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1.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 228-236, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999456

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The tablet form of tacrolimus is more convenient for drug ingestion than the capsule form. We examined the efficacy and safety of tacrolimus tablets and a satisfaction survey after formula conversion in liver transplant (LT) recipients. @*Methods@#This study was an open-label, prospective clinical trial for tacrolimus formula 1:1 conversion from capsule to tablet in 41 adult LT recipients with tacrolimus maintenance therapy of more than 1 month. The primary endpoint was incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) within 24 weeks. Surveys 1 week before and 4 weeks after formula conversion were conducted for total daily dose of medication, number, scale of discomfort and satisfaction. @*Results@#The overall incidence of BPAR was 0% and there was no graft loss or patient death. The incidence of adverse effects was 34.1% (n = 14) after formula conversion. The most common severe adverse effect was abnormal liver function test (n = 5): biliary complications (n = 4) and alcoholic recidivism (n = 1). Total daily dose and number of tacrolimus doses were significantly lower after formula conversion (P < 0.05) without changes in trough level. According to survey analysis, there was no significant difference in discomfort and satisfaction scales from capsule to tablet conversion (P < 0.05). @*Conclusion@#The present study suggests that the new tablet formula can be a useful treatment option to maintain a consistent level of tacrolimus with a lower total daily dose and number in adult LT recipients.

2.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 47-56, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999426

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Total necrosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) achieved via locoregional treatment (LRT) is considered to indicate a lack of tumor viability. Nonetheless, there is insufficient evidence of recurrence after liver transplantation (LT) in patients with such a status. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognosis of patients diagnosed with totally necrotic nodules upon explant hepatectomy after LT. @*Methods@#We conducted a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with totally necrotic nodules after LT for HCC. A total of 165 patients with HCC who underwent living- or deceased-donor LT from 2000 to 2020 in our hospital were included. @*Results@#A total of 5 patients (3.0%) exhibited HCC recurrence during a median follow-up of 84 months (range, 4–243 months) after LT. The 5-year overall and recurrence-free survival rates of these patients were 92.8% and 92.2%, respectively. Four patients in the HCC-recurrence group (80.0%) died even after further treatment, including transarterial chemoembolization, surgery, and systemic treatment. Both univariate and multivariate analyses of clinicopathological factors identified a maximum diameter of the totally necrotic nodules of >5 cm as the only factor associated with tumor recurrence following LT (P = 0.005 and P = 0.009, respectively). @*Conclusion@#Total necrosis of HCC via LRT yielded excellent survival outcomes for patients undergoing LT. Nevertheless, patients with large tumors should be considered at high risk of recurrence after LT, suggesting the need for their active surveillance during the follow-up period.

3.
Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education ; : 124-137, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000947

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study’s aim was to confirm the importance and performance of the clinical practice of nurses working in the general wards of a tertiary hospital and to analyze their educational needs. @*Methods@#The study employed a descriptive research design, and a self-reported questionnaire was developed and used for nurses in a tertiary hospital. Data were collected from July 22 to July 29, 2022, analyzed by an independent t-test, paired t-test, and one-way ANOVA for the importance and performance of each clinical nursing practice according to general characteristics, and then a post hoc verification was performed by Scheffé’s test. An Importance-Performance Analysis and Borich needs assessment model were used to analyze clinical nursing education needs. @*Results@#Clinical nursing practice performance showed a significant difference according to length of total clinical career, time working in current department, and preceptor experience. According to the results of the Importance-Performance Analysis, neurological evaluation, and nursing intervention, artificial respirator and high-flow oxygen inhalation nursing, chemotherapy, emergency nursing, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation were identified as belonging to the “concentrate here” quadrant. All these items ranked in the top 10 in the Borich needs assessment model. @*Conclusion@#Based on these results, the current education system should be reviewed, and short and long term education strategies based on educational needs should be established to strengthen the competence of nurses.

4.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 912-920, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002752

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to explore the mediating effects of cancer-related dysfunctional beliefs regarding sleep and intolerance of uncertainty on the effect of depression, insomnia, and anxiety on fear of progression (FoP). @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients with cancer who visited the Sleep Clinic for cancer patients in Asan Medical Center for the first time between December 2021 and March 2022. Data collected included age, sex, types of cancer, staging, current treatment modalities, and history of surgical procedures. In addition, psychological symptoms were rated using the Insomnia Severity Scale (ISI), Patient Health Questionnaire–9 items (PHQ-9), State subcategory of the State and Trait of Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S), Short form of Fear of Progression Questionnaire, Cancer-related Dysfunctional Beliefs about Sleep scale (C-DBS), single item of pain and fatigue, Connor Davidson Resilience Scale 2-item (CD-RISC2), and Intolerance of Uncertainty–12 (IUS-12). The predictive variables for FoP were determined by linear regression analysis. @*Results@#The FoP was significantly correlated with age (r=-0.289), ISI (r=0.178), PHQ-9 (r=0.703), STAI-S (r=0.377), fatigue (r=0.452), CD-RISC2 (r=-0.270), IUS-12 (r=0.585), and C-DBS (r=0.427, all p<0.01). A mediation analysis showed that intolerance of uncertainty and dysfunctional beliefs about sleep mediated the relationship of FoP with insomnia, depression, or anxiety. @*Conclusion@#Psychological support for intolerance of uncertainty and cancer-related dysfunctional beliefs about sleep in patients with cancer may be beneficial to reduce their FoP.

5.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1095-1102, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002731

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study assessed the reliability and validity of the Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics–9 items (SAVE-9) and Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics–6 items (SAVE-6) scales for measuring viral anxiety among firefighters during the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic. @*Methods@#An online survey was conducted among 304 firefighters assigned in Gyeonggi-do. The SAVE-9 scale, initially developed for healthcare workers, was adapted for firefighters. We compared it with the SAVE-6 scale designed for the general population among the firefighters sample. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to explore the factor structure of both scales. Internal consistency reliability was checked using Cronbach’s alpha and McDonald’s omega. Convergent validity was assessed in accordance with the Patient Health Questionnaire–9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder–7 scales. @*Results@#The SAVE-9 scale demonstrated a Cronbach alpha of 0.880, while the SAVE-6 scale yielded an alpha of 0.874. CFA indicated good model fits for both SAVE-9 and SAVE-6 scales among firefighters sample. The SAVE-9 and SAVE-6 comparably measures viral anxiety of firefighters. @*Conclusion@#Both of the SAVE-9 and SAVE-6 scales are reliable and valid instruments for assessing viral anxiety among firefighters during the pandemic.

6.
Korean Journal of Family Medicine ; : 334-343, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968105

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hearing loss (HL) has been suggested to be associated with impaired microcirculation of the inner ear. This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate an association between HL and serum lipid levels. @*Methods@#The study comprised 10,356 Korean adults who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010–2012). We defined HL as the average hearing thresholds exceeding 25 dB at predetermined frequency levels by pure tone audiometry. Serum lipid levels were measured using an enzymatic assay. The associations between lipid levels and HL were evaluated using a multiple logistic regression model after adjusting for covariates including age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status, alcohol, physical activity, educational level, household income, and noise exposure. Stratified analyses were performed to examine the effect of the covariates on the association between lipid levels and HL. @*Results@#The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level was inversely associated with high-frequency (HF)-HL, with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.78 (0.64–0.96) for 1-mmol/L increase in the HDL-C level. Neither the triglyceride nor the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was associated with HF-HL. For low-frequency HL, association with any of the serum lipid components was absent. A stratified analysis showed that the inverse association between HDL-C levels and HF-HL was evident (P trend 0.05). @*Conclusion@#The HDL-C level has a linear inverse association with the risk of HF-HL. Given the known protective role of HDL-C against atherosclerotic changes, this finding seems to support the concept of impaired microcirculation in the inner ear as a mechanism for HF-HL.

7.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 40-45, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937785

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The biggest concern related to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is local recurrence and recurrence patterns. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between clinicopathological factors and relapse in patients treated with DCIS. @*Methods@#We reviewed medical records of 104 patients who were diagnosed as DCIS between January 1999 and December 2015 at a single institute. We compared and analyzed clinicopathological factors such as age at diagnosis, preoperative lesions on ultrasonography, preoperative tumor markers, operation methods in the breast, histological grade, nuclear grade, resection margin, comedonecrosis, estrogen receptor/ progesterone receptor expression, human epidermal factor receptor 2eu expression, Ki-67, postoperative implementation of adjuvant hormonal therapy, and radiotherapy by dividing them into recurrent and non-recurrent groups. @*Results@#Seventeen patients (16.3%) of 104 patients relapsed in the ipsilateral or contralateral breast. The median follow-up period of non-relapsed group was 4.9 years (range, 0.5–19.15) and the median follow-up period of relapsed group was 3.5 years (range, 1.4–14.13). Clinicopathological factors that were significantly related to relapse were nuclear grade (p=0.022) and Ki-67 (p=0.025) based on the results of chi-square or Fisher’s exact analysis. In multivariate analysis using logistic regression, Ki-67 (p=0.021) was significantly associated with DCIS relapse. @*Conclusion@#This study suggested that the higher Ki-67 over 14% was strongly associated with DCIS relapse.

8.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 46-52, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937784

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The luminal subtype of breast cancer has heterogeneous biological characteristics with respect to the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2), and Ki-67. We analyzed luminal B breast cancer subcategorized by PR expression and identified clinically relevant prognostic factors. @*Methods@#We collected the clinical and pathologic data of 247 breast cancer patients (stage 1-4) who were diagnosed with luminal B subtype, defined as ER- and/or PR-positive and/or HER2-positive and with a high Ki-67 proliferation index (>14%). We classified them into PR intact and PR low groups according to PR expression pattern. We also analyzed the clinical and pathological data of each group, including age at diagnosis, tumor size, node metastasis, breast and axillary operative method, margin involvement, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, histological grade, nuclear grade, number of tumors, and expression of ER, PR, Ki-67, and Bcl-2; evaluated recurrence or metastatic characteristics; and analyzed disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in both groups. @*Results@#Among the 247 luminal B breast cancer patients (stage 1-4), 141 were classified into the PR intact group (57.1%) and 106 into the PR low group (42.9%). The PR low group was associated with age >50 years (p=0.001), low Bcl-2 expression (p<0.001), and high proportion of mastectomies (p<0.001). DFS and OS were significantly lower in the PR low group (p=0.025 and 0.024, respectively). @*Conclusion@#This study showed that decreased in PR expression (PR low group) in luminal B breast cancer was related to poor prognosis compared to normal PR expression (PR intact group).

9.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 233-243, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937754

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study investigated changes in attitudes toward marriage and childbearing assuming a BRCA1/2 mutation carrier status among healthy, unmarried individuals in Korea. @*Methods@#A nationally representative sample of healthy, unmarried individuals aged 20–39 years was surveyed. A questionnaire on marriage and childbearing intentions was administered to the participants before and after providing them with information on BRCA1/2 mutation carriers’ breast and ovarian cancer risks and their autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. The participants were asked about their attitudes toward childbearing through preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). @*Results@#Of the participants who initially wanted to marry, the assumption that they or their partners had BRCA1/2 mutation caused 25.3% to no longer want to get married and 36.2% to change their attitude from wanting to bear children to no longer wanting them. Females were more likely than males to change their attitudes toward marriage and childbearing. The participants who had negative attitudes toward genetic testing were more likely to change their attitudes regarding marriage and childbearing than those who were favorable toward both disclosure and testing. More than 50% of the participants who did not want children were willing to bear children through PGD when it was assumed that they were BRCA mutation carriers. @*Conclusion@#On the assumption of being carriers, general, young, and healthy females were more likely than males to negatively change their attitudes toward marriage and childbearing. Public education on the implications of living with mutation carriers and reproductive options may be required.

10.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 375-382, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925672

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study investigated the attitudes toward risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) and risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) as cancer prevention options for BRCA1/2 carriers in healthy, young, unmarried Korean women. @*Materials and Methods@#A nationally representative sample of 600 women, aged 20-39 years, completed a questionnaire on sociodemographic variables, preference for genetic testing, and intention to undergo risk-reducing surgeries after receiving information on the cancer risk of BRCA1/2 mutations and benefits of risk-reducing surgeries. @*Results@#A total of 54.7% and 57.7% had the intention to undergo RRM and RRSO, respectively, on the assumption that they were BRCA1/2 carriers. Older age and no intention to undergo genetic testing were associated with a reduced likelihood of undergoing RRM (odds ratio [OR], 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14 to 0.61 for age 35-39 years and OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.62 for no intention for genetic testing) and RRSO (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.79 for age 35-39 years and OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.53 for no intention for genetic testing). Women who chose to be single were likely to undergo risk-reducing surgeries (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.07 to 2.60 for RRM and OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.44 for RRSO). @*Conclusion@#More than 50% of healthy, unmarried, young Korean women were inclined to undergo prophylactic surgeries if they were BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Further studies on decision-making process for cancer prevention in individuals at high risk for cancer need to be conducted.

11.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 290-297, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925221

ABSTRACT

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological illness marked by a strong desire to move one’s legs, usually in association with uncomfortable sensations. Recent studies have investigated brain networks and connectivity in RLS. The advent of network analysis has greatly improved our understanding of the brain and various neurological disorders. A few studies have investigated alterations in functional connectivity in patients with RLS. This article reviews functional connectivity studies of patients with RLS, which have identified significant alterations relative to healthy controls in several brain networks including thalamic, salience, default-mode, and small-world networks. In addition, network changes related to RLS treatment have been found, including to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcutaneous spinal cord direct-current stimulation, and dopaminergic drugs. These findings suggest that the underlying pathogenesis of RLS includes alterations in the functional connectivity in the brain and that RLS is a network disorder.

12.
Korean Journal of Family Medicine ; : 53-58, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902033

ABSTRACT

Background@#We aimed to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and hearing loss (HL) in light of noise exposure in Korean middle-aged adults. @*Methods@#Subjects were 10,356 adults (4,509 males, 5,847 females) aged 40–80 years, who completed audiometric tests and laboratory examinations as part of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2012. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program-Third Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP III) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Low-frequency HL was defined as pure tone averages >25 decibels (dB) at low frequencies (0.5, 1, and 2 kilohertz [kHz]). High-frequency HL was defined as pure tone averages >25 dB at high frequencies (3, 4, and 6 kHz). Odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of MetS associated with each HL type were estimated using multiple logistic regression analysis after adjusting for covariates and taking into consideration sampling weight. @*Results@#38.1% and 28.6% met the MetS by NCEP III and IDF criteria, respectively. Prevalence of HL was 29.3% and 63.9% for low- and high-frequency HL, respectively. MetS defined by NCEP III was associated with higher risk of high-frequency HL (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.05–1.73), while MetS by IDF criteria was not. The interaction by the noise exposure on the MetS and high-frequency HL was not significant (P-interaction=0.100). There was no association between MetS and low-frequency HL, regardless of applied diagnostic criteria for MetS. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest MetS is associated with high-frequency HL in people with exposure to noise.

13.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 210-213, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900897

ABSTRACT

Although genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder, cases of genetic CJD with E200K mutation are being increasingly reported in Korea. However, the clinical features and course of genetic CJD with E200K mutation in Korea remain unclear. We describe the clinical features and course of genetic CJD with E200K mutation in a patient who initially presented with rapid progressive memory impairment and myoclonus.

14.
Korean Journal of Family Medicine ; : 53-58, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894329

ABSTRACT

Background@#We aimed to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and hearing loss (HL) in light of noise exposure in Korean middle-aged adults. @*Methods@#Subjects were 10,356 adults (4,509 males, 5,847 females) aged 40–80 years, who completed audiometric tests and laboratory examinations as part of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2012. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program-Third Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP III) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Low-frequency HL was defined as pure tone averages >25 decibels (dB) at low frequencies (0.5, 1, and 2 kilohertz [kHz]). High-frequency HL was defined as pure tone averages >25 dB at high frequencies (3, 4, and 6 kHz). Odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of MetS associated with each HL type were estimated using multiple logistic regression analysis after adjusting for covariates and taking into consideration sampling weight. @*Results@#38.1% and 28.6% met the MetS by NCEP III and IDF criteria, respectively. Prevalence of HL was 29.3% and 63.9% for low- and high-frequency HL, respectively. MetS defined by NCEP III was associated with higher risk of high-frequency HL (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.05–1.73), while MetS by IDF criteria was not. The interaction by the noise exposure on the MetS and high-frequency HL was not significant (P-interaction=0.100). There was no association between MetS and low-frequency HL, regardless of applied diagnostic criteria for MetS. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest MetS is associated with high-frequency HL in people with exposure to noise.

15.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 210-213, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893193

ABSTRACT

Although genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder, cases of genetic CJD with E200K mutation are being increasingly reported in Korea. However, the clinical features and course of genetic CJD with E200K mutation in Korea remain unclear. We describe the clinical features and course of genetic CJD with E200K mutation in a patient who initially presented with rapid progressive memory impairment and myoclonus.

16.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 1-9, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891323

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the characteristics of HER2-positive breast cancer according to HER2 low (2+) or high (3+) classification using immunohistochemistry (IHC). @*Methods@#Data were collected from 205 HER2-positive breast cancer patients in the final assay, regardless of IHC or in situ hybridization (ISH). We thus classified patients into two groups: HER2 2+/low and HER2 3+/high based on the IHC assay. We subsequently compared the clinical and pathological characteristics between groups. @*Results@#The median patient age was 49 years in the HER2 2+/low group and 53 years in the HER2 3+/high group. We observed a significantly lower Allred score for estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) (0-6) (p<0.001), less lymphatic invasion (LI), (p=0.010), neural invasion (p=0.041), higher Ki-67 (p=0.001), and lower Bcl-2 (p<0.001) in the HER2 3+/high group than in the HER2 2+/low group. Lymph node recurrence was more frequently observed in the HER2 2+/low group than in HER2 3+/high group (p=0.005). Disease-free survival (DFS) was better in the HER2 3+/high group than in the HER2 2+/low group (p=0.028), but there were no significant differences in overall survival between the groups (p=0.233). @*Conclusion@#The HER2 3+/high group was associated with lower ER and PR expression, less LI, higher Ki-67, and lower Bcl-2 than that in HER2 2+/low group in HER2-positive breast cancer. Furthermore, compared to the HER2 2+/low group, the HER2 3+/high group had an improved DFS.

17.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 255-269, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916318

ABSTRACT

One third of the overall epilepsy population are estimated to be a drug refractory epilepsy (DRE), defined as the patients who failed to control seizure reduction, even tried two or more appropriate antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) trials. Those people need additional AEDs trials or other treatment options (resective surgery, neuromoulation, etc.). Here, we, clinical guideline committee of the Korean Neurological Association (KNA) introduce the recommendations of AEDs treatments including not only old and new AEDs currently available in Korea but also AEDs planned to be launched in the new future for DRE patients with literature review to help efficient decision of the clinician. The authors reviewed literatures and assessed efficacy and tolerability on 12 currently available and four newly introduced/or planned AEDs applied to DRE patients, published from November 2015 to July 2021. Brivaracetam, eslicarbazepine, canabidiol and cenobamate are the four AEDs that are newly introduced or planned to be launched soon. The reviewed articles are publications after November 2015, 2018 American Association of Neurology guideline, new AEDs which were introduced or planned to be launched as of 2021. All AEDs are classified based on the therapeutic rating scheme, generating recommendations. Overall 173 papers have been reviewed and analyzed for recommendation rationales. KNA introduce additional add-on treatment or conversional monotherapy guidelines on the drug refractory focal and generalized epilepsy. We hope these guidelines or recommendations to help clinical decision for the treatment of drug refractory epilepsy patients

18.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 1-9, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899027

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the characteristics of HER2-positive breast cancer according to HER2 low (2+) or high (3+) classification using immunohistochemistry (IHC). @*Methods@#Data were collected from 205 HER2-positive breast cancer patients in the final assay, regardless of IHC or in situ hybridization (ISH). We thus classified patients into two groups: HER2 2+/low and HER2 3+/high based on the IHC assay. We subsequently compared the clinical and pathological characteristics between groups. @*Results@#The median patient age was 49 years in the HER2 2+/low group and 53 years in the HER2 3+/high group. We observed a significantly lower Allred score for estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) (0-6) (p<0.001), less lymphatic invasion (LI), (p=0.010), neural invasion (p=0.041), higher Ki-67 (p=0.001), and lower Bcl-2 (p<0.001) in the HER2 3+/high group than in the HER2 2+/low group. Lymph node recurrence was more frequently observed in the HER2 2+/low group than in HER2 3+/high group (p=0.005). Disease-free survival (DFS) was better in the HER2 3+/high group than in the HER2 2+/low group (p=0.028), but there were no significant differences in overall survival between the groups (p=0.233). @*Conclusion@#The HER2 3+/high group was associated with lower ER and PR expression, less LI, higher Ki-67, and lower Bcl-2 than that in HER2 2+/low group in HER2-positive breast cancer. Furthermore, compared to the HER2 2+/low group, the HER2 3+/high group had an improved DFS.

19.
Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine ; : 98-104, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-997472

ABSTRACT

We spend about one-third of our lives either sleeping or attempting to sleep. Therefore, the socioeconomic implications of sleepdisorders may be higher than expected. However, the fundamental mechanisms and functions of sleep are not yet fully understood.Neuroimaging has been utilized to reveal the connectivity between sleep and the brain, which is associated with thephysiology of sleep. Positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imagingstudies have become increasingly common in sleep research. Recently, significant progress has been made in understanding thephysiology of sleep through neuroimaging and the use of various radiopharmaceuticals, as the sleep–wake cycle is regulated bymultiple neurotransmitters, including dopamine, adenosine, glutamate, and others. In addition, the characteristics of rapid eye andnon-rapid eye movement sleep have been investigated by measuring cerebral glucose metabolism. The physiology of sleep hasbeen investigated using PET to study glymphatic function as a means to clear the amyloid burden. However, the basic mechanismsand functions of sleep are not yet fully understood. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects and consequencesof chronic sleep deprivation, and the relevance of sleep to other diseases.

20.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 215-223, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896977

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Breast cancer diagnosis and treatment often produce stress in patients. Anxiety is one of the most prevalent psychological symptoms perceived by breast cancer patients. This study aims to evaluate the temporal patterns of anxiety and find factors associated with persistent anxiety during breast cancer treatment. @*Methods@#This is prospective cohort study. Between July 2010 and July 2011, we recruited patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer who were expected to receive adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 411) from 2 cancer hospitals in Seoul, Korea. Anxiety was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. @*Results@#The mean age of the participants was 46.4 ± 7.9 years. Preoperatively, 44.5% (183 of 411) of the patients showed abnormal anxiety. The proportion of the abnormal anxiety group significantly decreased after surgery (P < 0.01) and this phenomenon continued until the 12-month follow-up point. Patients experienced renewed anxiety at 12 months when the main adjuvant therapies were finished. Socioeconomic factors were not associated with persistent anxiety. Pain, breast, and arm symptoms were significantly higher in the persistently abnormal group, especially at postoperative months 6 and 12. @*Conclusion@#Surgery was a major relieving factor of anxiety, and patients who finished their main adjuvant treatment experienced renewed anxiety. Surgeons should be the main detectors and care-givers with respect to psychological distress in breast cancer patients. To reduce persistent anxiety, caring for the patient’s physical symptoms is important.

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