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1.
Neurointervention ; : 59-63, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875328

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Three-dimensional (3D) measurement of intracranial aneurysms is important in planning endovascular treatment, and 3D rotational angiography (RA) is effective in accurate measurement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of low dose 3D RA (5 seconds 0.10 μGy/frame) in measuring an intracranial aneurysm using an in vitro phantom. @*Materials and Methods@#We investigated an in vitro 3D phantom of an intracranial aneurysm with 10 acquisitions of 3D RA with a conventional dose (5 seconds 0.36 μGy/frame) and 10 acquisitions with a low-dose (5 seconds 0.10 μGy/frame). 3D size and neck diameters of the aneurysm were measured and compared between the 2 groups (conventional and low-dose) using noninferiority statistics. @*Results@#The aneurysm measurements were well-correlated between the 2 readers, and noninferiority in the measurement of aneurysmal size of low-dose 3D RA was demonstrated, as the upper margin of the 1-sided 97.5% confidence interval did not cross the pre-defined noninferiority margin of 0.2 mm by the 2 readers. @*Conclusion@#Low-dose (5 seconds 0.10 μGy/frame) cerebral 3D RA is technically feasible and not inferior in in vitro 3D measurement of an intracranial aneurysm. Thus, low-dose 3D RA is promising and needs further evaluation for its clinical utility in the planning of endovascular treatment of an intracranial aneurysm.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833675

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: Iron retained by activated microglia and macrophages in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions may serve as a marker of innate immune system activation. Among several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods, there has been recent interest in using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) as a potential tool for assessing iron levels in the human brain. This study examined QSM findings in MS and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) lesions obtained with 3-T MRI to assess imaging characteristics related to paramagnetic rims around brain lesions in MS and NMOSD. @*Methods@#This study included 32 MS and 21 seropositive NMOSD patients. MRI images were obtained using two 3-T MRI devices (Ingenia, Philips Healthcare; and Magnetom Verio, Siemens Healthineers) during routine diagnosis and treatment procedures. Multi and single echo gradient echo magnitude and phase images were obtained for QSM reconstruction.QSM images were used to characterize the detected lesions, and the findings were compared between MS and NMOSD. @*Results@#Totals of 71 and 35 MRI scans were performed during the study period in MS and NMOSD patients, respectively. In QSM images, paramagnetic rims were found in 26 (81.2%) MS patients and 1 (4.8%) NMOSD patient. Eight of the 22 MS patients and only 1 of the 10 NMOSD patients who underwent follow-up MRI showed new paramagnetic rims. The paramagnetic rim lesions appeared after enhancement or in new T2-weighted lesions without enhancement. @*Conclusions@#Paramagnetic rims might be a characteristic MRI finding for MS, and therefore they have potential as an imaging marker for differentially diagnosing MS from NMOSD using 3-T MRI.

3.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1138-1145, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760287

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of brain segments by using two diffusion-weighted imaging acquisition modes, single-shot echo-planar imaging (ss-EPI) and read-out-segmented echo-planar imaging (rs-EPI), and to assess their correlation and agreement in healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T2-weighted (T2W) images, rs-EPI, and ss-EPI of 30 healthy subjects were acquired using a 3T magnetic resonance scanner. The T2W images were co-registered to the rs-EPI and ss-EPI, which were then segmented into the gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to generate masking templates. ADC maps of rs-EPI and ss-EPI were also segmented into the GM, WM, and CSF by using the generated templates. ADCs of rs-EPI and ss-EPI were compared using Student's t tests and correlated using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the agreement between acquisitions.


Subject(s)
Brain , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Diffusion , Echo-Planar Imaging , Gray Matter , Healthy Volunteers , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Masks , White Matter
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741434

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A developmental venous anomaly (DVA) is a vascular malformation of ambiguous clinical significance. We aimed to quantify the susceptibility of draining veins (χvein) in DVA and determine its significance with respect to oxygen metabolism using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brain magnetic resonance imaging of 27 consecutive patients with incidentally detected DVAs were retrospectively reviewed. Based on the presence of abnormal hyperintensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) in the brain parenchyma adjacent to DVA, the patients were grouped into edema (E+, n = 9) and non-edema (E−, n = 18) groups. A 3T MR scanner was used to obtain fully flow-compensated gradient echo images for susceptibility-weighted imaging with source images used for QSM processing. The χvein was measured semi-automatically using QSM. The normalized χvein was also estimated. Clinical and MR measurements were compared between the E+ and E− groups using Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U test. Correlations between the χvein and area of hyperintensity on T2WI and between χvein and diameter of the collecting veins were assessed. The correlation coefficient was also calculated using normalized veins. RESULTS: The DVAs of the E+ group had significantly higher χvein (196.5 ± 27.9 vs. 167.7 ± 33.6, p = 0.036) and larger diameter of the draining veins (p = 0.006), and patients were older (p = 0.006) than those in the E− group. The χvein was also linearly correlated with the hyperintense area on T2WI (r = 0.633, 95% confidence interval 0.333–0.817, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: DVAs with abnormal hyperintensity on T2WI have higher susceptibility values for draining veins, indicating an increased oxygen extraction fraction that might be associated with venous congestion.


Subject(s)
Brain , Edema , Humans , Hyperemia , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Metabolism , Oxygen , Retrospective Studies , Vascular Malformations , Veins
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740145

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess associations between morphological characteristics of intracranial arteries in time-of-flight MR angiography (TOF-MRA) and atherosclerotic risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2014 to October 2015, a total of 129 patients (65 men and 64 women) without intracranial arterial stenosis > 50% were included in this study. All MRIs were performed using a 3T machine with 3D TOF-MRA sequences. We evaluated irregularity, tortuosity, and dilatation of intracranial arteries in maximal intensity projection (MIP) of TOF-MRA. Subjects' risk factors for atherosclerosis including history of hypertension and diabetes were collected by reviewing their medical records. Associations between morphological characteristics and each known atherosclerosis risk factor were examined using univariate regression analysis. Multivariate regression models were built to determine combined association between those risk factors and morphologic changes of intracranial arteries. RESULTS: In multivariate analysis, hypertension (coefficient [95% CI]: 0.162 [0.036, 0.289], P = 0.012) and absence of diabetes (coefficient [95% CI]: −0.159 [−0.296, −0.023], P = 0.022) were associated with large diameter of intracranial arteries. Males (coefficient [95% CI]: 0.11 [−0.006, 0.23], P = 0.062) and higher age (coefficient [95% CI]: 0.003 [−0.001, 0.008], P = 0.138) had marginal association with increased diameter. Tortuosity was associated with old age (OR: 1.04 [1.02, 1.07], P < 0.001). Irregular contour of intracranial arteries was significantly associated with old age (OR: 1.05 [1.02, 1.09], P = 0.004), presence of diabetes (OR: 2.88 [1.36, 6.15], P = 0.0058), and previous ischemic stroke (OR: 3.91 [1.41, 11.16], P = 0.0092). CONCLUSION: Morphological characteristics (irregularity, tortuosity, dilatation) of intracranial arteries seen in TOF-MRA might be associated with atherosclerotic risk factors in subjects with no or mild stenosis.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Arteries , Atherosclerosis , Constriction, Pathologic , Dilatation , Humans , Hypertension , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Stroke
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208821

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the performance of three-dimensional (3D) isotropic T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sampling perfection with application optimized contrasts using different flip angle evolution (SPACE) sequence on a 3T system, for the evaluation of nerve root compromise by disc herniation or stenosis from central to extraforaminal location of the lumbar spine, when used alone or in combination with conventional two-dimensional (2D) TSE sequence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-seven patients who had undergone 3T spine MRI including 2D and 3D sequences, and had subsequent spine surgery for nerve root compromise at a total of 39 nerve levels, were analyzed. A total of 78 nerve roots (48 symptomatic and 30 asymptomatic sites) were graded (0 to 3) using different MRI sets of 2D, 3D (axial plus sagittal), 3D (all planes), and combination of 2D and 3D sequences, with respect to the nerve root compromise caused by posterior disc herniations, lateral recess stenoses, neural foraminal stenoses, or extraforaminal disc herniations; grading was done independently by two readers. Diagnostic performance was compared between different imaging sets using the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences (p = 0.203 to > 0.999) in the ROC curve area between the imaging sets for both readers 1 and 2, except for combined 2D and 3D (0.843) vs. 2D (0.802) for reader 1 (p = 0.035), and combined 2D and 3D (0.820) vs. 3D including all planes (0.765) for reader 2 (p = 0.049). CONCLUSION: The performance of 3D isotropic T2-weighted TSE sequence of the lumbar spine, whether axial plus sagittal images, or all planes of images, was not significantly different from that of 2D TSE sequences, for the evaluation of nerve root compromise of the lumbar spine. Combining 2D and 3D might possibly improve the diagnostic accuracy compared with either one.


Subject(s)
Constriction, Pathologic , Diagnosis , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , ROC Curve , Spine
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36759

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the histogram analysis and visual scores in 3T MRI assessment of middle cerebral arterial wall enhancement in patients with acute stroke, for the differentiation of parent artery disease (PAD) from small artery disease (SAD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among the 82 consecutive patients in a tertiary hospital for one year, 25 patients with acute infarcts in middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory were included in this study including 15 patients with PAD and 10 patients with SAD. Three-dimensional contrast-enhanced T1-weighted turbo spin echo MR images with black-blood preparation at 3T were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The degree of MCA stenosis, and visual and histogram assessments on MCA wall enhancement were evaluated. A statistical analysis was performed to compare diagnostic accuracy between qualitative and quantitative metrics. RESULTS: The degree of stenosis, visual enhancement score, geometric mean (GM), and the 90th percentile (90P) value from the histogram analysis were significantly higher in PAD than in SAD (p = 0.006 for stenosis, < 0.001 for others). The receiver operating characteristic curve area of GM and 90P were 1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86–1.00). CONCLUSION: A histogram analysis of a relevant arterial wall enhancement allows differentiation between PAD and SAD in patients with acute stroke within the MCA territory.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Constriction, Pathologic , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Cerebral Artery , Parents , ROC Curve , Stroke , Tertiary Care Centers
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-66007

ABSTRACT

Emerging concerns regarding the hazard from medical radiation including CT examinations has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to observe the longitudinal changes of CT radiation doses of various CT protocols and to estimate the long-term efforts of supervising radiologists to reduce medical radiation. Radiation dose data from 11 representative CT protocols were collected from 12 hospitals. Attending radiologists had collected CT radiation dose data in two time points, 2007 and 2010. They collected the volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) of each phase, number of phases, dose length product (DLP) of each phase, and types of scanned CT machines. From the collected data, total DLP and effective dose (ED) were calculated. CTDIvol, total DLP, and ED of 2007 and 2010 were compared according to CT protocols, CT machine type, and hospital. During the three years, CTDIvol had significantly decreased, except for dynamic CT of the liver. Total DLP and ED were significantly decreased in all 11 protocols. The decrement was more evident in newer CT scanners. However, there was substantial variability of changes of ED during the three years according to hospitals. Although there was variability according to protocols, machines, and hospital, CT radiation doses were decreased during the 3 years. This study showed the effects of decreased CT radiation dose by efforts of radiologists and medical society.


Subject(s)
Abdomen/radiation effects , Angiography , Brain/radiation effects , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Liver/radiation effects , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Radiation Dosage , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/instrumentation
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82811

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To understand clinical significance of irregular interface between meningioma and adjacent brain parenchyma in predicting histological grading of tumor, focusing on brain parenchymal invasion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pathologically confirmed 79 cases with meningiomas with pathological reports about the presence of parenchymal invasion were included. We defined the presence of interface irregularity as either spiculations or fuzzy margins between the tumor and brain parenchyma. We counted number of spiculations and measured ratio of fuzzy margin length to whole length of mass with consensus of two neuroradiologists. We classified the patients into Present group and Absent group, and the two groups were compared by using the Mann-Whitney U test. Statistical correlations between the presence of an interface irregularity and brain parenchymal invasion by the tumor as well as meningioma histological grade were tested with chi-square test. The optimal cutoff values of spiculation numbers and the ratio of fuzzy margins were determined. The sensitivity and specificity of number of spiculations, ratio of fuzzy margin and the presence of irregular interface as combined parameters for predicting the parenchymal invasion were calculated using ROC curve analysis. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were noted between the Present and Absent groups for number of spiculations and ratio of fuzzy margin (P = 0.038 and P = 0.028, respectively). The optimal cutoff value for number of spiculations (> 4.5 with 61.1% sensitivity and 68.9% specificity) and the ratio of fuzzy margin (> 0.24 with 66.7% sensitivity and 65.6% specificity) were determined. The sensitivity and specificity of interface irregularity as the combined parameters were 72% and 59%, respectively. The interface irregularity between tumor and brain parenchyma significantly correlated with not only brain parenchymal invasion (P = 0.001) and but also histological grade (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The interface irregularity between tumor and brain parenchyma in MRI can be a strong predictive factor for brain parenchymal invasion and high grade meningioma.


Subject(s)
Brain , Consensus , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Meningioma , Pathology , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1353-1363, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-172968

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the image characteristics of subtraction magnetic resonance venography (SMRV) from time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography (TRMRA) compared with phase-contrast MR venography (PCMRV) and single-phase contrast-enhanced MR venography (CEMRV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients who underwent brain MR venography (MRV) using standard protocols (PCMRV, CEMRV, and TRMRA) were included. SMRV was made by subtracting the arterial phase data from the venous phase data in TRMRA. Co-registration and subtraction of the two volume data was done using commercially available software. Image quality and the degree of arterial contamination of the three MRVs were compared. In the three MRVs, 19 pre-defined venous structures (14 dural sinuses and 5 cerebral veins) were evaluated. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the three MRVs were also compared. RESULTS: Single-phase contrast-enhanced MR venography showed better image quality (median score 4 in both reviewers) than did the other two MRVs (p < 0.001), whereas SMRV (median score 3 in both reviewers) and PCMRV (median score 3 in both reviewers) had similar image quality (p ≥ 0.951). SMRV (median score 0 in both reviewers) suppressed arterial signal better than did the other MRVs (median score 1 in CEMRV, median score 2 in PCMRV, both reviewers) (p < 0.001). The dural sinus score of SMRV (median and interquartile range [IQR] 48, 43-50 for reviewer 1, 47, 43-49 for reviewer 2) was significantly higher than for PCMRV (median and IQR 31, 25-34 for reviewer 1, 30, 23-32 for reviewer 2) (p < 0.01) and did not differ from that of CEMRV (median and IQR 50, 47-52 for reviewer 1, 49, 45-51 for reviewer 2) (p = 0.146 in reviewer 1 and 0.123 in reviewer 2). The SNR and CNR of SMRV (median and IQR 104.5, 83.1-121.2 and 104.1, 74.9-120.5, respectively) were between those of CEMRV (median and IQR 150.3, 111-182.6 and 148.4, 108-178.2) and PCMRV (median and IQR 59.4, 49.2-74.9 and 53.6, 43.8-69.2). CONCLUSION: Subtraction magnetic resonance venography is a promising MRV method, with acceptable image quality and good arterial suppression.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Cerebral Veins/diagnostic imaging , Cranial Sinuses/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Angiography/instrumentation , Male , Middle Aged , Signal-To-Noise Ratio
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-71456

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a new magnetic resonance technique that can exploit the magnetic susceptibility differences of various tissues. Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) looks a dark blooming on the magnitude images of SWI. However, the pattern of ICH on phase images is not well known. The purpose of this study is to characterize hemorrhagic lesions on the phase images of SWI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled patients with ICH, who underwent both SWI and precontrast CT, between 2012 and 2013 (n = 95). An SWI was taken, using the 3-tesla system. A phase map was generated after post-processing. Cases with an intracranial hemorrhage were reviewed by an experienced neuroradiologist and a trainee radiologist, with 10 years and 3 years of experience, respectively. The types and stages of the hemorrhages were determined in correlation with the precontrast CT, the T1- and T2-weighted images, and the FLAIR images. The size of the hemorrhage was measured by a one-directional axis on a magnitude image of SWI. The phase values of the ICH were qualitatively evaluated: hypo-, iso-, and hyper-intensity. We summarized the imaging features of the intracranial hemorrhage on the phase map of the SWI. RESULTS: Four types of hemorrhage are observed: subdural and epidural; subarachnoid; parenchymal hemorrhage; and microbleed. The stages of the ICH were classified into 4 groups: acute (n = 34); early subacute (n = 11); late subacute (n = 15); chronic (n = 8); stage-unknown microbleeds (n = 27). The acute and early subacute hemorrhage showed heterogeneous mixed hyper-, iso-, and hypo-signal intensity; the late subacute hemorrhage showed homogeneous hyper-intensity, and the chronic hemorrhage showed a shrunken iso-signal intensity with the hyper-signal rim. All acute subarachnoid hemorrhages showed a homogeneous hyper-signal intensity. All parenchymal hemorrhages (> 3 mm) showed a dipole artifact on the phase images; however, microbleeds of less than 3 mm showed no dipole artifact. Larger hematomas showed a heterogeneous mixture of hyper-, iso-, and hypo-signal intensities. CONCLUSION: The pattern of the phase value of the SWI showed difference, according to the type, stage, and size.


Subject(s)
Artifacts , Axis, Cervical Vertebra , Hematoma , Hemorrhage , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
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