The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) signaling exert essential regulatory function in microbial-and onco-immunology through the induction of cytokines, primarily type I interferons. Recently, the aberrant and deranged signaling of the cGAS-STING axis is closely implicated in multiple sterile inflammatory diseases, including heart failure, myocardial infarction, cardiac hypertrophy, nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases, aortic aneurysm and dissection, obesity, etc. This is because of the massive loads of damage-associated molecular patterns (mitochondrial DNA, DNA in extracellular vesicles) liberated from recurrent injury to metabolic cellular organelles and tissues, which are sensed by the pathway. Also, the cGAS-STING pathway crosstalk with essential intracellular homeostasis processes like apoptosis, autophagy, and regulate cellular metabolism. Targeting derailed STING signaling has become necessary for chronic inflammatory diseases. Meanwhile, excessive type I interferons signaling impact on cardiovascular and metabolic health remain entirely elusive. In this review, we summarize the intimate connection between the cGAS-STING pathway and cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. We also discuss some potential small molecule inhibitors for the pathway. This review provides insight to stimulate interest in and support future research into understanding this signaling axis in cardiovascular and metabolic tissues and diseases.
OBJECTIVE： To investigate the changes of extraction rates of forsythiaside A and forsythin in Forsythia suspensa compatible with other medicinal material of Menshi huwei formula before and after decoction. METHODS： HPLC method was used to determine the extraction amounts and to calculate the extraction rates of forsythiaside A and forsythin in F. suspensa （5 g×7 doses）， F. suspensa （5 g×7 doses） compatible with Pinelliae rhizoma praeparatum cum zingibere et alumine （PRZA）， Menshi huwei formula [including 6 ingredients as F. suspense （5 g×7 doses）， PRZA] after decocted with water. The determination was performed on Diamonsil C18 column with mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-0.2％ formic acid solution （gradient elution）. The detection wavelength was set at 278 nm， and the column temperature was 30 ℃. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. RESULTS： The linear range of forsythiaside A and forsythin were 0.61-6.1， 0.246-2.46 μg （r＝0.999 7， 0.999 9）， respectively； RSDs of precision， stability （within 20 h） and reproducibility tests were all lower than 2％ （n＝6）. Average recovery rates were 96.10％-99.37％ （RSD≤2.36％，n＝6） respectively. In F. suspensa， extraction rates of forsythiaside A and forsythin were 96.90％ and 66.67％. In F. suspensa compatible with PRZA， extraction rates of them were 101.61％ and 54.55％. In Menshi huwei formula， extraction rates of them were 98.39％ and 84.85％. CONCLUSIONS： After F. suspensa is compatible with PRZA， the extraction rates of forsythiaside A is increased while forsythin is decreased. After compatible with other medicinal material in Menshi huwei formula， extraction rates of both are increased slightly.