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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e37-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967454

ABSTRACT

Background@#The rate and composition of bacterial co-infection in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were evaluated when microbiological testing was conducted on the majority of patients. We also evaluated whether the use of empirical antibacterials was associated with mortality. @*Methods@#In this retrospective study, all of the adult patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in a single tertiary hospital in South Korea between February 2020 and December 2021 were included. Bacterial co-infection was assessed by sputum cultures, blood cultures, and molecular testing, including polymerase chain reaction sputum testing and urinary antigen tests. Mortality was compared between patients who received empirical antibacterials and those who did not. @*Results@#Of the 367 adult patients admitted during the study period, 300 (81.7%) had sputum culture results and were included in the analysis. Of these 300 patients, 127 (42.3%) had a history of antibiotic exposure. The co-infection rate within 48 hours was 8.3% (25/300):6.4% (11/173) of patients without prior antibiotic exposure and 11% (14/127) of patients with prior antibacterial exposure. The co-infected bacteria were different according to antibacterial exposure before admission, and multi-drug resistant pathogens were detected exclusively in the antibacterial exposed group. Among the patients without positive results for the microbiological tests, empirical antibacterials were used in 33.3% of cases (100/300). Empirical antibacterial therapy was not significantly related to the 30-day mortality or inhospital mortality rates in the study cohort before or after the propensity score-matching. @*Conclusion@#In this study including only patients underwent microbiological testing, bacterial co-infection was not frequent, and the co-infected organisms varied depending on previous antibacterial exposures. Given the rarity of co-infection and the lack of potential benefits, empiric antibacterial use in COVID-19 should be an important target of antibiotic stewardship.

2.
International Neurourology Journal ; : 15-22, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966997

ABSTRACT

Functional bladder disorders including overactive bladder and interstitial cystitis may induce problems in many other parts of our body such as brain and gut. In fact, diagnosis is often less accurate owing to their complex symptoms. To have correct diagnosis of these diseases, we need to understand the pathophysiology behind overlapped clinical presentation. First, we focused on reviewing literatures that have reported the link between bladder and brain, as the patients with bladder disorders frequently accompanied mood disorders such as depression and anxiety. Second, we reviewed literatures that have described the relationship between bladder and gut. There exist many evidences of patients who suffered from both bladder and intestinal diseases, such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease, at the same time. Furthermore, the interaction between brain and gut, well-known as brain-gut axis, might be a key factor that could change the activity of bladder and vice versa. For example, the affective disorders could alter the activity of efferent nerves or autonomic nervous system that modulate the gut itself and its microbiota, which might cause the destruction of homeostasis in bladder eventually. In this way, the communication between bladder and brain-gut axis might affect permeability, inflammation, as well as infectious etiology and dysbiosis in bladder diseases. In this review, we aimed to find an innovative insight of the pathophysiology in the functional bladder disorders, and we could provide a new understanding of the overlapped clinical presentation by elucidating the pathophysiology of functional bladder disorders.

3.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 46-53, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000669

ABSTRACT

Pleuroperitoneal communication (PPC) is a rare mechanical complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD), which causes dialysate to move from the peritoneal cavity to the pleural cavity, resulting in pleural effusion. Typically, PPC is discovered through pleural effusion in PD patients who are not in volume overload status. A unique characteristic of the pleural effusion caused by PPC is that it is not resolved by increasing ultrafiltration by dialysis. In this report, we present a 7-year-old girl with PD after birth with the history of various infectious PD-related complications, presenting with fever ongoing for 6 months. PPC-associated pleuritis was suspected as the cause of fever, which eventually developed after long-term PD and induced complicated pleural effusion, lung inflammation, and prolonged fever for 6 months.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e14-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915531

ABSTRACT

Background@#Preventive measures are needed to reduce the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among healthcare workers (HCWs). Notably, hospital staff are usually exposed when they are unmasked. There are limited data on the risk of transmission during mealtimes at hospital staff cafeterias. We aimed to evaluate the risk of transmission in cafeterias. @*Methods@#From January 2020 through September 2021, we analyzed the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission through closed-circuit television and radio-frequency identification tracking and follow-up testing when 33 HCWs, who were eventually diagnosed as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), ate in staff cafeterias during the infectious period. The seats were arranged so the HCWs would sit on either side without facing each other. There were no plastic barriers installed, and HCWs were encouraged not to talk during meals. @*Results@#Three of the 119 individuals who ate at seats next (about 30 cm) to index during the period of transmission and underwent follow-up SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction tests were diagnosed with COVID-19 (2.5%; 95% confidence interval, 0.5–7.4%). Among the 98 HCWs who were investigated about talking during meals, there was a higher attack rate among those who spoke with each other than among those who did not (12.5% [3/24] vs. 0% [0/74], P = 0.013). @*Conclusion@#The risk of transmission in a hospital’s employee cafeterias is not high with sideby-side seating, especially in the absence of conversation.

5.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 73-84, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919199

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Data on the immunoprotective status against measles, mumps, rubella, varicella zoster virus (VZV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are still lacking. Therefore, we investigated the seropositivity rates for viral infectious diseases and the associated factors in Korean patients with IBD. @*Methods@#In this retrospective cohort study, serum immunoglobulin G antibody positivity rates against measles virus, mumps virus, rubella virus, VZV, HAV, and EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) were measured in patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis (UC) who first visited the IBD clinic. Seropositivity rates and their associated factors were analyzed. @*Results@#Between January 2016 and December 2018, 263 patients were enrolled (male, 167 [67.3%]; UC, 134 [50.9%]). The median age at serological test was 30 years (interquartile range, 22 to 46). The seropositivity rates were 84.0%, 85.2%, 66.5%, 87.4%, 50.0%, and 93.7% for measles, mumps, rubella, VZV, HAV, and EBV, respectively. Younger age at serological test was associated with seronegative status for measles (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88 to 0.96), VZV (aOR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.93), and HAV (aOR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.91 to 0.95). Furthermore, IBD type-UC was associated with seronegative status against VZV (aOR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.99). @*Conclusions@#Seropositivity rates for common viral infectious diseases in Korean patients with IBD were similar to those of the general population. In the younger age group, protective immunity against measles, VZV, and HAV is required, with proper vaccination, as necessary.

6.
The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics ; : 44-54, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918879

ABSTRACT

Without proper treatment on the multiple tooth missing area, the lack of posterior support and the supra-eruption of the teeth cause many severe complications of occlusion, vertical dimension and masticatory function. This report is a case of full-mouth rehabilitation of a patient with loss of posterior support and collapsed occlusion due to missing teeth area left untreated for a long time. The patient who is 68-year old male patient had some teeth fallen out while removing his old maxillary denture and was complaining about pain in the region of anterior teeth due to traumatic contact. The vertical dimension was corrected by 4 mm from the top cervical point of the canine through various evaluations and the edentulous area was treated with the implant fixed prostheses through computer guided implant surgery based on the diagnosis and treatment plan for definitive prostheses supported by computed tomography (CT) data analysis and CAD-CAM (Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing) technique. After full mouth rehabilitation, the patient was very satisfied with remarkable improvements in mastication, function, and aesthetics.

7.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 378-381, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937680

ABSTRACT

A 64-year old woman who underwent lung transplantation and had T-cannula contracted classic scabies from her daughter. The patient was treated with 5% permethrin 10 times and had two consecutive negative follow-up microscopic examinations. However, the patient had recurrent symptoms and diagnosed with recurrent classic scabies 22 days after the last treatment. Unchanged tie string and unapplied topical agent around the T-cannula skin lesion may be reasons for recurrence. Thus, accurate application of topical treatment and changing the tie string of the t-cannula is needed to prevent a recurrence.

8.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 1-10, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937274

ABSTRACT

Congenital isolated hydronephrosis encompasses a spectrum of physiologic states that spontaneously resolve and pathologic obstruction that necessitates surgical intervention. Distinguishing patients whose condition will resolve, those who will require stringent follow-up, and those who will eventually need surgical intervention present a challenge to clinicians, particularly because no unified guidelines for assessment and follow-up have been established. The recognition of the natural course and prognosis of hydronephrosis and a comprehensive understanding of the currently proposed consensus guidelines may aid in multidisciplinary treatment and in providing proper counseling to caregivers. In this review, we aimed to summarize the literature on the grading systems and management strategies for congenital isolated hydronephrosis.

9.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 455-459, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926988

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Data comparing the antibody responses of different coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine platforms according to dose with natural severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-induced antibody responses are limited. @*Methods@#Blood samples from adult patients with mild and severe COVID-19 and healthcare workers who received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (2nd dose at 12-week intervals) and BNT162b2 vaccine (2nd dose at 3-week intervals) were collected and compared by immunoglobulin G immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 specific spike protein using an in-house-developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. @*Results@#A total of 53 patients, including 12 and 41 with mild and severe COVID-19, respectively, were analyzed. In addition, a total of 73 healthcare workers, including 37 who received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and 36 who received BNT162b2, were enrolled. Antibody responses after the first and second doses of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine or the first dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine were similar to those in convalescent patients with mild COVID-19, but lower than those in convalescent patients with severe COVID-19, respectively. However, after the second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine, the antibody response was comparable to that in convalescent patients with severe COVID-19. @*Conclusions@#Our data suggest that the second dose of mRNA vaccination may be more beneficial in terms of long-term immunity and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 variant infection than a single dose of COVID-19 vaccination or homologous second challenge ChAdOx1 nCoV-19.

10.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e133-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925957

ABSTRACT

Background@#The potential for a nosocomial outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from a fully vaccinated individual is largely unknown. @*Methods@#In October 2021, during the time when the delta variant was dominant, a nosocomial outbreak of COVID-19 occurred in two wards in a tertiary care hospital in Seoul, Korea. We performed airflow investigations and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of the virus. @*Results@#The index patient developed symptoms 1 day after admission, and was diagnosed with COVID-19 on day 4 post-admission. He was fully vaccinated (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) 2 months before the diagnosis. Three inpatients and a caregiver in the same room, two inpatients in an adjacent room, two inpatients in rooms remote from the index room, and one nurse on the ward tested positive. Also, two resident doctors who stayed in an on-call room located on the same ward tested positive (although they had no close contact), as well as a caregiver who stayed on an adjacent ward, and a healthcare worker who had casual contact with this caregiver. Samples from five individuals were available for WGS, and all showed ≤ 1 single-nucleotide polymorphism difference. CCTV footage showed that the index case walked frequently in the corridors of two wards. An airflow study showed that the air from the corridor flowed into the resident on-call room, driven by an air circulator that was always turned on. @*Conclusion@#Transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from a fully vaccinated index occurred rapidly via the wards and on-call room. Care must be taken to not use equipment that can change the airflow.

11.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 208-212, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925833

ABSTRACT

We report a case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated radiologically suspected organizing pneumonia with repeated negative Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results from nasopharyngeal swab and sputum samples, but positive result from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Performing SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in upper respiratory tract samples only could fail to detect COVID-19-associated pneumonia, and SARS-CoV-2 could be an etiology of radiologically suspected organizing pneumonia.

12.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 102-113, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925824

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to evaluate whether fluvoxamine reduces clinical deterioration in adult patients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and to identify risk factors for clinical deterioration in patients admitted to a community treatment center (CTC). @*Materials and Methods@#A randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in a CTC, in Seoul, Korea from January 15, 2021, to February 19, 2021. Symptomatic adult patients with positive results of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 real timepolymerase chain reaction within 3 days of randomization were assigned at random to receive 100 mg of fluvoxamine or placebo twice daily for 10 days. The primary outcome was clinical deterioration defined by any of the following criteria: oxygen requirement to keep oxygen saturation over 94.0%, aggravation of pneumonia with dyspnea, or World Health Organization clinical progression scale 4 or greater. @*Results@#Of 52 randomized participants [median (interquartile range) age, 53.5 (43.3 - 60.0) years; 31 (60.0%) men], 44 (85.0%) completed the trial. Clinical deterioration occurred in 2 of 26 patients in each group (P >0.99). There were no serious adverse events in either group. Clinical deterioration occurred in 15 (6.0%) of 271 patients admitted to the CTC, and all of them were transferred to a hospital. In multivariate analysis, age between 55 and 64, fever and pneumonia at admission were independent risk factors for clinical deterioration. @*Conclusion@#In this study of adult patients with symptomatic COVID-19 who were admitted to the CTC, there was no significant differences in clinical deterioration between patients treated with fluvoxamine and placebo (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04711863).

13.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 528-538, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898646

ABSTRACT

Background@#Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacterales bacteremia is associated with significant mortality; however, no optimal antibiotic strategy is available. We aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes according to the antibiotic regimens and identify risk factors for mortality in patients with KPC-producingK. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli bacteremia. @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective cohort study included all adult patients with monomicrobial bacteremia (KPC-producing K. pneumoniae or E. coli) between January 2011 and March 2021 at a 2,700-bed tertiary center. @*Results@#Ninety-two patients were identified; 7 with E. coli bacteremia, and 85 with K. pneumoniae bacteremia. Thirty-day mortality was 38.0% (35/92). Non-survivors were more likely to have had nosocomial infection (88.6% vs. 63.2%, P = 0.01), high APACHE II scores (mean [interquartile range], 22.0 [14.0 - 28.0] vs. 14.0 [11.0 - 20.5],P <0.001), and septic shock (51.4% vs. 26.3%, P <0.001) and less likely to have been admitted to the surgical ward (5.7% vs. 22.8%, P= 0.04), undergone removal of eradicable foci (61.5% vs. 90.6%, P = 0.03), and received appropriate combination treatment (57.1% vs. 78.9%, P = 0.03) than survivors. No significant difference in mortality was observed according to combination regimens including colistin, aminoglycoside, and tigecycline. In multivariable analysis, high APACHE II scores (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 - 1.23, P <0.001), and appropriate definitive treatment (aOR, 0.25; CI, 0.08 - 0.74,P = 0.01) were independent risk factors for mortality. @*Conclusion@#High APACHE II scores and not receiving appropriate definitive treatment were associated with 30-day mortality. Mortality did not significantly differ according to combination regimens with conventional drugs such as aminoglycoside and colistin.

14.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 46-52, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898636

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pyomyositis (PM) is a serious soft tissue infection and despite its clinical importance, previous studies have not been able to fully determine the clinical characteristics and microbial epidemiology of PM in Korea, which we therefore aimed to investigate. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively identified 140 adult patients diagnosed with PM from 13 general hospitals between January 2012 and December 2015. We analyzed the clinical and microbial characteristics of community-onset PM and compared them with communityacquired (CA) and healthcare-associated (HCA) PM. @*Results@#One hundred eleven organisms were isolated from 96 (68.6%) patients with PM.Staphylococcus aureus (38 patients) was the most common pathogen, followed by streptococci (24 patients), and enteric Gram-negative organisms (27 patients). Methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA) was identified in four (2.9%) patients and in-hospital mortality reached 8.6% (12/140). Enterococci isolates were identified in the HCA PM subgroup only The proportion of MRSA isolates was not comparable between CA and HCA PM subgroups. In the 83 patients with PM infected by monomicrobial pathogens, isolates of Gram-negative organisms were more commonly found in HCA PM subgroup than in CA PM subgroup (47.6% [10/21] of patients with HCA PM vs. 20.7% [12/58] of patients with CA PM; P = 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Gram-positive cocci such as S. aureus and streptococci were dominant etiologies in community-onset PM, whereas MRSA appears to an uncommon causative organism of PM in Korea. Enteric Gram-negative organisms should also be considered as major etiologies, especially in HCA PM patient population in Korea.

15.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 332-341, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898602

ABSTRACT

Background@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks occur in hospitals in many parts of the world. In hospital settings, the possibility of airborne transmission needs to be investigated thoroughly. @*Materials and Methods@#There was a nosocomial outbreak of COVID-19 in a hematologic ward in a tertiary hospital, Seoul, Korea. We found 11 patients and guardians with COVID-19 through vigorous contact tracing and closed-circuit television monitoring. We found one patient who probably had acquired COVID-19 through airborne-transmission. We performed airflow investigation with simulation software, whole-genome sequencing of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). @*Results@#Of the nine individuals with COVID-19 who had been in the hematologic ward, six stayed in one multi-patient room (Room 36), and other three stayed in different rooms (Room 1, 34, 35). Guardian in room 35 was close contact to cases in room 36, and patient in room 34 used the shared bathroom for teeth brushing 40 minutes after index used.Airflow simulation revealed that air was spread from the bathroom to the adjacent room 1 while patient in room 1 did not used the shared bathroom. Airflow was associated with poor ventilation in shared bathroom due to dysfunctioning air-exhaust, grill on the door of shared bathroom and the unintended negative pressure of adjacent room. @*Conclusion@#Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the hematologic ward occurred rapidly in the multi-patient room and shared bathroom settings. In addition, there was a case of possible airborne transmission due to unexpected airflow.

16.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 227-233, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903887

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic meningitis is defined as the presence of more than 10 eosinophils per μl in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or eosinophils accounting for more than 10% of CSF leukocytes in patients with acute meningitis. Parasites are the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide, but there is limited research on patients in Korea. Patients diagnosed with eosinophilic meningitis between January 2004 and June 2018 at a tertiary hospital in Seoul, Korea were retrospectively reviewed. The etiology and clinical characteristics of each patient were identified. Of the 22 patients included in the study, 11 (50%) had parasitic causes, of whom 8 (36%) were diagnosed as neurocysticercosis and 3 (14%) as Toxocara meningitis. Four (18%) patients were diagnosed with fungal meningitis, and underlying immunodeficiency was found in 2 of these patients. The etiology of another 4 (18%) patients was suspected to be tuberculosis, which is endemic in Korea. Viral and bacterial meningitis were relatively rare causes of eosinophilic meningitis, accounting for 2 (9%) and 1 (5%) patients, respectively. One patient with neurocysticercosis and 1 patient with fungal meningitis died, and 5 (23%) had neurologic sequelae. Parasite infections, especially neurocysticercosis and toxocariasis, were the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis in Korean patients. Fungal meningitis, while relatively rare, is often aggressive and must be considered when searching for the cause of eosinophilic meningitis.

17.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e153-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900025

ABSTRACT

We conducted a prospective, mobile-based survey on the self-reported adverse reactions in healthcare workers (HCWs) who received both doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Of the 342 HCWs who completed the two-dose vaccination, 265 (77.5%) responded to the survey at least once. Overall, the rates of adverse reactions were higher after the second dose compared with the first dose (89.1% vs. 80.1%, P = 0.006). The most common systemic reactions were muscle ache (69.1%), fatigue (65.7%), headache (48.7%), chills (44.2%), and fever (32.1%), and were notably more common after the second dose vaccine as well. We also noted a sex difference in which the frequency of adverse reactions after the second dose of the vaccine was significantly higher in females, which was not observed after the first dose. The rates of adverse reactions were lower in older age groups, and the rates and severities of the adverse reactions decreased during the 3-day period following vaccination.

18.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e115-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899993

ABSTRACT

Background@#We performed a prospective survey on the adverse reactions following the first dose of two types of vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in healthcare workers (HCWs) in South Korea. @*Methods@#HCWs at a tertiary referral hospital in Seoul, South Korea, received a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) or an mRNA-based vaccine (BNT162b2) between March 5 and March 26, 2021. The HCWs were asked to report adverse reactions through a mobile self-report questionnaire for three days after vaccination. @*Results@#A total of 7,625 HCWs received the first dose of ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 vaccine during the study period. Of them, 5,866 (76.9%) HCWs (ChAdOx1, n = 5,589 [95.3%];BNT162b2, n = 277 [4.7%]) participated at least once in the survey, of whom 77% were female and 86% were younger than 50 years. The overall adverse reaction rate was 93% in the ChAdOx1 group and 80% in the BNT162b2 group (P < 0.001). Both local and systemic reactions were more commonly reported in the ChAdOx1 group, and the difference was larger in systemic reactions such as fever and fatigue. In the ChAdOx1 group, the incidence of adverse reactions was significantly higher in females and those in the younger age groups, while the BNT162b2 group showed such difference according to age. @*Conclusion@#In our prospective survey, vaccine-associated adverse reactions were more commonly reported in the ChAdOx1 group than in the BNT162b2 group. Females and younger age groups experienced vaccine-associated adverse reactions more frequently.

19.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e181-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899953

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory disease in children is a Kawasaki disease like illness occurring after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in children. As the pandemic progresses, similar syndromes were also reported in adult with a decreased incidence.Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) can be characterized with shock, heart failure, and gastrointestinal symptoms with elevated inflammatory markers after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Herein, we describe the first case of MIS-A in South Korea. A 38-year-old man presented to our hospital with a 5-day history of abdominal pain and fever. He had been treated with antibiotics for 5 days at the previous hospital, but symptoms had worsened and he had developed orthopnea on the day of presentation.He suffered COVID-19 six weeks ago. Laboratory data revealed elevated white blood cell counts with neutrophil dominance, C-reactive protein, and B-type natriuretic peptide. Chest X-ray showed normal lung parenchyme and echocardiography showed severe biventricular failure with normal chamber size. We diagnosed him as MIS-A and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroid.

20.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e233-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899880

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission among non-close contacts is not infrequent. We evaluated the proportion and circumstances of individuals to whom SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted without close contact with the index patient in a nosocomial outbreak in a tertiary care hospital in Korea. From March 2020 to March 2021, there were 36 secondary cases from 14 SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Of the 36 secondary cases, 26 (72%) had been classified as close contact and the remaining 10 (28%) were classified as non-close contact. Of the 10 non-close contact, 4 had short conversations with both individuals masked, 4 shared a space without any conversation with both masked, and the remaining 2 entered the space after the index had left. At least one quarter of SARSCoV-2 transmissions occurred among non-close contacts. The definition of close contact for SARS-CoV-2 exposure based on the mode of droplet transmission should be revised to reflect the airborne nature of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

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