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1.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 74-83, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924968

ABSTRACT

Background@#Dulaglutide, a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), has been shown to reduce body weight and liver fat content in patients with type 2 diabetes. Family with sequence similarity 3 member A (FAM3A) plays a vital role in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which dulaglutide protects against hepatic steatosis in HepG2 cells treated with palmitic acid (PA). @*Methods@#HepG2 cells were pretreated with 400 μM PA for 24 hours, followed by treatment with or without 100 nM dulaglutide for 24 hours. Hepatic lipid accumulation was determined using Oil red O staining and triglyceride (TG) assay, and the expression of lipid metabolism-associated factor was analyzed using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. @*Results@#Dulaglutide significantly decreased hepatic lipid accumulation and reduced the expression of genes associated with lipid droplet binding proteins, de novo lipogenesis, and TG synthesis in PA-treated HepG2 cells. Dulaglutide also increased the expression of proteins associated with lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation and FAM3A in PA-treated cells. However, exendin-(9-39), a GLP-1R antagonist, reversed the expression of FAM3A, and fatty acid oxidation-associated factors increased due to dulaglutide. In addition, inhibition of FAM3A by siRNA attenuated the reducing effect of dulaglutide on TG content and its increasing effect on regulation of fatty acid oxidation. @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that dulaglutide could be used therapeutically for improving nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and its effect could be mediated in part via upregulation of FAM3A expression through a GLP-1R-dependent pathway.

2.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 943-953, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898144

ABSTRACT

Background@#There is a great need to discover factors that could protect pancreatic β-cells from apoptosis and thus prevent diabetes mellitus. Clusterin (CLU), a chaperone protein, plays an important role in cell protection in numerous cells and is involved in various cellular mechanisms, including autophagy. In the present study, we investigated the protective role of CLU through autophagy regulation in pancreatic β-cells. @*Methods@#To identify the protective role of CLU, mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cells were incubated with CLU and/or free fatty acid (FFA) palmitate, and cellular apoptosis and autophagy were examined. @*Results@#Treatment with CLU remarkably upregulated microtubule-associated protein 1-light chain 3 (LC3)-II conversion in a doseand time-dependent manner with a significant increase in the autophagy-related 3 (Atg3) gene expression level, which is a mediator of LC3-II conversion. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation and fluorescence microscopy experiments showed that the molecular interaction of LC3 with Atg3 and p62 was markedly increased by CLU. Stimulation of LC3-II conversion by CLU persisted in lipotoxic conditions, and FFA-induced apoptosis and dysfunction were simultaneously improved by CLU treatment. Finally, inhibition of LC3-II conversion by Atg3 gene knockdown markedly attenuated the cytoprotective effect of CLU. @*Conclusion@#Taken together, these findings suggest that CLU protects pancreatic β-cells against lipotoxicity-induced apoptosis via autophagy stimulation mediated by facilitating LC3-II conversion. Thus, CLU has therapeutic effects on FFA-induced pancreatic β-cell dysfunction.

3.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 943-953, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890440

ABSTRACT

Background@#There is a great need to discover factors that could protect pancreatic β-cells from apoptosis and thus prevent diabetes mellitus. Clusterin (CLU), a chaperone protein, plays an important role in cell protection in numerous cells and is involved in various cellular mechanisms, including autophagy. In the present study, we investigated the protective role of CLU through autophagy regulation in pancreatic β-cells. @*Methods@#To identify the protective role of CLU, mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cells were incubated with CLU and/or free fatty acid (FFA) palmitate, and cellular apoptosis and autophagy were examined. @*Results@#Treatment with CLU remarkably upregulated microtubule-associated protein 1-light chain 3 (LC3)-II conversion in a doseand time-dependent manner with a significant increase in the autophagy-related 3 (Atg3) gene expression level, which is a mediator of LC3-II conversion. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation and fluorescence microscopy experiments showed that the molecular interaction of LC3 with Atg3 and p62 was markedly increased by CLU. Stimulation of LC3-II conversion by CLU persisted in lipotoxic conditions, and FFA-induced apoptosis and dysfunction were simultaneously improved by CLU treatment. Finally, inhibition of LC3-II conversion by Atg3 gene knockdown markedly attenuated the cytoprotective effect of CLU. @*Conclusion@#Taken together, these findings suggest that CLU protects pancreatic β-cells against lipotoxicity-induced apoptosis via autophagy stimulation mediated by facilitating LC3-II conversion. Thus, CLU has therapeutic effects on FFA-induced pancreatic β-cell dysfunction.

4.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 105-113, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713168

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activator gamma (PPARγ) is a useful therapeutic target for obesity and diabetes, but its role in protecting β-cell function and viability is unclear. METHODS: To identify the potential functions of PPARγ in β-cells, we treated mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cells with the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone in conditions of lipotoxicity, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and inflammation. RESULTS: Palmitate-treated cells incubated with pioglitazone exhibited significant improvements in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and the repression of apoptosis, as shown by decreased caspase-3 cleavage and poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase activity. Pioglitazone also reversed the palmitate-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6 [IL-6], and IL-1β) and ER stress markers (phosphor-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α, glucose-regulated protein 78 [GRP78], cleaved-activating transcription factor 6 [ATF6], and C/EBP homologous protein [CHOP]), and pioglitazone significantly attenuated inflammation and ER stress in lipopolysaccharide- or tunicamycin-treated MIN6 cells. The protective effect of pioglitazone was also tested in pancreatic islets from high-fat-fed KK-Ay mice administered 0.02% (wt/wt) pioglitazone or vehicle for 6 weeks. Pioglitazone remarkably reduced the expression of ATF6α, GRP78, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, prevented α-cell infiltration into the pancreatic islets, and upregulated glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) expression in β-cells. Moreover, the preservation of β-cells by pioglitazone was accompanied by a significant reduction of blood glucose levels. CONCLUSION: Altogether, these results support the proposal that PPARγ agonists not only suppress insulin resistance, but also prevent β-cell impairment via protection against ER stress and inflammation. The activation of PPARγ might be a new therapeutic approach for improving β-cell survival and insulin secretion in patients with diabetes mellitus


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Apoptosis , Blood Glucose , Caspase 3 , Chemokine CCL2 , Cytokines , Diabetes Mellitus , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Inflammation , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Insulin-Secreting Cells , Insulinoma , Interleukin-6 , Islets of Langerhans , Necrosis , Obesity , Peptide Initiation Factors , Peroxisomes , Repression, Psychology , Transcription Factors
5.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 403-412, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that sphingolipids may be involved in type 2 diabetes. However, the exact signaling defect through which disordered sphingolipid metabolism induces β-cell dysfunction remains unknown. The current study demonstrated that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), the product of sphingosine kinase (SphK), is an essential factor for maintaining β-cell function and survival via regulation of mitochondrial action, as mediated by prohibitin (PHB). METHODS: We examined β-cell function and viability, as measured by mitochondrial function, in mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cells in response to manipulation of cellular S1P and PHB levels. RESULTS: Lack of S1P induced by sphingosine kinase inhibitor (SphKi) treatment caused β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis, with repression of mitochondrial function shown by decreases in cellular adenosine triphosphate content, the oxygen consumption rate, the expression of oxidative phosphorylation complexes, the mitochondrial membrane potential, and the expression of key regulators of mitochondrial dynamics (mitochondrial dynamin-like GTPase [OPA1] and mitofusin 1 [MFN1]). Supplementation of S1P led to the recovery of mitochondrial function and greatly improved β-cell function and viability. Knockdown of SphK2 using small interfering RNA induced mitochondrial dysfunction, decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), and reduced the expression of PHB, an essential regulator of mitochondrial metabolism. PHB deficiency significantly reduced GSIS and induced mitochondrial dysfunction, and co-treatment with S1P did not reverse these trends. CONCLUSION: Altogether, these data suggest that S1P is an essential factor in the maintenance of β-cell function and survival through its regulation of mitochondrial action and PHB expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Adenosine Triphosphate , Apoptosis , GTP Phosphohydrolases , Insulin , Insulin-Secreting Cells , Insulinoma , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Metabolism , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Oxygen Consumption , Phosphotransferases , Repression, Psychology , RNA, Small Interfering , Sphingolipids , Sphingosine
6.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 177-184, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Selenoprotein P (SEPP1) and fetuin-A, both circulating liver-derived glycoproteins, are novel biomarkers for insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, the effect of exendin-4 (Ex-4), a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, on the expression of hepatokines, SEPP1, and fetuin-A, is unknown. METHODS: The human hepatoma cell line HepG2 was treated with palmitic acid (PA; 0.4 mM) and tunicamycin (tuni; 2ug/ml) with or without exendin-4 (100 nM) for 24 hours. The change in expression of PA-induced SEPP1, fetuin-A, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers by exendin-4 treatment were evaluated using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Transfection of cells with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) small interfering RNA (siRNA) was performed to establish the effect of exendin-4-mediated AMPK in the regulation of SEPP1 and fetuin-A expression. RESULTS: Exendin-4 reduced the expression of SEPP1, fetuin-A, and ER stress markers including PKR-like ER kinase, inositol-requiring kinase 1alpha, activating transcription factor 6, and C/EBP homologous protein in HepG2 cells. Exendin-4 also reduced the expression of SEPP1 and fetuin-A in cells treated with tunicamycin, an ER stress inducer. In cells treated with the AMPK activator 5-aminoidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR), the expression of hepatic SEPP1 and fetuin-A were negatively related by AMPK, which is the target of exendin-4. In addition, exendin-4 treatment did not decrease SEPP1 and fetuin-A expression in cells transfected with AMPK siRNA. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that exendin-4 can attenuate the expression of hepatic SEPP1 and fetuin-A via improvement of PA-induced ER stress by AMPK.


Subject(s)
Humans , Activating Transcription Factor 6 , alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Blotting, Western , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cell Line , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Fatty Liver , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Glycoproteins , Hep G2 Cells , Insulin Resistance , Palmitic Acid , Phosphotransferases , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Small Interfering , Selenoprotein P , Transfection , Tunicamycin , Biomarkers , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor
7.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 553-560, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are known to stimulate and repress lipolysis in adipocytes, respectively; however, the mechanisms regulating these processes have not been completely elucidated. METHODS: The key factors and mechanism of action of TNF-alpha and AMPK in lipolysis were investigated by evaluating perilipin expression and activity of protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK)/eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2alpha) by Western blot and an immunofluorescence assay in 24-hour TNF-alpha-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes with artificial manipulation of AMPK activation. RESULTS: Enhancement of AMPK activity by the addition of activator minoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) suppressed TNF-alpha-induced lipolysis, whereas the addition of compound C, an inhibitor of AMPK phosphorylation, enhanced lipolysis. Perilipin, a lipid droplet-associated protein, was decreased by TNF-alpha and recovered following treatment with AICAR, showing a correlation with the antilipolytic effect of AICAR. Significant activation of PERK/eIF2alpha, a component of the unfolded protein response signaling pathway, was observed in TNF-alpha or vesicle-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The antilipolytic effect and recovery of perilipin expression by AICAR in TNF-alpha-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were significantly diminished by treatment with 2-aminopurine, a specific inhibitor of eIF2alpha. CONCLUSION: These data indicated that AICAR-induced AMPK activation attenuates TNF-alpha-induced lipolysis via preservation of perilipin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, PERK/eIF2alpha activity is a novel mechanism of the anti-lipolytic effect of AICAR.


Subject(s)
2-Aminopurine , Adipocytes , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Blotting, Western , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Lipolysis , Necrosis , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Prokaryotic Initiation Factor-2 , Protein Kinases , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Unfolded Protein Response
8.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : 151-158, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56561

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha, PPAR-gamma, adipokines, and cytokines in the lung tissue of lean and obese mice with and without ovalbumin (OVA) challenge, and the effect of rosiglitazone, a PPAR-gamma agonist. METHODS: We developed 6 mice models: OVA-challenged lean mice with and without rosiglitazone; obese mice with and without rosiglitazone; and OVA-challenged obese mice with and without rosiglitazone. We performed real-time polymerase chain reaction for leptin, leptin receptor, adiponectin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma from the lung tissue and determined the cell counts and cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. RESULTS: Mice with OVA challenge showed airway hyperresponsiveness. The lung mRNA levels of PPARalpha and PPAR-gamma increased significantly in obese mice with OVA challenge compared to that in other types of mice and decreased after rosiglitazone administeration. Leptin and leptin receptor expression increased in obese mice with and without OVA challenge and decreased following rosiglitazone treatment. Adiponectin mRNA level increased in lean mice with OVA challenge. Lung VEGF, TNF-alpha, and TGF-beta mRNA levels increased in obese mice with and without OVA challenge compared to that in the control mice. However, rosiglitazone reduced only TGF-beta expression in obese mice, and even augmented VEGF expression in all types of mice. Rosiglitazone treatment did not reduce airway responsiveness, but increased neutrophils and macrophages in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. CONCLUSION: PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma expressions were upregulated in the lung tissue of OVA-challenged obese mice however, rosiglitazone treatment did not downregulate airway inflammation in these mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Adipokines , Adiponectin , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Cell Count , Cytokines , Inflammation , Leptin , Lung , Macrophages , Mice, Obese , Neutrophils , Obesity , Ovalbumin , Ovum , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors , Peroxisomes , PPAR alpha , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, Leptin , RNA, Messenger , Thiazolidinediones , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Transforming Growth Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1430-1437, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100956

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Obesity has been suggested to be linked to asthma. However, it is not yet known whether obesity directly leads to airway hyperreactivity (AHR) or obesity-induced airway inflammation associated with asthma. We investigated obesity-related changes in adipokines, AHR, and lung inflammation in a murine model of asthma and obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed mouse models of chronic asthma via ovalbumin (OVA)-challenge and of obesity by feeding a high-fat diet, and then performed the methacholine bronchial provocation test, and real-time PCR for leptin, leptin receptor, adiponectin, adiponectin receptor (adipor1 and 2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor (TGF) beta, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha in lung tissue. We also measured cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. RESULTS: Both obese and lean mice chronically exposed to OVA developed eosinophilic lung inflammation and AHR to methacholine. However, obese mice without OVA challenge did not develop AHR or eosinophilic inflammation in lung tissue. In obese mice, lung mRNA expressions of leptin, leptin receptor, VEGF, TGF, and TNF were enhanced, and adipor1 and 2 expressions were decreased compared to mice in the control group. On the other hand, there were no differences between obese mice with or without OVA challenge. CONCLUSION: Diet-induced mild obesity may not augment AHR or eosinophilic lung inflammation in asthma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Asthma/physiopathology , Bronchial Hyperreactivity/physiopathology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Obesity/etiology , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Transforming Growth Factors/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
10.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 262-267, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192549

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), one of the most common liver diseases, is caused by the disruption of hepatic lipid homeostasis. It is associated with insulin resistance as seen in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin that increases insulin sensitivity and aids glucose metabolism. In recent in vivo and in vitro studies, GLP-1 presents a novel therapeutic approach against NAFLD by increasing fatty acid oxidation, decreasing lipogenesis, and improving hepatic glucose metabolism. In this report, we provide an overview of the role and mechanism of GLP-1 in relieving NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fatty Liver , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Glucose , Homeostasis , Incretins , Insulin Resistance , Lipogenesis , Liver Diseases , Receptors, Glucagon
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