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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 611-622, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763133

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Pembrolizumab, a programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) inhibitor inhibits the interplay between PD1 of T-cell and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PDL1) on tumor cells. Although pembrolizumab has been tried to various subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), real-world data about the efficacy of pembrolizumab in NHL patients are limited. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the outcome of 30 relapsed or refractory NHL patients treated with pembrolizumab, and compared the outcome between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)‒positive and negative subtypes because EBV infection of tumor cells can upregulate PDL1 expression. RESULTS: Seven patients with EBV-positive NHL showed a response including NK/T-cell lymphoma (6/14, 44%) and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (1/4, 25%) whereas EBV-negative subtypes did not respond such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and T-lymphoblastic lymphoma. We also evaluated PDL1 expression using tumor tissue of 76 patients. High PDL1 expression (positive staining of > 50% of tumor cells) was more frequent in NK/T-cell lymphoma and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma than other subtypes. Thus, PDL1 expression was significantly higher in EBV-positive (18/32, 56%) than EBV-negative NHL (4/38, 11%, p < 0.001). Furthermore, NK/T-cell lymphoma patients with high PDL1 expression showed a higher response (4/6, 67%) than those with low PDL1 expression (1/5, 20%). CONCLUSION: Pembrolizumab could be useful as a salvage treatment for relapsed or refractory EBV-positive NHL, especially NK/T-cell lymphoma. However, its efficacy in EBV-negative NHL with low or absent PDL1 expression is still not clear although pembrolizumab could be a potential treatment option for relapsed or refractory NHL.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Death , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Salvage Therapy , T-Lymphocytes
2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e123-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714133

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ALK-TKIs) are usually effective in lung adenocarcinoma patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement. However, even after a good response to ALK-TKI therapy, most patients acquire resistance to these agents. Histological transformation is one of several suggested mechanisms of acquired resistance to ALK-TKIs. The clinicopathologic features of four patients with ALK-expressing adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine features were analyzed. METHODS: We selected combined neuroendocrine differentiation in pulmonary adenocarcinoma cases with positive ALK immunostaining. Neuroendocrine differentiation was confirmed by CD56 immunohistochemical stain. Additional ALK fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) study and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation tests were also performed. RESULTS: All four cases were positive for ALK immunohistochemistry and no EGFR mutations were detected. Interestingly, the results of ALK FISH assays showed rearrangement in only two cases. Three cases showed combined adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine component without history of ALK-TKI administration; one of them was treated with crizotinib and experienced partial tumor regression. The remaining case had an adenocarcinoma at initial biopsy and she showed a partial response to crizotinib, and neuroendocrine changes were visible on second biopsy. Then she was treated with ceritinib and achieved a partial response. CONCLUSION: We suggest that ALK-rearranged adenocarcinoma with combined neuroendocrine component is responsive to ALK-TKIs. Moreover, even after neuroendocrine transformation as a result of resistance to ALK-TKIs, the tumor may have partial response to second generation ALK-TKIs.

3.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 509-512, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110371

ABSTRACT

Thymic adenocarcinoma is extremely rare. Although its histologic features have been occasionally reported, a lack of description of the cytologic features has hampered the prompt and accurate diagnosis of this condition. Herein, we describe the cytologic findings and histology of four aspiration cytology specimens of thymic adenocarcinoma. The specimens were obtained from primary tumors, metastatic lymph nodes, and pericardial effusions. All four specimens showed three-dimensional glandular clusters with a loss of polarity and nuclear overlapping. One specimen had extensive extracellular mucinous material. Three specimens contained tumor cells with intracytoplasmic vacuoles. While the specimen with extracellular mucin showed relatively mild cytologic atypia, other specimens exhibited more atypical cytologic changes: irregular nuclear membranes, a coarse chromatin pattern, and prominent nucleoli. The cytologic features were correlated with the histologic features in each case of enteric type thymic adenocarcinoma. The differential diagnosis included other thymic carcinomas, yolk sac tumors, and metastatic adenocarcinoma from the lung or colorectum.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Chromatin , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Endodermal Sinus Tumor , Lung , Lymph Nodes , Mediastinum , Mucins , Nuclear Envelope , Pericardial Effusion , Thymoma , Thymus Gland , Vacuoles
4.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 286-296, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83452

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Accurate testing for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is essential for breast cancer treatment. At present, immunohistochemistry (IHC)/florescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are widely accepted as the standard testing methods. To investigate the value of NanoString nCounter®, we performed its comparative analysis with IHC/FISH and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for the assessment of ER, PR, and HER2. METHODS: Data on IHC/FISH results for ER, PR, and HER2 in 240 patients from a single tertiary hospital in Korea were collected and compared with NanoString nCounter® and qRT-PCR results at a single institution. RESULTS: Expression levels for each gene using NanoString nCounter® showed good correlation with the corresponding data for protein expression by IHC (p<0.001) and gene amplification status for HER2 (p<0.001). Comparisons between gene expression and IHC data showed good overall agreement with a high area under the curve (AUC) for ESR1/ER (AUC=0.939), PgR/PR (AUC=0.796), and HER2/HER2 (AUC=0.989) (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The quantification of ER, PgR, and HER2 mRNA expression with NanoString nCounter® may be a viable alternative to conventional IHC/FISH methods.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Estrogens , Gene Amplification , Gene Expression , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Korea , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Progesterone , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Messenger , Tertiary Care Centers
5.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 23-29, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99600

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Counting mitoses is subjective and time-consuming. The adjunctive diagnostic utility of a recently reported mitotic marker, phosphohistone H3 (PHH3), was investigated in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). METHODS: We reviewed 77 GISTs for several proliferative indices. These included the mitotic count per 50 high power fields (HPFs), the immunohistochemical Ki-67 labeling index and the immunohistochemical PHH3 mitotic index (MI). For comparison, Spearman's rank correlation and interclass correlation coefficient were used. RESULTS: Mitotic counts ranged from 0-138 (mean, 7.57+/-2.34) and the PHH3 MI ranged from 0-126 per 50 HPFs (mean, 9.61+/-2.27). We found a positive correlation between mitotic counts and PHH3 MI (r=0.810, p<.001). The inter-observer correlation coefficient for three participants was 0.975 for mitotic counts and 0.940 for the PHH3 MI. When using the PHH3 MI instead of mitotic counts in the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) stratification criteria, 10 cases were reclassified. In one patient with a mitotic count of 2 and a PHH3 MI of 6 per 50 HPFs, distant metastasis occurred. CONCLUSIONS: In GISTs, the PHH3 MI correlated adequately with mitotic counts and can be used as a useful adjunctive to count mitotic figures efficiently.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arm , Biomarkers , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors , Mitosis , Mitotic Index , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pathology
6.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 71-74, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99593

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Gastroschisis
7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 738-746, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-74290

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Management of gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumors with liver metastases (NETLM) presents many clinical challenges. Assessment of the extent of disease and primary tumor site is crucial for management. In this study, we investigated the primary tumor sites and prognostic factors in GEP NETLM among Korean patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 72 Korean patients diagnosed with GEP NETLM between January 1999 and May 2013, focusing on their clinical and pathologic characteristics. RESULTS: The most frequently encountered primary tumor sites were the pancreas (n=25, 35%), stomach (n=8, 11%), gall bladder (n=4, 6%) and rectum (n=3, 4%). Twenty-five patients (35%) had occult primary tumor. Twelve patients (17%) had histological grade G1 tumors, 30 patients (42%) had G2 tumors, and 30 patients (42%) had G3 tumors. The mean follow-up period after histological confirmation of hepatic metastases was 11.30+/-2.44 months for G3 tumors, 19.67+/-4.09 months for G2 tumors, and 30.67+/-6.51 months for G1 tumors. Multivariate analyses revealed that an unknown primary tumor site (p=0.001) and higher histological grade (p 24 months) had received antitumor treatment. CONCLUSION: The primary tumor site most frequently associated with GEP NETLM was the pancreas. Unknown primary tumor and higher histological grade were independent prognostic indicators for shorter OS. Patients identified as being at a risk of shorter OS should be followed up closely.


Subject(s)
Humans , Follow-Up Studies , Korea , Liver , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasms, Unknown Primary , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Pancreas , Pathology , Prognosis , Rectum , Stomach , Survivors , Urinary Bladder
8.
Gut and Liver ; : 206-212, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197296

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The prognosis after surgical resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains poor because of a high rate of recurrence. Thus, it is crucial to identify patients with a high risk of recurrence after curative hepatectomy and to develop more effective and targeted treatment strategies to improve disease outcomes. In this study, we investigated the roles of metadherin (MTDH) in the prognosis of HCC. METHODS: We investigated MTDH expression using immunohistochemistry in tumor tissue microarrays of 288 primary HCC patients who underwent curative surgical resection. RESULTS: High MTDH expression was observed in 138 of the 288 HCC cases (47.9%). High MTDH expression was associated with a younger age (p<0.001), higher Edmondson grade (p<0.001), microvascular invasion (p<0.001), higher American Joint Committee on Cancer T stage (p=0.001), and higher alpha-fetoprotein level (p=0.003). Multivariate analyses revealed that high MTDH expression (p=0.014), higher Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage (p<0.001), and Edmondson grade III (p=0.042) were independent predictors of shorter disease-free survival (DFS). Higher BCLC stage (p<0.001) and Edmondson grade III (p=0.047) were also independent predictors of shorter disease-specific survival. CONCLUSIONS: High MTDH expression may be a prognostic predictor of shorter DFS in HCC patients after curative hepatectomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , alpha-Fetoproteins , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Disease-Free Survival , Hepatectomy , Immunohistochemistry , Joints , Liver Neoplasms , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Recurrence
9.
Korean Journal of Pathology ; : 9-15, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The gene for chromodomain helicase/ATPase DNA binding protein 1-like (CHD1L) was recently identified as a target oncogene within the 1q21 amplicon, which occurs in 46% to 86% of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases. However, the prognostic significance of CHD1L in HCC remains uncertain. In this study, we investigated the roles of CHD1L in the prognosis of HCC. METHODS: We investigated the expressions of CHD1L in tumor tissue microarrays of 281 primary HCC patients who underwent surgical resection using immunohistochemistry. Prognostic factors of HCC were examined by univariate and multivariate analyses. The median follow-up period was 75.6 months. RESULTS: CHD1L expression was observed in 48 of the 281 HCCs (17.1%). CHD1L expression was associated with a younger age (p=0.033), higher Edmondson grade (p=0.019), microvascular invasion (p<0.001), major portal vein invasion (p=0.037), higher American Joint Committee on Cancer T stage (p=0.001), lower albumin level (p=0.047), and higher alpha-fetoprotein level (p=0.002). Multivariate analyses revealed that CHD1L expression (p=0.027), Edmondson grade III (p=0.034), and higher Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage (p<0.001) were independent predictors of shorter disease-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: CHD1L expression might be a prognostic marker of shorter disease-free survival in HCC patients after surgical resection.


Subject(s)
Humans , alpha-Fetoproteins , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Disease-Free Survival , DNA-Binding Proteins , Follow-Up Studies , Immunohistochemistry , Joints , Liver Neoplasms , Multivariate Analysis , Oncogenes , Portal Vein , Prognosis
10.
Korean Journal of Pathology ; : 130-136, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56550

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: BCL9 enhances beta-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity regardless of the mutational status of the Wnt signaling components and increases the cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and metastatic potential of tumor cells. The goal of this study was to elucidate the prognostic significance of BCL9 protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. METHODS: We evaluated BCL9 protein expression by immunohistochemistry in tumor tissue from 288 primary HCC patients who underwent curative hepatectomy. The impact of BCL9 expression on the survival of the patients was analyzed. The median follow-up period was 97.1 months. RESULTS: Nuclear BCL9 protein expression was observed in 74 (25.7%) of the 288 HCCs. BCL9 expression was significantly associated with younger age (p=0.038), higher Edmondson grade (p=0.001), microvascular invasion (p=0.013), and intrahepatic metastasis (p=0.017). Based on univariate analyses, BCL9 expression showed an unfavorable influence on both disease-free survival (DFS, p=0.012) and disease-specific survival (DSS, p=0.032). Multivariate analyses revealed that higher Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage was an independent predictor of both shorter DFS (p<0.001) and shorter DSS (p<0.001). BCL9 expression tended to be an independent predictor of shorter DFS (p=0.078). CONCLUSIONS: BCL9 protein expression might be a marker of shorter DFS in HCC patients after curative hepatectomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cell Proliferation , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Hepatectomy , Immunohistochemistry , Liver Neoplasms , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Recurrence
11.
Journal of the Korean Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine ; : 189-194, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126041

ABSTRACT

We report a case of cardiac lymphoma in a 40-year-old man, who had a mediastinal mass which was diagnosed as sclerosing mediastinitis pathologically. The mediastinal mass caused right pulmonary arterial stenosis. The patient developed myocardial hypertrophy and echocardiography showed restrictive physiology and severely decreased left ventricle ejection fraction, 6 months later. MRI showed global left ventricular myocardial hypertrophy and diffuse late gadolinium hyperenhancement after administration of contrast material. Thus, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy was suspected on MRI. However, pathology confirmed the myocardial abnormality as lymphoma after myocardial biopsy. Because a basal part of the left ventricle and global subendocardial myocardium were not involved on contrast-enhanced delayed MRI, the MRI abnormalities could be differentiated from amyloidosis and other myocardial diseases. The peculiar non-mass forming diffuse hypertrophy pattern of cardiac lymphoma has not been known in the MRI literature.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Amyloidosis , Biopsy , Cardiomyopathies , Constriction, Pathologic , Echocardiography , Gadolinium , Heart Ventricles , Hypertrophy , Lymphoma , Mediastinitis , Myocardium , Sclerosis
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