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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57565


Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in hot pepper, activates nociceptors to produce pain and inflammation. However, prolonged exposures of capsaicin will cause desensitization to nociceptive stimuli. Hyperpolarization-activated cation currents (Ih) contribute to the maintenance of the resting membrane potential and excitability of neurons. In the cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, we investigated mechanisms underlying capsaicin-mediated modulation of Ih using patch clamp recordings. Capsaicin (1 microM) inhibited Ih only in the capsaicin-sensitive neurons. The capsaicin-induced inhibition of Ih was prevented by preexposing the TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine (CPZ). Capsaicin-induced inhibition of Ih was dose dependent (IC50= 0.68 microM) and partially abolished by intracellular BAPTA and cyclosporin A, specific calcineurin inhibitor. In summary, the inhibitory effects of capsaicin on Ih are mediated by activation of TRPV1 and Ca(2+)-triggered cellular responses. Analgesic effects of capsaicin have been thought to be related to desensitization of nociceptive neurons due to depletion of pain-related substances. In addition, capsaicin-induced inhibition of Ih is likely to be important in understanding the analgesic mechanism of capsaicin.

Animals , Calcineurin , Capsaicin , Cyclosporine , Egtazic Acid , Ganglia, Spinal , Inflammation , Membrane Potentials , Neurons , Nociceptors , Rats , Spinal Nerve Roots
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728099


The objective of the present study was to establish the method of measurement of hydrogen peroxide and to estimate the anti-oxidative effect of genistein in the skin. UVB induced skin oxidation and anti-oxidative effect of genistein formulations were evaluated by determining levels of hydrogen peroxide. The mechanism involved in the determination of hydrogen peroxide is based on a color reaction between ferric ion (Fe3+) and xylenol orange, often called FOX assay and subsequent monitoring of absorbance values of the reactant at 540 nm. The reaction was to some extent pH-dependent and detection sensitivity was greatest at pH 1.75. Genistein liposomal gel demonstrated better anti-oxidative effect with regard to lowering hydrogen peroxide levels elevated by UVB irradiation compared to genistein-suspended gel. A linear relationship has been observed between anti-oxidative effect of genistein and drug deposition in the skin tissue. Genistein liposomal gel resulting in the localization of the drug in the deeper skin led to improved anti-oxidative effect compared to genistein gel. The suggested method for evaluation of oxidation of the skin can be used as a tool to screen effective anti-oxidative agents and their delivery systems acting on the skin.

Citrus sinensis , Genistein , Hydrogen Peroxide , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Phenols , Skin , Sulfoxides
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728098


Recent studies have demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) activates transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) via S-nitrosylation of the channel protein. NO also modulates various cellular functions via activation of the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/protein kinase G (PKG) pathway and the direct modification of proteins. Thus, in the present study, we investigated whether NO could indirectly modulate the activity of TRPV1 via a cGMP/PKG-dependent pathway in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. NO donors, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and S-nitro-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), decreased capsaicin-evoked currents (Icap). NO scavengers, hemoglobin and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (CPTIO), prevented the inhibitory effect of SNP on Icap. Membrane-permeable cGMP analogs, 8-bromoguanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (8bromo-cGMP) and 8-(4chlorophenylthio)-guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-pCPT-cGMP), and the guanylyl cyclase stimulator YC-1 mimicked the effect of SNP on Icap. The PKG inhibitor KT5823 prevented the inhibition of Icap by SNP. These results suggest that NO can downregulate the function of TRPV1 through activation of the cGMP/PKG pathway in peripheral sensory neurons.

Animals , Benzoates , Carbazoles , Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Ganglia, Spinal , Guanosine , Guanylate Cyclase , Hemoglobins , Humans , Imidazoles , Neurons , Nitric Oxide , Nitroprusside , Penicillamine , Phosphotransferases , Proteins , Rats , Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear , Sensory Receptor Cells , Spinal Nerve Roots , Tissue Donors
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207074


The extracellular calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) belongs to the type III family of G-protein-coupled receptors, a family that comprises the metabotropic glutamate receptor and the putative vomeronasal organ receptors. The CaSR plays an important role for calcium homeostasis in parathyroid cells, kidney cells and other cells to directly 'sense' changes in the extracellular calcium ion concentration ((Ca2+)o). The mesangial cells are known to be involved in many pathologic sequences through the mediation of altered glomerular hemodynamics, cell proliferation, and matrix production. In this study, we examined the expression of the CaSR in the mouse mesangial cell lines (MMC, ATCC number CRL-1927). Reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was perform with CaSR-specific primers, and this was followed by nucleotide sequencing of the amplified product; this process identified the CaSR transcript in the MMCs. Moreover, CaSR protein was present in the MMCs as assessed by Western blot and immunocytochemical analysis using a polyclonal antibody specific for the CaSR. Functionally, (Ca2+)o induced the increment of the intracellular calcium concentration ((Ca2+)i) in a dose-dependent manner. This (Ca2+)i increment by (Ca2+)o was attenuated by the pretreatment with a phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122) and also by a pretreatment with a CaSR antagonist (NPS 2390). The similar results were also obtained in IP3 accumulation by (Ca2+)o. To investigate the physiological effect of the CaSR, the effect of the (Ca2+)o on cell proliferation was studied. The increased (Ca2+)o (up to 10 mM) produced a significant increase in the cell numbers. This mitogenic effect of (Ca2+)o was inhibited by the co-treatment with a CaSR antagonist. From these results, the (Ca2+)o-induced (Ca2+)i elevation in the MMC is coupled with the extracellular calcium sensing receptor. Furthermore, (Ca2+)o produces a mitogenic effect in MMCs.

Animals , Calcium/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate/metabolism , Mesangial Cells/cytology , Mice , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Receptors, Calcium-Sensing/genetics
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727619


The glutamate receptors (GluRs) are key receptors for modulatory synaptic events in the central nervous system. It has been reported that glutamate increases the intracellularCa (2+) concentration ([Ca2+]i) and induces cytotoxicity. In the present study, we investigated whether the glutamate-induced[Ca2+]i increase was associated with the activation of ionotropic (iGluR) and metabotropic GluRs (mGluR) in substantia gelatinosa neurons, using spinal cord slice of juvenile rats (10~21 day) .[Ca2+]i was measured using conventional imaging techniques, which was combined with whole-cell patch clamp recording by incorporating fura-2 in the patch pipette. At physiological concentration of extracellularCa (2+), the inward current and[Ca2+]i increase were induced by membrane depolarization and application of glutamate. Dose-response relationship with glutamate was observed in bothCa (2+) signal and inward current. The glutamate-induced[Ca2+]i increase at holding potential of 70 mV was blocked by CNQX, an AMPA receptor blocker, but not by AP-5, a NMDA receptor blocker. The glutamate-induced[Ca2+]i increase inCa (2+) free condition was not affected by iGluR blockers. A selective mGluR (group I) agonist, RS-3, 5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), induced[Ca2+]i increase at holding potential of 70 mV in SG neurons. These findings suggest that the glutamate-induced[Ca2+]i increase is associated with AMPA-sensitive iGluR and group I mGluR in SG neurons of rats.

6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione , Animals , Central Nervous System , Fura-2 , Glutamic Acid , Membranes , N-Methylaspartate , Neurons , Rats , Receptors, AMPA , Receptors, Glutamate , Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate , Spinal Cord , Substantia Gelatinosa
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728112


Capsaicin, a pungent ingredient of hot pepper, elicits an intense burning pain when applied cutaneously and intradermally. Activation of capsaicin-gated channel in. C-type dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons produces nonselective cationic currents. Although electrophysiological and biochemical properties of capsaicin-activated current (ICAP) were studied, the regulatory mechanism and intracellular signaling pathway are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the modulations of ICAP by DAMGO (micro-opioid agonist) and cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8). In 18 out of 86 cells, the amplitude of ICAP was significantly increased by DAMGO and completely reversed after washout, while ICAP was decreased by DAMGO in 25 cells. In 43 cells, DAMGO had no effect on ICAP. Mean action potential duration was significantly different between 'increased-by-DAMGO' group and 'decreased-by-DAMGO' group. Mean amplitudes of IH were not significantly different between both groups. CCK-8 reversibly enhanced the amplitude of ICAP (5/13). DAMGO also increased ICAP amplitude significantly in the same cells. The amplitude of ICAP was increased in additive manner by combined applications of DAMGO and CCK-8 in these cells. These results suggest that DAMGO and CCK-8 can either increase or decrease ICAP presumably depending on the subtypes of DRG cells and classified by electrophysiological properties.

Action Potentials , Analgesics, Opioid , Animals , Burns , Capsaicin , Cholecystokinin , Diagnosis-Related Groups , Enkephalin, Ala(2)-MePhe(4)-Gly(5)- , Ganglia, Spinal , Neurons , Rats , Sincalide , Spinal Nerve Roots