Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 49
Filter
Add filters








Year range
1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914712

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The effects of aerobic exercise training on soleus muscle morphology, mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signaling, and atrophy/hypertrophy signaling in ovariectomized rat skeletal muscle were investigated. @*Methods@#Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control (CON), ovariectomy (OVX), and ovariectomy plus exercise (OVX+EX) groups. After ovarian excision, exercise training was performed using a rat treadmill at 20 m/min, 50 min/day, 5 days/week for 12 weeks. Protein levels of mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signaling and atrophy/hypertrophy signaling in the skeletal muscle (soleus) were examined through western immunoblot analysis. @*Results@#The number of myocytes and myocyte cross-sectional area (CSA) were increased and the extramyocyte space was decreased in the OVX group compared to those in the CON group. However, aerobic exercise training significantly increased myocyte CSA and decreased extramyocyte space in the OVX+EX group compared to those in the OVX group. The protein levels of proapoptotic signaling and muscle atrophy signaling were significantly increased, whereas the protein levels of muscle hypertrophy signaling were significantly decreased in the OVX group compared to that in the CON group. Aerobic exercise training significantly decreased the protein levels of proapoptotic signaling and increased the protein level of antiapoptotic protein in the OVX+EX group compared to that in the OVX group. Aerobic exercise training significantly increased the protein levels of hypertrophy signaling and decreased protein levels of atrophy signaling in the OVX+EX group compared to those in the OVX group. @*Conclusions@#Treadmill exercise improved estrogen deficiency-induced impairment in skeletal muscle remodeling, mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signaling, and atrophy/hypertrophy signaling in skeletal muscle.

2.
Immune Network ; : e15-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914531

ABSTRACT

Abnormal inflammatory responses are closely associated with intestinal microbial dysbiosis. Oral administration of Qmatrix-diabetes-mellitus complex (QDMC), an Aloe gel-based formula, has been reported to improve inflammation in type 2 diabetic mice; however, the role of the gut microbiota in ameliorating efficacy of QDMC remains unclear. We investigated the effect of QDMC on the gut microbiota in a type 2 diabetic aged mouse model that was administered a high-fat diet. Proinflammatory (TNF-α and IL-6) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokine levels in the fat were normalized via oral administration of QDMC, and relative abundances of Bacteroides, Butyricimonas, Ruminococcus, and Mucispirillum were simultaneously significantly increased. The abundance of these bacteria was correlated to the expression levels of cytokines. Our findings suggest that the immunomodulatory activity of QDMC is partly mediated by the altered gut microbiota composition.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900253

ABSTRACT

Dyslipidemia is a major cause of cardiovascular diseases which represent a leading cause of death in humans. Diverse immune cells are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Conversely, dyslipidemia is known to be tightly associated with immune disorders in humans, as evidenced by a higher incidence of atherosclerosis in patients with autoimmune diseases including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Given that the dyslipidemia-related autoimmune diseases are caused by autoreactive T cells and B cells, dyslipidemia seems to directly or indirectly regulate the adaptive immunity. Indeed, accumulating evidence has unveiled that proatherogenic factors can impact the differentiation and function of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and B cells. This review discusses an updated overview on the regulation of adaptive immunity by dyslipidemia and proposes a potential therapeutic strategy for immune disorders by targeting lipid metabolism.

4.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 879-888, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903237

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of this study is to develop a drawing test form and it’s scoring system for measuring depressive symptoms of breast cancer patients. @*Methods@#We enrolled 95 breast cancer patients in this study which was conducted from September 2016 to May 2018. First, we observed items of the Diagnostic Drawing Series (DDS) which were significantly different between patients with and without depression, and also we reviewed previous studies on the drawing style of Korean women with depression. Second, we developed the Drawing Test Form for Depression (DTF-D) by composition of those drawing styles observed significant items in previous literatures and formative elements of DDS which was significantly different between depressed and non-depressed group. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to define the appropriate score of the DTF-D in accordance with the depression measured with Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score >9. @*Results@#We developed the DTF-D by compositing 8 items including Harmony, Tilt, Symbol, Space utilization, Surrounded, Description, Pen pressure, and Quality of line. The ROC analysis revealed the optimal cut-off score of 7 points of DTF-D in accordance with the clinical depression (PHQ-9 score >9) with the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve showed good discrimination (0.82), sensitivity (0.85), and specificity (0.64). @*Conclusion@#The DTF-D is expected to serve as an evaluative projective drawing test from for identifying depression in breast cancer patients.

5.
Immune Network ; : e7-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874617

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has severely impacted global health and economy. There is currently no effective approved treatment for COVID-19; although vaccines have been granted emergency use authorization in several countries, they are currently only administered to high-risk individuals, thereby leaving a gap in virus control measures. The scientific and clinical communities and drug manufacturers have collaborated to speed up the discovery of potential therapies for COVID-19 by taking advantage of currently approved drugs as well as investigatory agents in clinical trials. In this review, we stratified some of these candidates based on their potential targets in the progression of COVID-19 and discuss some of the results of ongoing clinical evaluations

6.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 879-888, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895533

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of this study is to develop a drawing test form and it’s scoring system for measuring depressive symptoms of breast cancer patients. @*Methods@#We enrolled 95 breast cancer patients in this study which was conducted from September 2016 to May 2018. First, we observed items of the Diagnostic Drawing Series (DDS) which were significantly different between patients with and without depression, and also we reviewed previous studies on the drawing style of Korean women with depression. Second, we developed the Drawing Test Form for Depression (DTF-D) by composition of those drawing styles observed significant items in previous literatures and formative elements of DDS which was significantly different between depressed and non-depressed group. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to define the appropriate score of the DTF-D in accordance with the depression measured with Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score >9. @*Results@#We developed the DTF-D by compositing 8 items including Harmony, Tilt, Symbol, Space utilization, Surrounded, Description, Pen pressure, and Quality of line. The ROC analysis revealed the optimal cut-off score of 7 points of DTF-D in accordance with the clinical depression (PHQ-9 score >9) with the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve showed good discrimination (0.82), sensitivity (0.85), and specificity (0.64). @*Conclusion@#The DTF-D is expected to serve as an evaluative projective drawing test from for identifying depression in breast cancer patients.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892549

ABSTRACT

Dyslipidemia is a major cause of cardiovascular diseases which represent a leading cause of death in humans. Diverse immune cells are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Conversely, dyslipidemia is known to be tightly associated with immune disorders in humans, as evidenced by a higher incidence of atherosclerosis in patients with autoimmune diseases including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Given that the dyslipidemia-related autoimmune diseases are caused by autoreactive T cells and B cells, dyslipidemia seems to directly or indirectly regulate the adaptive immunity. Indeed, accumulating evidence has unveiled that proatherogenic factors can impact the differentiation and function of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and B cells. This review discusses an updated overview on the regulation of adaptive immunity by dyslipidemia and proposes a potential therapeutic strategy for immune disorders by targeting lipid metabolism.

8.
Immune Network ; : e31-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835453

ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of current influenza vaccines is considered suboptimal, and 1 way to improve the vaccines is using adjuvants. However, the current pool of adjuvants used in influenza vaccination is limited due to safety concerns. Aloe vera, or aloe, has been shown to have immunomodulatory functions and to be safe for oral intake. In this study, we explored the potential of orally administered processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) as an adjuvant for influenza vaccines in C57BL/6 mice. We first evaluated its adjuvanticity with a split-type pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) Ag by subjecting the mice to lethal homologous influenza challenge. Oral PAG administration with the pH1N1 Ag increased survival rates in mice to levels similar to those of alum and MF59, which are currently used as adjuvants in influenza vaccine formulations.Similarly, oral PAG administration improved the survival of mice immunized with a commercial trivalent influenza vaccine against lethal homologous and heterologous virus challenge. PAG also increased hemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralization Ab titers against homologous and heterologous influenza strains following immunization with the split-type pH1N1 Ag or the commercial trivalent vaccine. Therefore, this study demonstrates that PAG may potentially be used as an adjuvant for influenza vaccines.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831586

ABSTRACT

Background@#Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is associated with a poor prognosis and may affect the pathogenesis of GBM. In this study, we investigated the role of HCMV-infected astrocytoma cells in impairing the activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) specific to the HCMV protein. @*Methods@#CTLs specific to HCMV immediate early (IE)-1 were expanded from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy donors by stimulating CD8+ T lymphocytes with U373MG cells (ATCC HTB-17: male) expressing HCMV IE-1. The death rate of the target and the effector cells was determined by the total count of the remaining respective cells after the interaction of them. @*Results@#The death rate of the target cells by CTLs increased depending on HLA restriction and the effector:target (E:T) ratio. The death rate of effector cells in the HCMV-infected U373MG cell culture was 37.1% on day 4 post-infection. The removal of the culture supernatant from HCMV-infected U373MG cells prior to adding the effector cells increased target cell death from 8.4% to 40.8% at E:T = 1:1, but not at E:T = 3:1. The transfer of cells from a 24-hour co-culture of the HCMV-infected U373MG cells and CTLs to HCMV IE-1-expressing target cells resulted in decreasing the cell death rate of the target cells from 31.1% to 13.0% at E:T = 1:1, but not at E:T = 3:1. HCMV infection of U373MG cells decreases the activity of CTLs specific to HCMV when the number of CTLs is low. @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that HCMV could impair CTL activity and facilitate glioblastoma growth unchecked by CTLs.

10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787382

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to evaluate clinical use of laser fluorescence (LF) to identify early childhood caries lesions suitable for applying resin infiltration.20 exfoliated primary molars with proximal caries were selected and cut buccolingually cross the central pit for regarding the mesial and distal surfaces respectively. 27 specimens corresponding to ICDAS code 1 and 2 were selected and the LF values were measured. When infiltrant resin was applied, double staining for microscopy detection has done simultaneously. Tooth samples were sliced with 0.7 mm thick. The maximum lesion depth, maximum penetration depth, and average penetration rate were measured from the confocal scanning laser microscope image. Pearson correlation analysis was performed.The intraclass correlation coefficient of LF values shows excellent agreement. LF values had positive correlation with penetration rate, but not lesion depth and penetration depth. Significant correlation between LF readings and penetration rate was verified in deep enamel caries and dentin caries except shallow enamel caries.Infiltrant resin could penetrate with a higher rate and LF values could be increased in more active caries lesions. In assessing radiologically similar caries lesion, laser fluorescence might be useful for identifying caries activity.


Subject(s)
Dental Enamel , Dentin , Fluorescence , Microscopy , Molar , Reading , Tooth , Tooth, Deciduous
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787381

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate effect of saliva decontamination procedures on microtensile bond strength (MTBS) of 1-step self-etching adhesives to dentin of primary posterior teeth.63 sound primary-posterior teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups according to different kinds of 1-step self-etching adhesives: Scotchbond™ Universal Adhesive (SBU), All-Bond Universal® (ABU), and Tetric® N Bond Universal (TBU). Each group was randomly categorized into 7 subgroups: (I) application of adhesive without saliva contamination (control); (II – IV) contamination by saliva before photopolymerization; (V – VII) contamination by saliva after photopolymerization; (II, V) decontamination by drying; (III, VI) decontamination by washing and drying; (IV, VII) decontamination by washing, drying, and reapplication of adhesive. All samples were cut into the blocks. At least 15 blocks were tested for each subgroup.For SBU and ABU, the MTBS values of subgroups (I, IV, VII) were significantly higher than those of subgroups (II, III, V, VI). For TBU, the MTBS values of subgroups (I, IV) was significantly higher than those of subgroup (II, III, V, VI).The MTBS of 3 adhesives was reduced by saliva contamination. The adhesive strength on dentin of primary posterior teeth was restored by reapplication of the adhesives after washing and drying.


Subject(s)
Adhesives , Decontamination , Dentin , Saliva , Tooth
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787378

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to determine the effectiveness of oral health education program with a home-using portable device according to the individual oral health status in children.58 children who were 6 – 12 years old were included in this study. All subjects were affiliated to moderate or high caries risk group based on caries risk test. They were divided into 2 groups: (I) home-using portable device group (II) control group. Both groups were evaluated with simple plaque score (SPS) using camera type quantitative light-induced fluorescence device and educated with identical oral health education methods. Subjects in group I were demanded to use a home-using portable device. After 1 month, both groups were re-evaluated.Cariview score that can reflect the acidogenic potential of plaque bacteria was statistically reduced in both groups (p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference between two groups in the change of Cariview score (p = 0.022). In group I, the decrease was larger than that in group II. There was no statistically significant difference in the change of SPS (p = 0.937).Oral health education improved oral hygiene status in children. However, this study confirmed that it was much more effective to improve oral health status in children with a home-using portable device in their daily oral hygiene care.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Child , Education , Fluorescence , Humans , Oral Health , Oral Hygiene
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787370

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate skeletodental characteristics of patient with maxillary lateral incisor agenesis (MLIA) in mixed dentition.It involved the children in early mixed dentition who visited Pusan National University dental hospital for orthodontic purposed and had intact primary canines. 38 children with MLIA and 38 controls with the same chronological age satisfying the inclusion criteria were selected. The craniofacial structures and dental arch dimensions of the MLIA were evaluated using model & cephalometric analysis and compared to controls.The rate of unilateral MLIA was high in male and the rate of bilateral MLIA was high in female. In model analysis, the width / length ratio of maxillary anterior portion of the MLIA group were higher and arch perimeter of the maxilla of the MLIA group were smaller than those of the control group (p = 0.003, 0.04). Cephalometric analysis showed that there were no significant differences in terms of skeletal, dental analysis. In soft tissue profile, nasolabial angle was larger in MLIAs than in controls (p = 0.039).Considering these skeletodental characteristics of MLIA, early diagnosis and proper management is highly recommended to minimize the possibility of functional defect.


Subject(s)
Child , Dental Arch , Dentition, Mixed , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Incisor , Male , Maxilla
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787363

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to evaluate orofacial morphologies on the cases of developmental disorders of maxillary first molars.Panoramic radiographs, lateral cephalographs, and clinical photos of 2983 children who attended the Pediatric Dental Clinic of Pusan National University Dental Hospital from 2006 to August 2017 were assessed retrospectively. 34 patients were selected whose maxillary first molars were missed or developmentally delayed unilaterally or bilaterally. Demirjian' s method was used for estimating dental age, then which was compared to chronologic age of children. Parameters expressing skeletal and dentoalveolar disharmony were checked and compared with control. Additionally, occlusion relationship was evaluated.Maxillary dental age was significantly delayed compared to chronologic age. Several parameters which show skeletal open-bite tendency and skeletal class III malocclusion with maxillary retrusion were statistically significant. Anterior crossbite and edge-bite were expected in most of these cases, but compensation by occlusion and soft tissue was also verified which might mask skeletal class III tendency.Congenital missed or developmentally delayed maxillary first molars might be related with declined growth of maxilla. If developmental disorders of maxillary first molars were verified during clinical examination, careful monitoring of orofacial growth was necessary during puberty and timed orthopedic and orthodontic intervention were considered.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Compensation and Redress , Dental Clinics , Humans , Malocclusion , Masks , Maxilla , Methods , Molar , Orthopedics , Puberty , Retrognathia , Retrospective Studies
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787347

ABSTRACT

Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) induces dysfunction of the orofacial muscles, leading to morphologic alteration of the face and dental malalignment. Early diagnosis and treatment of SDB is required in pediatric patients to ensure normal facial growth. Myofunctional therapy (MFT) is a modality for the treatment of SDB and prefabricated appliances can be used. Herein 2 cases of malocclusion with SDB, in which MFT with a prefabricated appliance was used for orthodontic treatment, have been described. SDB was diagnosed based on clinical symptoms taken by interview and home respiratory polygraphy. In both cases, SDB was improved using prefabricated appliance for MFT. However, resolution of crowding depended on the degree of crowding.


Subject(s)
Child , Crowding , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Malocclusion , Muscles , Myofunctional Therapy , Sleep Apnea Syndromes
16.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 96-101, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760577

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate clinical markers for the diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and determine the correlation between abnormal newborn hearing screening results and asymptomatic congenital CMV infection. METHODS: Medical records of newborns with congenital CMV infection, born at Cheil General Hospital & Women's Healthcare Center from July 2008 to June 2018, were retrospectively reviewed. Infants with congenital CMV infection were classified into “symptomatic,” “asymptomatic,” and “asymptomatic with isolated abnormal automated auditory brainstem response (AABR)” groups. Clinical data were analyzed based on this classification. RESULTS: Among the 59,424 live births, congenital CMV infection was found in 25 neonates, including 19 symptomatic (0.03%) infants, two asymptomatic, and four asymptomatic with isolated abnormal AABR. Diagnostic clues for the identification of congenital CMV infection were intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), including microcephaly in 10 infants (40.0%), abnormal AABR in four (16.0%), initial complicated signs in four (16.0%), and abnormal findings on brain ultrasonography in three (12.0%). Other less common markers included petechiae, abnormal findings on antenatal ultrasonography, and co-twin with CMV infection. During the recent 10 years, 53,094 of 59,424 newborns (89.3%) had AABR for hearing screening and 493 (0.9%) did not pass. Among them, 477 (96.8%) were screened for CMV, and results were positive for seven (1.5%). Among the seven infants, four had asymptomatic congenital CMV infection. Overall, 0.8% of the newborns with abnormal AABR (four of 477 infants) were diagnosed as having asymptomatic congenital CMV infection. CONCLUSION: The incidence of symptomatic congenital CMV infection was 0.03%, and 0.8% of infants who failed in the newborn hearing screening tests had asymptomatic congenital CMV infection. The most common clinical marker to diagnose congenital CMV infection was IUGR, including microcephaly, and the second isolated marker was abnormal AABR.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Brain , Classification , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Cytomegalovirus , Delivery of Health Care , Diagnosis , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Fetal Growth Retardation , Hearing , Hospitals, General , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Live Birth , Mass Screening , Medical Records , Microcephaly , Purpura , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To validate the clinical application of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) as a first-tier clinical diagnostic test and to determine the impact of CMA results on patient clinical management, we conducted a multicenter prospective study in Korean patients diagnosed as having developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). METHODS: We performed both CMA and G-banding cytogenetics as the first-tier tests in 617 patients. To determine whether the CMA results directly influenced treatment recommendations, the referring clinicians were asked to complete a 39-item questionnaire for each patient separately after receiving the CMA results. RESULTS: A total of 122 patients (19.8%) had abnormal CMA results, with either pathogenic variants (N=65) or variants of possible significance (VPS, N=57). Thirty-five well-known diseases were detected: 16p11.2 microdeletion syndrome was the most common, followed by Prader-Willi syndrome, 15q11-q13 duplication, Down syndrome, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Variants of unknown significance (VUS) were discovered in 51 patients (8.3%). VUS of genes putatively associated with developmental disorders were found in five patients: IMMP2L deletion, PTCH1 duplication, and ATRNL1 deletion. CMA results influenced clinical management, such as imaging studies, specialist referral, and laboratory testing in 71.4% of patients overall, and in 86.0%, 83.3%, 75.0%, and 67.3% of patients with VPS, pathogenic variants, VUS, and benign variants, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical application of CMA as a first-tier test improves diagnostic yields and the quality of clinical management in patients with DD/ID, ASD, and MCA.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , Cytogenetics , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Down Syndrome , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Korea , Microarray Analysis , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne , Prader-Willi Syndrome , Prospective Studies , Referral and Consultation , Specialization
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764240

ABSTRACT

Zika virus (ZIKV) is one of the pathogens which is transmitted world widely, but there are no effective drugs and vaccines. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of viruses could be applied to viral pathogen characterization, diagnosis, molecular surveillance, and even finding novel pathogens. We established an improved method using direct RNA sequencing with Nanopore technology to obtain WGS of ZIKV, after adding poly (A) tails to viral RNA. This established method does not require specific primers, complimentary DNA (cDNA) synthesis, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based enrichment, resulting in the reduction of biases as well as of the ability to find novel RNA viruses. Nanopore technology also allows to read long sequences. It makes WGS easier and faster with long-read assembly. In this study, we obtained WGS of two strains of ZIKV following the established protocol. The sequenced reads resulted in 99% and 100% genome coverage with 63.5X and 21,136X, for the ZIKV PRVABC59 and MR 766 strains, respectively. The sequence identities of the ZIKV PRVABC59 and MR 766 strains for each reference genomes were 98.76% and 99.72%, respectively. We also found that the maximum length of reads was 10,311 bp which is almost the whole genome size of ZIKV. These long-reads could make overall structure of whole genome easily, and WGS faster and easier. The protocol in this study could provide rapid and efficient WGS that could be applied to study the biology of RNA viruses including identification, characterization, and global surveillance.


Subject(s)
Bias , Biology , Diagnosis , DNA , Genome , Genome Size , Methods , Nanopores , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA Viruses , RNA , RNA, Viral , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Tail , Vaccines , Zika Virus
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764237

ABSTRACT

The diverse infectious diseases can occur everywhere in the world, but high-risk infectious diseases should be monitored immediately after the occurrence, and be controlled not to spread to the public. Other highly contagious ones also should be screened with the surveillance system and made to be prevented from a serious effect on public health. The outbreak information, articles and news reports concerning global infectious disease outbreaks were collected from known web-based resources and deposited in Global Center for Infectious Diseases since 2016. The number of reports collected from various sources was analyzed on the respect of Blueprint priority diseases and vaccine-preventable diseases, and the characteristic outbreak trend was shown in the geographic distribution and the so-called socio-economic level of countries. The WHO R&D Blueprint priority diseases are being reported especially in the region of Africa and Asia. The vaccine-preventable and other infectious diseases also are reported continuously and world-widely. They threaten the safety of life continuously in public. Therefore, keeping close observation and strengthening infectious disease surveillance is needed, and more effort to expand the collecting resources to get more outbreak information is warranted.


Subject(s)
Africa , Asia , Communicable Diseases , Disease Outbreaks , Public Health
20.
Immune Network ; : e28-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764018

ABSTRACT

IL-18 is a crucial pro-inflammatory cytokine that mediates chronic intestinal inflammation. Metformin, an anti-diabetic drug, was reported to have ameliorative effects on inflammatory bowel disease. Recently, the mechanism of action of metformin was explained as a modulation of gut microbiota. In this study, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) using fecal material from metformin-treated mice was found to upregulate the expression of GLP-1 and pattern-recognition receptors TLR1 and TLR4 for the improvement in hyperglycemia caused by a high-fat diet. Further, FMT downregulated the expression of the inflammatory cytokine IL-18. Within the genera Akkermansia, Bacteroides, and Butyricimonas, which were promoted by metformin therapy, Butyricimonas was found to be consistently abundant following FMT. Our findings suggest that modulation of gut microbiota is a key factor for the anti-inflammatory effects of metformin which is used for the treatment of hyperglycemia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacteroides , Diet, High-Fat , Down-Regulation , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Hyperglycemia , Inflammation , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Interleukin-18 , Metformin , Mice , Toll-Like Receptors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL