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1.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 241-248, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001867

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study examined the characteristics of patients visiting the emergency department (ED) with fever after the chronification of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. @*Methods@#This retrospective observational study analyzed the medical records of patients who visited the ED with fever from May 1 to October 31, 2021, and the corresponding period in 2019. This study was conducted at a single center in Seoul, Korea. @*Results@#There was no statistical difference in the comorbidities of the patients of the two groups: the AC (after the COVID-19 pandemic) group and the BC (before the COVID-19 pandemic) group. As for the level of consciousness at the time of ED arrival, there was a significantly larger decrease in consciousness (verbal response or less) in the AC group than in the BC group (P=0.002). In the case of the National Early Warning Score (NEWS), the proportion was higher in the AC group in the moderate-risk and high-risk groups (P=0.003). The median time from symptom onset to ED arrival was 15.7 hours in the BC group and 13.8 hours in the AC group, and there was no significant difference (P=0.137). When leaving the ED, the AC group had a higher admission rate to the ward and intensive care unit than the BC group. There was no statistical difference in the in-hospital mortality between the two groups (2.9% and 2.4%, respectively; P=0.62). @*Conclusion@#Patients who visited the emergency room with fever after one year of the COVID-19 pandemic showed a similar time from symptom onset to ED arrival compared to patients who visited before the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, there was no difference in in-hospital mortality among these patients compared to those with fever before the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 334-343, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000773

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to analyze the waiting time for initial treatment after breast cancer diagnosis and determine the factors influencing treatment delay in South Korea. @*Methods@#This nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment data. The participants were classified according to the regions where their biopsy and treatment were performed (Seoul-Seoul, Metro-Metro, OtherOther, Metro-Seoul, Other-Seoul). Waiting time was analyzed according to regional subgroup, year of diagnosis, and type of treatment. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to identify the factors associated with treatment delay (after 30 days of diagnosis). @*Results@#A total of 133,514 participants newly diagnosed between January 2010 and December 2017 were included in the study. The median waiting time for initial treatment in the total population increased from 8 days, in 2010, to 14 days, in 2017. In the Seoul-Seoul group, the waiting time increased from 10 days, in 2010, to 16 days, in 2017. Although the median waiting time was approximately 10 days in the Metro-Metro and Other-Other groups, it was 27 and 24 days, in the Metro-Seoul and Other-Seoul group, respectively, in 2017. The proportion of delayed upfront surgery by more than 30 days was higher in the Metro-Seoul (odds ratio [OR], 8.088; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.357–8.893; p < 0.001) and OtherSeoul (OR, 6.210; 95% CI, 5.717–6.750; p < 0.001) groups than in the Metro-Metro (OR, 1.468; 95% CI, 1.352–1.594; p < 0.001) and Other-Other (reference) groups. Previous medical history and treatment at tertiary hospital were observed as factors related to delayed surgery. @*Conclusion@#Waiting times for breast cancer surgery have increased across all regions of Korea, with those traveling to Seoul experiencing particularly long wait times.

3.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 70-78, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967879

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Early identification of COVID-19 in patients is important to prevent significant worsening of the disease. This study was undertaken to verify whether MEWS (Modified Early Warning Score), NEWS(National Early Warning Score), ROX index, and CURB-65, which are early diagnostic tools for severe respiratory diseases, could be applied to patients visiting the emergency room for COVID-19. @*Methods@#This retrospective observational study included patients who visited an emergency medical center from September 1 to October 31, 2020, and from January 1 to February 28, 2021. Based on the vital signs and blood tests during the emergency room visit, severity evaluation tools and early diagnostic tools for severe cases were used and compared according to their area under the curve (AUC) values. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality, while the secondary outcomes were intensive care unit admission rate and the need for mechanical ventilation based on these four tools (MEWS, NEWS, ROX index, and CURB-65). @*Results@#A total of 667 patients were analyzed. No significant difference was determined between the non-survivor group and survivor group in the MEWS values (P=0.13), but statistically significant differences were observed for NEWS (5 vs. 1, P<0.05), CURB-65 (2 vs. 1, P<0.05), and ROX index (16.61 vs. 23.1, P<0.01). The AUC value of NEWS for death prediction indicated a good predictive power at 0.80, while that of MEWS showed a low predictive power at 0.57, which was statistically significant. Moreover, the AUC values of CURB-65 and ROX index did not differ significantly from values obtained for NEWS. @*Conclusion@#As early diagnostic tools for predicting death in COVID-19 patients, NEWS, ROX index, and CURB-65 showed excellent discrimination ability, whereas MEWS showed statistically and significantly lower discrimination ability.

4.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 164-177, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937760

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) does not have defined therapeutic targets and is currently treated with chemotherapy only. Kinase dysregulation triggers cancer cell proliferation and metastasis and is a crucial therapeutic target for cancer. In this study, targeted kinome sequencing of TNBC tumors was performed to assess the association between kinome gene alterations and disease outcomes in TNBC. @*Methods@#A kinome gene panel consisting of 612 genes was used for the targeted sequencing of 166 TNBC samples and matched normal tissues. Analyses of the significantly mutated genes were performed. Genomic differences between Asian and non-Asian patients with TNBC were evaluated using two Asian TNBC datasets (from Seoul National University Hospital [SNUH] and Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center [FUSCC]) and three nonAsian TNBC datasets (The Cancer Genome Atlas [TCGA], METABRIC, and Gustave Roussy).The prognostic value of kinome gene mutations was evaluated using tumor mutational burden (TMB) and oncogenic pathway analyses. Mutational profiles from the TCGA were used for validation. @*Results@#The significantly mutated genes included TP53 (60% of patients), PIK3CA (21%), BRCA2 (8%), and ATM (8%). Compared with data from non-Asian public databases, the mutation rates of PIK3CA p.H1047R/Q were significantly higher in the SNUH cohort (p = 0.003, 0.048, and 0.032, respectively). This was verified using the FUSCC dataset (p = 0.003, 0.078, and 0.05, respectively). The TMB-high group showed a trend toward longer progression-free survival in our cohort and the TCGA TNBC cohort (p = 0.041 and 0.195, respectively). Kinome gene alterations in the Wnt pathway in patients with TNBC were associated with poor survival in both datasets (p = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively). @*Conclusion@#Comprehensive analyses of kinome gene alterations in TNBC revealed genomic alterations that offer therapeutic targets and should help identify high-risk patients more precisely in future studies.

5.
Korean Journal of Community Nutrition ; : 1-11, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894177

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study was conducted to assess the eating behavior, growth, and dietary practices of children aged 3~5 years living in the Seoul and Gyeonggi Provinces. @*Methods@#Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 237 mothers of preschool children between April and June 2018. Z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, and BMI-for-age were calculated to determine the children’s growth status. Dietary practices were evaluated using the nutrition quotient for Korean preschoolers (NQ-P). @*Results@#In our study, 29.5% of children were in the eating-small-amounts group, 46.8% of children were in the neophobic behavior group, and 61.2% of children were in the refusal-of-specific food group. Specific foods found to have a high frequency of rejection are listed in descending order as follows: shellfish, soy, mushroom, shrimp, vegetables, milk, eggs, yogurt, seaweed, meat, fruits, and fish. The eating-smallamounts group had lower Z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, and BMI-for-age than the non-picky eaters’ group. Compared to the non-picky eaters' group, the eatingsmall-amounts group of picky eaters had lower scores on the moderation and environment items of the NQ-P, the neophobic behavior group had lower scores on the balance and environment items of the NQ-P, and the refusal-of-specific food group had lower scores on the balance, moderation, and environment items of the NQ-P. @*Conclusions@#Children classified with picky eating behavior had lower growth and development, lower diet diversity, less balanced food intake, and had greater difficulty in abstaining from eating unhealthy foods than non-picky eaters. Therefore, a lot of patience and intensive efforts are needed to encourage children to encounter, experience, and accept unfamiliar food. It is more effective to provide eating behavior guidance by gently encouraging children, than by being strict and forceful. Besides, since the eating behavior of children is influenced maximally by the dietary lifestyle at their homes, it is important to ensure that a healthy dietary lifestyle is maintained at home.

6.
Korean Journal of Community Nutrition ; : 1-11, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901881

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study was conducted to assess the eating behavior, growth, and dietary practices of children aged 3~5 years living in the Seoul and Gyeonggi Provinces. @*Methods@#Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 237 mothers of preschool children between April and June 2018. Z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, and BMI-for-age were calculated to determine the children’s growth status. Dietary practices were evaluated using the nutrition quotient for Korean preschoolers (NQ-P). @*Results@#In our study, 29.5% of children were in the eating-small-amounts group, 46.8% of children were in the neophobic behavior group, and 61.2% of children were in the refusal-of-specific food group. Specific foods found to have a high frequency of rejection are listed in descending order as follows: shellfish, soy, mushroom, shrimp, vegetables, milk, eggs, yogurt, seaweed, meat, fruits, and fish. The eating-smallamounts group had lower Z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, and BMI-for-age than the non-picky eaters’ group. Compared to the non-picky eaters' group, the eatingsmall-amounts group of picky eaters had lower scores on the moderation and environment items of the NQ-P, the neophobic behavior group had lower scores on the balance and environment items of the NQ-P, and the refusal-of-specific food group had lower scores on the balance, moderation, and environment items of the NQ-P. @*Conclusions@#Children classified with picky eating behavior had lower growth and development, lower diet diversity, less balanced food intake, and had greater difficulty in abstaining from eating unhealthy foods than non-picky eaters. Therefore, a lot of patience and intensive efforts are needed to encourage children to encounter, experience, and accept unfamiliar food. It is more effective to provide eating behavior guidance by gently encouraging children, than by being strict and forceful. Besides, since the eating behavior of children is influenced maximally by the dietary lifestyle at their homes, it is important to ensure that a healthy dietary lifestyle is maintained at home.

7.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 553-559, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891260

ABSTRACT

The combination of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogs (LHRHa) with tamoxifen is used as a standard postoperative adjuvant therapy in patients with hormone receptor-positive/premenopausal breast cancer. Long-acting LHRHa formulations offer advantages in terms of patient convenience. However, data on the effectiveness of the 3-month (3M) acting formulation are still insufficient. This study was performed on patients who received the 3M LHRHa after surgery. The serum estradiol (E2) and follicle-stimulating hormone levels were measured before surgery, and periodically after surgery. In total, 318 patients were included in the study and analyzed. The mean E2 level before surgery was 63.7 pg/mL, while the mean E2 level during the administration of 3M LHRHa was 4.9 pg/mL.None of the patients were menstruating and had E2 values above 30.0 pg/mL. It is thought that the 3M LHRHa formulation can suppress the ovarian function effectively and be safely used to improve compliance.

8.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 647-655, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891255

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#BRCA1/2 mutations are associated with risks of breast and ovarian cancer. In Korea, incidences of BRCA1/2 genetic testing and risk-reducing surgery (RRS) have increased with insurance coverage and the Angelina Jolie effect. The aim of this study was to identify trends in RRS performed in Korean women with the BRCA1/2 mutation. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with (affected carriers) and without (unaffected carriers) breast cancer until August 2018 from 25 Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA)-affiliated hospitals. @*Results@#The numbers of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) and risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRBSO) in affected carriers have increased 5.8- and 3.6-fold, respectively, since 2013. The numbers of RRBSO in unaffected carriers has increased 8-fold since 2013. The number of institutions that perform RRS has increased gradually. The number of hospitals that perform contralateral RRM on affected carriers increased from 3 in 2012 to 11 in 2018, and that of those that perform RRBSO increased from 7 to 17. The number of hospitals that perform bilateral RRM on unaffected carriers increased from 1 in 2012 to 2 in 2018, and that of those that perform RRBSO increased from 1 to 8. However, the hospitals showed differences in the rates of RRM or RRBSO performed. @*Conclusion@#The incidence of RRS increased each year throughout the study period. However, in Korea, the rate of RRS procedures depended on the hospital.

9.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 610-621, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891248

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Factors associated with invasive recurrence (REC) of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are less known. This study was aimed at identifying better biomarkers to predict the prognosis of DCIS. @*Methods@#RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks of twenty-four pure DCIS cases was subjected to differential gene expression analysis. The DCIS cases were selected by matching age and estrogen receptor status. Sixteen REC-free and 8 invasive-REC cases with disease-free interval of > 5 years were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was used to validate sixty-one independent pure DCIS cases, including invasive-REC (n = 16) and REC-free (n = 45) cases. @*Results@#Eight differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were statistically significant (log 2-fold change [FC] 1 and p < 0.001). Less than ½ fold expression of CUL1, androgen receptor (AR), RPS27A, CTNNB1, MAP3K1, PRKACA, GNG12, MGMT genes was observed in the REC group compared to the no evidence of disease group. AR and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) genes were selected for external validation (AR: log 2-FC − 1.35, p < 0.001, and HDAC1: log 2-FC − 0.774, p < 0.001). External validation showed that the absence of AR and high HDAC1 expression were independent risk factors for invasive REC (hazard ratio [HR], 5.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24–20.4; p = 0.023 and HR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.04–9.04; p = 0.042). High nuclear grade 3 was also associated with long-term invasive REC. @*Conclusion@#Comparative gene expression analysis of pure DCIS revealed 8 DEGs among recurring cases. External validation with IHC suggested that the absence of AR and overexpression of HDAC1 are associated with a greater risk of long-term invasive REC of pure DCIS.

10.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 553-559, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898964

ABSTRACT

The combination of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogs (LHRHa) with tamoxifen is used as a standard postoperative adjuvant therapy in patients with hormone receptor-positive/premenopausal breast cancer. Long-acting LHRHa formulations offer advantages in terms of patient convenience. However, data on the effectiveness of the 3-month (3M) acting formulation are still insufficient. This study was performed on patients who received the 3M LHRHa after surgery. The serum estradiol (E2) and follicle-stimulating hormone levels were measured before surgery, and periodically after surgery. In total, 318 patients were included in the study and analyzed. The mean E2 level before surgery was 63.7 pg/mL, while the mean E2 level during the administration of 3M LHRHa was 4.9 pg/mL.None of the patients were menstruating and had E2 values above 30.0 pg/mL. It is thought that the 3M LHRHa formulation can suppress the ovarian function effectively and be safely used to improve compliance.

11.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 647-655, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898959

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#BRCA1/2 mutations are associated with risks of breast and ovarian cancer. In Korea, incidences of BRCA1/2 genetic testing and risk-reducing surgery (RRS) have increased with insurance coverage and the Angelina Jolie effect. The aim of this study was to identify trends in RRS performed in Korean women with the BRCA1/2 mutation. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with (affected carriers) and without (unaffected carriers) breast cancer until August 2018 from 25 Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA)-affiliated hospitals. @*Results@#The numbers of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) and risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRBSO) in affected carriers have increased 5.8- and 3.6-fold, respectively, since 2013. The numbers of RRBSO in unaffected carriers has increased 8-fold since 2013. The number of institutions that perform RRS has increased gradually. The number of hospitals that perform contralateral RRM on affected carriers increased from 3 in 2012 to 11 in 2018, and that of those that perform RRBSO increased from 7 to 17. The number of hospitals that perform bilateral RRM on unaffected carriers increased from 1 in 2012 to 2 in 2018, and that of those that perform RRBSO increased from 1 to 8. However, the hospitals showed differences in the rates of RRM or RRBSO performed. @*Conclusion@#The incidence of RRS increased each year throughout the study period. However, in Korea, the rate of RRS procedures depended on the hospital.

12.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 610-621, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898952

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Factors associated with invasive recurrence (REC) of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are less known. This study was aimed at identifying better biomarkers to predict the prognosis of DCIS. @*Methods@#RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks of twenty-four pure DCIS cases was subjected to differential gene expression analysis. The DCIS cases were selected by matching age and estrogen receptor status. Sixteen REC-free and 8 invasive-REC cases with disease-free interval of > 5 years were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was used to validate sixty-one independent pure DCIS cases, including invasive-REC (n = 16) and REC-free (n = 45) cases. @*Results@#Eight differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were statistically significant (log 2-fold change [FC] 1 and p < 0.001). Less than ½ fold expression of CUL1, androgen receptor (AR), RPS27A, CTNNB1, MAP3K1, PRKACA, GNG12, MGMT genes was observed in the REC group compared to the no evidence of disease group. AR and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) genes were selected for external validation (AR: log 2-FC − 1.35, p < 0.001, and HDAC1: log 2-FC − 0.774, p < 0.001). External validation showed that the absence of AR and high HDAC1 expression were independent risk factors for invasive REC (hazard ratio [HR], 5.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24–20.4; p = 0.023 and HR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.04–9.04; p = 0.042). High nuclear grade 3 was also associated with long-term invasive REC. @*Conclusion@#Comparative gene expression analysis of pure DCIS revealed 8 DEGs among recurring cases. External validation with IHC suggested that the absence of AR and overexpression of HDAC1 are associated with a greater risk of long-term invasive REC of pure DCIS.

14.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 606-611, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785663

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic esophagitis is a rare disease in Asian countries, but its incidence is growing rapidly in Western countries. The main pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis is esophageal epithelial barrier dysfunction; disruption of the esophageal epithelial barrier easily induces antigen sensitization to foods and aeroallergens, which leads to subsequent esophageal inflammation as a result of eosinophil recruitment. Here we report a case of an 11-year-old Korean boy who suffered from fever, odynophagia, dysphagia, and chest pain. His upper endoscopic findings showed longitudinal ulcers with a volcano-like appearance at the distal esophagus. Polymerase chain reaction test results and biopsy specimens were positive for herpes simplex virus type 1. He was treated with acyclovir and a proton pump inhibitor, but his follow-up endoscopy showed typical patterns of eosinophilic esophagitis, and the biopsy specimens were compatible with the diagnostic criteria for eosinophilic esophagitis. Therefore, we report a very rare case of eosinophilic esophagitis after herpes esophagitis in a Korean child with normal immunity.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Male , Acyclovir , Asian People , Biopsy , Chest Pain , Deglutition Disorders , Endoscopy , Eosinophilic Esophagitis , Eosinophils , Esophagitis , Esophagus , Fever , Follow-Up Studies , Herpesvirus 1, Human , Incidence , Inflammation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Proton Pumps , Rare Diseases , Simplexvirus , Ulcer
15.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 73-80, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937769

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a high-risk disease for the development of invasive tumors. Although it is associated with excellent prognosis, many patients undergo extensive treatment with surgery, radiation, and endocrine therapy. This study evaluated the clinical and pathologic factors associated with invasive recurrence, particularly locoregional, distant disease after breast-conserving surgery (BCS).@*METHODS@#This study included 431 patients diagnosed with pure DCIS after BCS between January 2000 and December 2008. The clinicopathological characteristics, margin status, adjuvant therapy, and duration of endocrine therapy were evaluated in hormone receptor-positive DCIS patients.@*RESULTS@#The median duration of follow-up was 115 months. During this period, 37 cases (8.5%) of recurrence were observed (12 in situ and 23 invasive recurrence and 2 unknown cases). There was no distant metastasis as first event. Similarly, none of the initial in situ recurrence cases developed distant metastasis while eight (32%, 8/23) developed distant metastasis after invasive recurrence. Overall recurrence was associated with young age (≤40 years) (HR: 3.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.77–7.32) and hormone receptor negativity (HR: 3.33, 95% CI: 1.52–7.29). Invasive local recurrence was independently associated with young age (≤40 years) (HR: 3.86, 95% CI: 1.50–9.96), high nuclear grade (HR: 4.46, 95% CI: 1.62–12.27) and omission of adjuvant radiotherapy (HR: 6.45, 95% CI: 1.82–22.82). Notably, duration of endocrine treatment among the hormone receptor positive patient group, was numerically shorter for recurred patients, though not statistically significant.@*CONCLUSION@#Young age, high nuclear grade and absence of adjuvant radiotherapy were independently associated with an increased risk of invasive recurrence. Moreover, invasive locoregional recurrence as a first event was associated with worse outcomes, yet in situ recurrence didn't affect overall survival. Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to confirm the prognostic indicators of recurrence and the optimal strategy for adjuvant therapy in this setting.

16.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1073-1085, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763172

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This preliminary study was conducted to evaluate the association between Oncotype DX (ODX) recurrence score and traditional prognostic factors. We also developed a nomogram to predict subgroups with low ODX recurrence scores (less than 25) and to avoid additional chemotherapy treatments for those patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical variables were retrospectively retrieved and analyzed from a series of 485 T1-3N0-1miM0 hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor 2‒negative breast cancer patients with available ODX test results at Asan Medical Center from 2010 to 2016. One hundred twenty-seven patients (26%) had positive axillary lymph node micrometastases, and 408 (84%) had ODX recurrence scores of ≤25. Logistic regression was performed to build a nomogram for predicting a low-risk subgroup of the ODX assay. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis revealed that estrogen receptor (ER) score, progesterone receptor (PR) score, histologic grade, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and Ki-67 had a statistically significant association with the low-risk subgroup. With these variables, we developed a nomogram to predict the low-risk subgroup with ODX recurrence scores of ≤25. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 0.96). When applied to the validation group the nomogram was accurate with an area under the curve = 0.88 (95% CI, 0.83 to 0.95). CONCLUSION: The low ODX recurrence score subgroup can be predicted by a nomogram incorporating five traditional prognostic factors: ER, PR, histologic grade, LVI, and Ki-67. Our nomogram, which predicts a low-risk ODX recurrence score, will be a useful tool to help select patients who may or may not need additional ODX testing.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Drug Therapy , Epidermal Growth Factor , Estrogens , Logistic Models , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Micrometastasis , Nomograms , Prognosis , Receptors, Progesterone , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve
17.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 387-398, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764282

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The extension of endocrine therapy beyond 5 years for recurrence-free survivors of breast cancer improves survival; however, the issue on how to clinically identify appropriate candidates remains controversial. This study aimed to identify prognostic factors for breast-cancer-specific mortality in patients who have had 5 years of tamoxifen treatment and categorize subgroups based on the risk of death using combinations of these prognostic factors to assist in the clinical decision to perform further endocrine therapy. METHODS: In total, 3,158 patients with breast cancer were enrolled. Breast cancer-specific survival rates after 5 years of tamoxifen treatment were calculated, and associated prognostic factors were analyzed using a Cox proportional-hazards model. RESULTS: An age extreme at diagnosis (i.e., 2 cm, and positive lymphovascular invasion were robust independent prognostic factors for late breast cancer-specific death in tamoxifen-treated patients (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.162, 1.739, and 1.993; p = 0.001, 0.047, and 0.011, respectively). Lymph node metastasis and progesterone receptor negativity had borderline significance in this regard (HR = 1.741 and 1.638, p = 0.099 and 0.061). The study patients were classified into four groups according to the number of prognostic indicators, i.e., low, intermediate, high, and extremely high risk. The additional 5- and 10-year cumulative risks of breast cancer-specific death were 0.8% and 1.5% in the low-risk group, 0.9% and 3.9% in the intermediate-risk group, 1.3% and 7.3% in the high-risk group, and 4.8% and 13.8% in the extremely high-risk group, respectively. CONCLUSION: This new risk stratification system for late mortality in breast cancer can be used to identify the right candidates for extended endocrine therapy after 5 years of tamoxifen treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Diagnosis , Lymph Nodes , Mortality , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Receptors, Progesterone , Survival Rate , Survivors , Tamoxifen
18.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 719-724, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766902

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) for the treatment of myopia with corneal opacity. METHODS: Thirteen eyes of 13 patients with corneal opacities who underwent SMILE were retrospectively studied. Uncorrected distance visual acuity, spherical equivalence, efficacy index, and safety index were noted at 3 months after the procedure. The density and area of the corneal opacities were measured and compared preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. RESULTS: All eyes had preoperative corneal opacities within the lenticule formation areas. The mean area and density of corneal opacities were 0.72 ± 0.33 mm2 and 52.46 ± 15.74, respectively. All procedures were uneventful and no intraoperative complications were observed. At 3 months after the procedure, the efficacy and safety indices were 1.01 ± 0.15, and 1.05 ± 0.10, respectively, and the mean densities and areas of corneal opacities were 46.85 ± 14.56 (p = 0.038) and 0.70 ± 0.36 mm2 (p = 0.776), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The SMILE procedure was effective and safe for the correction of myopic patients with corneal opacities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Corneal Opacity , Intraoperative Complications , Myopia , Retrospective Studies , Visual Acuity
19.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 275-282, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739609

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated the effect of positive superficial and/or deep margin status on local recurrence (LR) in invasive breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) followed by radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 3,403 stage 1 and 2 invasive breast cancer patients treated with BCS followed by radiotherapy from January 2000 to December 2008 were included in this study. These patients were divided into three groups according to margin status: clear resection margin status for all sections (group 1, n=3,195); positive margin status in superficial and/or deep sections (group 2, n=121); and positive peripheral parenchymal margin regardless of superficial and/or deep margin involvement (group 3, n=87). The LR-free survival between these three groups was compared and the prognostic role of margin status was analyzed. RESULTS: Across all groups, age, tumor size, nodal status, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status did not significantly differ. High grade, positive extensive intraductal component, hormone receptor positivity, hormone therapy received, and chemotherapy not received were more prevalent in groups 2 and 3 than in group 1. Five-year LR rates in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 1.9%, 1.7%, and 7.7%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that group 3 was a significant predictor for LR (hazard ratio [HR], 4.78; p < 0.001), but that positive superficial and/or deep margin was not (HR, 0.66; p=0.57). CONCLUSION: Superficial and/or deep margin involvement following BCS is not an important predictor for LR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Drug Therapy , Mastectomy, Segmental , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Radiotherapy , ErbB Receptors , Recurrence
20.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 52-59, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718903

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine whether clinicopathological factors are potentially associated with successful breast-conserving surgery (BCS) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and develop a nomogram for predicting successful BCS candidates, focusing on those who are diagnosed with hormone receptor (HR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative tumors during the pre-NAC period. METHODS: The training cohort included 239 patients with an HR-positive, HER2-negative tumor (≥3 cm), and all of these patients had received NAC. Patients were excluded if they met any of the following criteria: diffuse, suspicious, malignant microcalcification (extent >4 cm); multicentric or multifocal breast cancer; inflammatory breast cancer; distant metastases at the time of diagnosis; excisional biopsy prior to NAC; and bilateral breast cancer. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the possible predictors of BCS eligibility after NAC, and the regression model was used to develop the predicting nomogram. This nomogram was built using the training cohort (n=239) and was later validated with an independent validation cohort (n=123). RESULTS: Small tumor size (p < 0.001) at initial diagnosis, long distance from the nipple (p=0.002), high body mass index (p=0.001), and weak positivity for progesterone receptor (p=0.037) were found to be four independent predictors of an increased probability of BCS after NAC; further, these variables were used as covariates in developing the nomogram. For the training and validation cohorts, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.833 and 0.786, respectively; these values demonstrate the potential predictive power of this nomogram. CONCLUSION: This study established a new nomogram to predict successful BCS in patients with HR-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer. Given that chemotherapy is an option with unreliable outcomes for this subtype, this nomogram may be used to select patients for NAC followed by successful BCS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy , Body Mass Index , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Inflammatory Breast Neoplasms , Logistic Models , Mastectomy, Segmental , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm Metastasis , Nipples , Nomograms , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Progesterone , ROC Curve
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