed that total genomic DNA of B. mori and B. bassiana was extracted simultaneously using the animal genomic DNA kit, which could effectively solve the problem in species identification of animal and fungi mixture materials. COI and ITS regions as DNA barcodes can stably and accurately identify Bombyx Batryticatus. The "Internet Plus" two-dimensional DNA barcode system will promote the standardization and normalization of Chinese medicinal materials market.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304804

ABSTRACT

In order to guarantee the species correction of Notopterygium seeds, a molecular identification method with ITS2 as DNA barcode has been verified. In this study, 27 samples of Notopterygium seeds were collected from the main producing area of Notopterygium. The morphological characteristics of the Notopterygium seeds were firstly surveyed. Then the DNA extraction, PCR amplification, DNA sequencing and DNA assembly were carried out. The species identification for a Notopterygium seed was implemented through distance method, NJ-tree method and the DNA barcoding system for traditional Chinese medicine (www.tcmbarcode.cn). The results showed that the seeds of N. incisum and N. franchetii had similar morphological characteristics and were difficult to distinguish clearly based on morphological descriptions. With the results of molecular identification, 24 samples were genuine including 13 N. incisum seeds samples and 11 N. franchetii genuine seeds samples. In conclusion, DNA barcode technology can accurately and efficiently identify the species of Notopterygium seeds. Furthermore, this study will provide a new method for germplasm resources identification of medicinal materials and supplies some guidelines for establishing Chinese herbal seeds and seedlings quality standards.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-272758

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has contributad greatly to improving human health. However, the biological characteristics and molecular mechanisms of TCM in the treatment of human diseases remain largely unknown. Genomics plays an important role in modern medicine and biology. Here, we introduce genomics and other related omics to the study of herbs to propose a new discipline, Herbgenomics, that aims to uncover the genetic information and regulatory networks of herbs and to clarify their molecular mechanisms in the prevention and treatment of human diseases. Herbgenomics includes herbal structural genomics, functional genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabonomics, epigenomics and metagenomics. Genomic information, together with transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data, can therefore be used to predict secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways and their regulation, triggering a revolution in discovery-based research aimed at understanding the genetics and biology of herbs. Herbgenomics provides an effective platform to support chemical and biological analyses of complex herbal products that may contain more than one active component. Herbgenomics is now being applied to many areas of herb related biological research to help understand the quality of traditional medicines and for molecular herb identification through the establishment of an herbal gene bank. Moreover, functional genomics can contribute to model herb research platforms, geoherbal research, genomics-assisted herb breeding, and herbal synthetic biology, all of which are important for securing the future of medicinal plants and their active compounds. In addition, Herbgenomics will facilitate the elucidation of the targets and mechanism of herbs in disease treatment and provide support for personalized precise medicine.Herbgenomics will accelerate the application of cutting-edge technologies in herbal research and provide an unprecedented opportunity to revolutionize the use and acceptance of traditional herbal medicines.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-272716

ABSTRACT

The open reading frame of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase (HDR) was cloned from Phlegmarirus carinatus by RT-PCR method and the sequence was analyzed by bioinformatics tools. After searching the transcriptome dataset of P. carinatus, one unique sequence encoding 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase was discovered. The primers were designed according to the cDNA sequence of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase from the dataset. And then, the open reading frame (ORF) of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase, named as PcHDR1 (GenBank Accession number:JQ957845), was cloned by RT-PCR strategy with the template of mixed RNA extracted from roots, stem and leaf of P. carinatus. The bioinformatic analysis of this gene and its corresponding protein was performed. The ORF of PcHDR1 consisted of 1 437 base pairs (bp), encoding one polypeptide with 478 amino acids. The sequence comparison showed that PcHDR1 is closest with GbHDR (Ginkgo biloba),and the sequence homology was up to 78%. Bioinformatics prediction and analysis indicated that PcHDR1 protein contained a conserved domain of LytB, without transmembrane region and signal peptides. This study cloned and analyzed 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase from P. carinatus. The result will provide a foundation for exploring the function of PcHDR1 involved in terpene biosynthesis in P. carinatus plants.

16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 783-787, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257067

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the chloroplast psbK-psbI intergenic spacers of 18 species of Dendrobium and their adulterants were amplified and sequenced, and then the sequence characteristics were analyzed. The sequence lengths of chloroplast psbK-psbI regions of Dendrobium ranged from 474 to 513 bp and the GC contents were 25.4%-27.6%. The variable sites were 71 while the informative sites were 46. The inter-specific genetic distances calculated by Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) of Dendrobium were 0.006 1-0.058 1, with an average of 0.028 4. The K2P genetic distances between Dendrobium species and Bulbophyllum odoratissimum were 0.093 2-0.120 4. The NJ tree showed that the Dendrobium species can be easily differentiated from each other and 6 samples of the inspected Dendrobium species were identified successfully through sequencing the psbK-psbI intergenic spacer. Therefore, the chloroplast psbK-psbI intergenic spacer can be used as a candidate marker to identify Dendrobium species and its adulterants.


Subject(s)
Chloroplasts , DNA, Chloroplast , Genetics , DNA, Plant , Genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Genetics , Dendrobium , Classification , Genetics , Plants, Medicinal , Classification , Genetics
17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1356-1361, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320077

ABSTRACT

In order to authenticate the components of antler powder in the market, DNA barcoding technology coupled with cloning method were used. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences were obtained according to the DNA barcoding standard operation procedure (SOP). For antler powder with possible mixed components, the cloning method was used to get each COI sequence. 65 COI sequences were successfully obtained from commercial antler powders via sequencing PCR products. The results indicates that only 38% of these samples were derived from Cervus nippon Temminck or Cervus elaphus Linnaeus which is recorded in the 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia", while 62% of them were derived from other species. Rangifer tarandus Linnaeus was the most frequent species among the adulterants. Further analysis showed that some samples collected from different regions, companies and prices, contained adulterants. Analysis of 36 COI sequences obtained by the cloning method showed that C. elaphus and C. nippon were main components. In addition, some samples were marked clearly as antler powder on the label, however, C. elaphus or R. tarandus were their main components. In summary, DNA barcoding can accurately and efficiently distinguish the exact content in the commercial antler powder, which provides a new technique to ensure clinical safety and improve quality control of Chinese traditional medicine


Subject(s)
Animals , Antlers , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Deer , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Powders , Quality Control
18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 435-442, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-245065

ABSTRACT

Transcription factor is one of the key factors in the regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional level. It plays an important role in plant growth, active components biosynthesis and response to environmental change. This paper summarized the structure and classification of bHLH transcription factors and elaborated the research progress of bHLH transcription factors which regulate the active components in plants, such as flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids. In addition, the possibility of increasing the concentration of active substances by bHLH in medicinal plants was assessed. The paper emphasized great significance of model plants and multidisciplinary research fields including modern genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics and bioinformatics, providing the contribution to improve the discovery and function characterization of bHLH transcription factors. Accelerating the research in the mechanism of bHLH transcription factors on the regulation of active components biosynthesis will promote the development of breeding and variety improvement of Chinese medicinal materials, also ease the pressure of resources exhaustion of traditional Chinese medicine home and abroad.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors , Chemistry , Classification , Genetics , Metabolism , Flavonoids , Plants, Medicinal , Genetics , Metabolism , Terpenes , Metabolism
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310970

ABSTRACT

Genuine medicinal materials with special characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), is recognized as high quality medicine. Both ancient records and modern research considered that the origin is an important reason for the formation of genuine medicinal materials. However, blindly transplanting of genuine medicinal materials has led to the quality decline and counterfeit medicines appeared in production or sale progress, which may increase the risk of accidents in TCM. Frequent accidents emerged in Chinese herbal affects its export. What's more, it is a great threat to the medication safety in TCM clinical. There is an urgent need to implement traceability systems of TCM, which could provide convenient information record and traceability of TCM circulation. This paper reviews a variety of technical methods for genuine medicinal materials traceability, and proposed the establishment of genuine medicinal materials traceability system based on two-dimensional code and network database.


Subject(s)
Databases, Factual , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Economics , Reference Standards , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310919

ABSTRACT

In order to identify Peucedani Radix, Peucedani Decursivi Radix and their adulterants, the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) regions of Peucedani Radix, Peucedani Decursivi Radix and their adulterants were amplified and bidirectionally sequenced based on the Principles for Molecular Identification of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica Using DNA Barcoding, which has been promulgated by Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission. Sequences were analyzed and assembled by Codon Code Aligner V3. 7.1. The relevant data were analyzed by MEGA 5. 0. Species identification analyses were performed by using the nearest distance methods and neighbor-joining (NJ) methods. The result showed that the ITS2 sequence lengths of Peucedani Radix were 229-230 bp and the average intra-specific genetic distances were 0.005. The ITS2 sequence lengths of Peucedani Decursivi Radix were 227 bp and the sequences contained no variation site. The average inter-specific K2P genetic distance of Peucedani Radix, Peucedani Decursivi Radix and their adulterants species were 0.044 and 0.065 respectively. The minimum inter-specific divergence is larger than the maximum intra-specific divergence of Peucedani Decursivi Radix. The nearest distance methods and NJ trees results indicated that Peucedani Radix, Peucedani Decursivi Radix and their adulterants species could be identification clearly. The ITS2 regions can stably and accurately distinguish Peucedani Radix, Peucedani Decursivi Radix and their adulterants.


Subject(s)
Apiaceae , Classification , Genetics , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Methods , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Drug Contamination
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