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1.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1093-1101, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002413

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a noninvasive method to quantitatively assess bowel motility. However, its accuracy in measuring various degrees of small bowel motility has not been extensively evaluated. We aimed to draw a quantitative small bowel motility score from cine MRI and evaluate its performance in a population with varying degrees of small bowel motility. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 174 participants (28.5 ± 7.6 years; 135 males) underwent a 22-second-long cine MRI sequence (2-dimensional balanced turbo-field echo; 0.5 seconds per image) approximately 5 minutes after being intravenously administered 10 mg of scopolamine-N-butyl bromide to deliberately create diverse degrees of small bowel motility. In a manually segmented area of the small bowel, motility was automatically quantified using a nonrigid registration and calculated as a quantitative motility score. The mean value (MV) of motility grades visually assessed by two radiologists was used as a reference standard. The quantitative motility score’s correlation (Spearman’s ρ) with the reference standard and performance (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve [AUROC], sensitivity, and specificity) for diagnosing adynamic small bowel (MV of 1) were evaluated. @*Results@#For the MV of the quantitative motility scores at grades 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3, the mean ± standard deviation values were 0.019 ± 0.003, 0.027 ± 0.010, 0.033 ± 0.008, 0.032 ± 0.009, and 0.043 ± 0.013, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the quantitative motility score and the MV (ρ = 0.531, P < 0.001). The AUROC value for diagnosing a MV of 1 (i.e., adynamic small bowel) was 0.953 (95% confidence interval, 0.923–0.984). Moreover, the optimal cutoff for the quantitative motility score was 0.024, with a sensitivity of 100% (15/15) and specificity of 89.9% (143/159). @*Conclusion@#The quantitative motility score calculated from a cine MRI enables diagnosis of an adynamic small bowel, and potentially discerns various degrees of bowel motility.

2.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 204-214, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001610

ABSTRACT

Digital therapy using extended reality (XR) holds great promise for addressing the mental health needs of adolescents and young adults.This study addresses a notable research gap in South Korea by systematically reviewing XR-based digital therapy for the mental health of South Korean adolescents and young adults. We analyzed 26 studies encompassing various aspects, including study type, publication date, research field, research methodology, data sources, program types, program content, sample characteristics, target population, assessment tools, and program effectiveness. Notably, 46.15% of the studies employed an experimental design, whereas over 53% utilized non-experimental approaches. Experimental studies lacked a genuine design, standardized questionnaires, and control variables. Similarly, non-experimental studies failed to report specific literature selection criteria. Consequently, future studies should adopt rigorous methodologies to enhance reliability and validity. Moreover, over 85% of the 26 studies focused solely on virtual reality and did not incorporate augmented or mixed reality. This study identifies the limitations of the previous research. These findings emphasize the need for structured investigations to advance the development of XR-based digital therapy to promote mental health in adolescents and young adults in South Korea.

3.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 452-457, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925809

ABSTRACT

Colonic diffuse ganglioneuromatosis is an extremely rare disease in which multiple tumors derived from the ganglion cells, nerve fibers, and supporting cells are distributed in the colon. It is generally considered to be a benign neoplastic condition and is occasionally associated with rare hereditary conditions such as neurofibromatosis type I or multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B. Here, we report a case of a patient in whom colon cancer developed 12 years after the initial diagnosis of colonic diffuse ganglioneuromatosis, which suggests a possible association between colonic diffuse ganglioneuromatosis and colorectal cancer.

4.
Gut and Liver ; : 404-413, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925031

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has led endoscopists to use personal protective equipment (PPE) for infection prevention. This study aimed to investigate whether wearing a face shield as PPE affects the quality of colonoscopy. @*Methods@#We reviewed the medical records and colonoscopy findings of patients who underwent colonoscopies at Asan Medical Center, Korea from March 10 to May 31, 2020. The colonoscopies in this study were performed by five gastroenterology fellows and four expert endoscopists. We compared colonoscopy quality indicators, such as withdrawal time, adenoma detection rate (ADR), mean number of adenomas per colonoscopy (APC), polypectomy time, and polypectomy adverse events, both before and after face shields were added as PPE on April 13, 2020. @*Results@#Of the 1,344 colonoscopies analyzed, 715 and 629 were performed before and after the introduction of face shields, respectively. The median withdrawal time was similar between the face shield and no-face shield groups (8.72 minutes vs 8.68 minutes, p=0.816), as was the ADR (41.5% vs 39.8%, p=0.605) and APC (0.72 vs 0.77, p=0.510). Polypectomy-associated quality indicators, such as polypectomy time and polypectomy adverse events were also not different between the groups. Quality indicators were not different between the face shield and no-face shield groups of gastroenterology fellows, or of expert endoscopists. @*Conclusions@#Colonoscopy performance was not unfavorably affected by the use of a face shield. PPE, including face shields, can be recommended without a concern about colonoscopy quality deterioration.

5.
Ultrasonography ; : 718-727, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969214

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study evaluated how artificial intelligence-based computer-assisted diagnosis (AICAD) for breast ultrasonography (US) influences diagnostic performance and agreement between radiologists with varying experience levels in different workflows. @*Methods@#Images of 492 breast lesions (200 malignant and 292 benign masses) in 472 women taken from April 2017 to June 2018 were included. Six radiologists (three inexperienced [<1 year of experience] and three experienced [10-15 years of experience]) individually reviewed US images with and without the aid of AI-CAD, first sequentially and then simultaneously. Diagnostic performance and interobserver agreement were calculated and compared between radiologists and AI-CAD. @*Results@#After implementing AI-CAD, the specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and accuracy significantly improved, regardless of experience and workflow (all P<0.001, respectively). The overall area under the receiver operating characteristic curve significantly increased in simultaneous reading, but only for inexperienced radiologists. The agreement for Breast Imaging Reporting and Database System (BI-RADS) descriptors generally increased when AI-CAD was used (κ=0.29-0.63 to 0.35-0.73). Inexperienced radiologists tended to concede to AI-CAD results more easily than experienced radiologists, especially in simultaneous reading (P<0.001). The conversion rates for final assessment changes from BI-RADS 2 or 3 to BI-RADS higher than 4a or vice versa were also significantly higher in simultaneous reading than sequential reading (overall, 15.8% and 6.2%, respectively; P<0.001) for both inexperienced and experienced radiologists. @*Conclusion@#Using AI-CAD to interpret breast US improved the specificity, PPV, and accuracy of radiologists regardless of experience level. AI-CAD may work better in simultaneous reading to improve diagnostic performance and agreement between radiologists, especially for inexperienced radiologists.

6.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 808-829, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938380

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be diagnosed noninvasively on multiphasic CT and MRI based on its distinctive imaging findings. These features include arterial phase hyperenhancement and washout on portal or delayed phase images. However, radiologists face significant diagnostic challenges because some HCCs exhibit atypical imaging characteristics. In addition to many HCC-mimicking lesions, such as arterioportal shunts, combined HCC-cholangiocarcinoma, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and hemangioma present a challenge for radiologists in actual clinical practice. The ability to distinguish HCCs from mimickers on initial imaging examinations is crucial for appropriate management and treatment decisions. Therefore, this pictorial review presents the imaging findings of atypical HCCs and HCCs mimicking malignant and benign lesions and discusses important clues that may help narrow down the differential diagnosis.

7.
Gut and Liver ; : 579-587, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898441

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) can be applied to relieve colorectal obstruction secondary to incurable primary colorectal cancer or extracolonic malignancy. We aimed to identify factors associated with clinical success and the reintervention-free survival (RFS) after palliative stenting. @*Methods@#Cases of palliative SEMS placement between 2005 and 2019 were retrieved from the institutional database and reviewed retrospectively. Logistic regression and log-rank testing followed by Cox proportional hazard analyses were performed to investigate the predictors of the clinical success of palliative stenting and factors associated with RFS, respectively. @*Results@#A total of 593 patients underwent palliative stenting for malignant colonic obstruction (MCO). The technical and clinical success rates were 92.9% and 83.5%, respectively. Peritoneal carcinomatosis was a predictor of clinical failure (odds ratio, 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17 to 0.65) in the multivariate analysis. Peritoneal carcinomatosis (hazard ratio [HR], 2.48; 95% CI, 1.69 to 3.64) and stent expansion >90% on day 1 (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.50) were associated with a shorter RFS. Neither clinical success nor RFS was associated with extracolonic malignancy. Re-obstruction, stent migration, and perforation were responsible for most reinterventions after clinically successful palliative stenting. @*Conclusions@#In patients requiring palliative stenting for MCO, peritoneal carcinomatosis was associated with both clinical failure and short RFS. Stent expansion >90% on postprocedural day 1 was another predictor of a short RFS after clinically successful stenting. A large prospective study is warranted to establish factors associated with RFS after successful palliative stenting for MCO.

8.
Gut and Liver ; : 579-587, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890737

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) can be applied to relieve colorectal obstruction secondary to incurable primary colorectal cancer or extracolonic malignancy. We aimed to identify factors associated with clinical success and the reintervention-free survival (RFS) after palliative stenting. @*Methods@#Cases of palliative SEMS placement between 2005 and 2019 were retrieved from the institutional database and reviewed retrospectively. Logistic regression and log-rank testing followed by Cox proportional hazard analyses were performed to investigate the predictors of the clinical success of palliative stenting and factors associated with RFS, respectively. @*Results@#A total of 593 patients underwent palliative stenting for malignant colonic obstruction (MCO). The technical and clinical success rates were 92.9% and 83.5%, respectively. Peritoneal carcinomatosis was a predictor of clinical failure (odds ratio, 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17 to 0.65) in the multivariate analysis. Peritoneal carcinomatosis (hazard ratio [HR], 2.48; 95% CI, 1.69 to 3.64) and stent expansion >90% on day 1 (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.50) were associated with a shorter RFS. Neither clinical success nor RFS was associated with extracolonic malignancy. Re-obstruction, stent migration, and perforation were responsible for most reinterventions after clinically successful palliative stenting. @*Conclusions@#In patients requiring palliative stenting for MCO, peritoneal carcinomatosis was associated with both clinical failure and short RFS. Stent expansion >90% on postprocedural day 1 was another predictor of a short RFS after clinically successful stenting. A large prospective study is warranted to establish factors associated with RFS after successful palliative stenting for MCO.

9.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 946-954, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833531

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings associated with resection margin statusin patients with invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) who underwent breast-conserving surgery. @*Materials and Methods@#One hundred and one patients with ILC who underwent preoperative MRI were included. MRI(tumor size, multifocality, type of enhancing lesion, distribution of non-mass enhancement [NME], and degree of backgroundparenchymal enhancement) and clinicopathological features (age, pathologic tumor size, presence of ductal carcinoma in situ[DCIS] or lobular carcinoma in situ, presence of lymph node metastases, and estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor/humanepidermal growth factor receptor type 2 status) were analyzed. A positive resection margin was defined as the presence ofinvasive cancer or DCIS at the inked surface. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine pre- and postoperativevariables associated with positive resection margins. @*Results@#Among the 101 patients, 21 (20.8%) showed positive resection margins. In the univariable analysis, NME,multifocality, axillary lymph node metastasis, and pathologic tumor size were associated with positive resection margins.With respect to preoperative MRI findings, multifocality (odds ratio [OR] = 3.977, p = 0.009) and NME (OR = 2.741, p = 0.063)were associated with positive resection margins in the multivariable analysis, although NME showed borderline significance. @*Conclusion@#In patients with ILC, multifocality and the presence of NME on preoperative breast MRI were associated withpositive resection margins.

10.
Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics ; : e16-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714484

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Understanding the reason for an unsuccessful non-surgical endodontic treatment outcome, as well as the complex anatomy of the root canal system, is very important. This study examined the cross-sectional root canal structure of mandibular first molars confirmed to have failed non-surgical root canal treatment using digital images obtained during intentional replantation surgery, as well as the causative factors of the failed conventional endodontic treatments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study evaluated 115 mandibular first molars. Digital photographic images of the resected surface were taken at the apical 3 mm level and examined. The discolored dentin area around the root canal was investigated by measuring the total surface area, the treated areas as determined by the endodontic filling material, and the discolored dentin area. RESULTS: Forty 2-rooted teeth showed discolored root dentin in both the mesial and distal roots. Compared to the original filled area, significant expansion of root dentin discoloration was observed. Moreover, the mesial roots were significantly more discolored than the distal roots. Of the 115 molars, 92 had 2 roots. Among the mesial roots of the 2-rooted teeth, 95.7% of the roots had 2 canals and 79.4% had partial/complete isthmuses and/or accessory canals. CONCLUSIONS: Dentin discoloration that was not visible on periapical radiographs and cone-beam computed tomography was frequently found in mandibular first molars that failed endodontic treatment. The complex anatomy of the mesial roots of the mandibular first molars is another reason for the failure of conventional endodontic treatment.


Subject(s)
Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Dental Pulp Cavity , Dentin , Molar , Replantation , Retreatment , Tooth , Tooth Apex , Tooth Root , Treatment Outcome
11.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 296-303, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72717

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated Korean and Taiwan adults on the importance of and the satisfaction with street food sanitation and street food choice factor, in order to present management and improvement measures for street foods. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The present study conducted a survey on 400 randomly chosen adults (200 Korean, 200 Taiwanese). General characteristics, eating habits, street food intake frequency, and preference by type of street food of respondents were checked. Respondents' importance and satisfaction of street food hygiene and selection attributes were also measured. In order to test for the difference between groups, chi2-test and t-test were performed. ISA was also performed to analyze importance and satisfaction. RESULTS: Results showed that the importance of sanitation was significantly higher than satisfaction on all items in both Korea and Taiwan, and the satisfaction with sanitation was higher in Taiwan than in Korea. According to ISA results with street food sanitation, satisfaction was low while importance was high in both Korea and Taiwan. In terms of street food choice factor, importance scores were significantly higher than satisfaction scores on all items. In addition, satisfaction scores on all items except 'taste' were significantly higher in Taiwan than in Korea. CONCLUSIONS: A manual on sanitation management of street foods should be developed to change the knowledge and attitude toward sanitation by putting into practice a regularly conducted education. Considering the popularity of street foods and its potential as a tourism resource to easily publicize our food culture, thorough management measures should be prepared on sanitation so that safe street food culture should be created.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires , Eating , Education , Hygiene , Korea , Sanitation , Taiwan
12.
The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics ; : 347-352, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126029

ABSTRACT

Malignant tumours of the oral cavity that require resection of the tongue result in severe deficiencies in speech and deglutition. In such patients, improvements in mastication, swallowing, and speech may be reasonable goals for treatment. The viability of a prosthodontic approach to treatment depends on the type and extent of surgery. In a total glossectomy, a mandibular tongue prosthesis is the treatment of choice. Mandibular tongue prosthesis occupies the space in the floor of the oral cavity. It provides the patients with a platform for directing food into the esophagus and aids in speaking. This type of prosthesis can achieve that protection of the underlying fragile tissue and improvement in appearance and psychosocial adjustment. This case report describes the technical steps involved in prosthetic rehabilitation for a glossectomy patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Deglutition , Esophagus , Glossectomy , Mastication , Mouth , Prostheses and Implants , Prosthodontics , Tongue
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