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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 625-632, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003239

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a 2-fold increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. In earlier research, agmatine has been demonstrated to alleviate diabetes symptoms and increase cognitive performance. However, it is unclear whether the improvement of cognitive function is attributable to the reduction of diabetic symptoms or its direct influence on brain metabolism. Using hyperpolarized (HP) [1- 13C]pyruvate magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), this study intends to evaluate the influence of agmatine on brain metabolism. @*Materials and Methods@#ICR mice were fed a high-fat diet and injected with streptozotocin to develop a T2DM animal model. During a 2-week period, T2DM mice were treated with normal saline or 100 mg/kg of agmatine, and brain HP [1- 13C]pyruvate MRS was performed. The effect of agmatine on lactate generation and NADH/NAD+ redox state was investigated using C6 and neuro-2a (N2a) cells. @*Results@#As a perfusion marker, the total 13C signals in the brain of T2DM mice (p=0.07) and agmatine-treated mice (p<0.05) were reduced. The conversion constant (Kpl) from [1- 13C]pyruvate to [1- 13C]lactate was not distinguishable in the brains of T2DM mice but was significantly increased in the brains of agmatine-treated T2DM mice. Treating C6 and N2a cells with agmatine increased NADH/NAD+ ratio and lactate generation. @*Conclusion@#Agmatine influences the NADH/NAD+ redox state in the brains of T2DM mice, which may be connected with enhanced cognitive performance and increased conversion of HP [1- 13C]pyruvate to HP [1- 13C]lactate.

2.
Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education ; : 51-59, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967258

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This descriptive cross-sectional study aimed to examine the influence of nurses’ moral sensitivity and ethical values on their biomedical ethics awareness. @*Methods@#The study participants included 140 registered nurses working at three hospitals in Jeollabuk-do Province over six months. The data were collected from June 22 to July 3, 2020, and were analyzed using descriptive statistics, an independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression analysis with the IBM SPSS/WIN 20.0 program. @*Results@#As a result of an analysis using stepwise multiple regression, nurses’ biomedical ethics awareness was found to be significantly influenced by ethical values (β=.36, p<.001), moral sensitivity (β=.21, p=.007), and education in biomedical ethics (β=.16, p=.042) (adjusted R2=.21, p<.001). @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest that moral sensitivity and ethical values are key factors in hospital nurses’ development of biomedical ethics. Furthermore, the devising and implementing of a practical education program based on practical cases in medical situations to enhance nurses’ biomedical ethics awareness is needed.

3.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 42-53, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916880

ABSTRACT

The clinical concept of coronary artery disease (CAD) has seen a paradigm shift over the last decade. CAD is mostly a progressive disease, and patients with CAD can develop acute coronary syndromes at any point in disease progression. In this clinical context, a new term, “chronic coronary syndrome,” was published in the 2019 European Society of Cardiology guidelines, reflecting the importance of early diagnosis and active management. Recent advances have been made in the evaluation of CAD using coronary CT angiography (CCTA). The clinical usefulness of CCTA in patients with stable angina or chronic coronary syndrome begins with the detection of early asymptomatic CAD. The characterization of atherosclerotic plaque and its role in determining treatment strategies for CAD have been demonstrated for all stages of the disease.This review describes the pathophysiology of stable angina to aid in the understanding of the clinical applications of CCTA.

4.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 597-607, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926436

ABSTRACT

The mediastinum is the most prevalent site of extragonadal teratomas. Patients with mediastinal mature teratomas are usually young adults, and the condition does not show significant sexual differences. Mediastinal teratomas are mostly located in the anterior mediastinum. Patients are usually asymptomatic, although they can have several complications when the teratomas become large or rupture. Most mediastinal teratomas can be diagnosed using CT. Diagnosing ruptured or malignant teratomas is challenging because of their atypical clinical and radiological presentations. In this article, we describe various manifestations of mediastinal teratomas, with an emphasis on radiologic features.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e78-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925904

ABSTRACT

Background@#We analyzed the differences between clinical characteristics and computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to establish potential relationships with mediastinal lymphadenopathy and clinical outcomes. @*Methods@#We compared the clinical characteristics and CT findings of COVID-19 patients from a nationwide multicenter cohort who were grouped based on the presence or absence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Differences between clinical characteristics and CT findings in these groups were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the impact of mediastinal lymphadenopathy on clinical outcomes. @*Results@#Of the 344 patients included in this study, 53 (15.4%) presented with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. The rate of diffuse alveolar damage pattern pneumonia and the visual CT scores were significantly higher in patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy than in those without (P < 0.05). A positive correlation between the number of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes and visual CT scores was noted in patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy (Spearman’s ρ = 0.334, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that mediastinal lymphadenopathy was independently associated with a higher risk of intensive care unit (ICU) admission (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval; 3.25, 1.06-9.95) but was not significantly associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death in patients with COVID-19. @*Conclusion@#COVID-19 patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy had a larger extent of pneumonia than those without. Multivariate analysis adjusted for clinical characteristics and CT findings revealed that the presence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy was significantly associated with ICU admission.

6.
Korean Journal of Clinical Oncology ; (2): 83-88, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968002

ABSTRACT

Appendiceal mucocele is a rare mucin-producing neoplasm of appendiceal origin. Due to its location and imaging findings, appendiceal mucocele is easily confused with tumors of the right adnexa. We present a rare case of a patient initially misdiagnosed with an ovarian tumor intraoperatively diagnosed as an appendiceal mucocele and successfully treated. A 66-year-old postmenopausal woman was admitted to the gynecology department for an asymptomatic pelvic mass. Preoperative pelvic imaging showed an 8-cm cystic mass. Exploratory laparoscopy for the suspected epithelial borderline tumor from the right ovary revealed a cystic mass in the right pelvic area and normal uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. Intraoperative consultation with the general surgery department confirmed the appendiceal origin. Laparoscopic appendectomy was performed. Histopathological examination confirmed a low-grade mucinous neoplasm of appendiceal origin. The patient was discharged on a postoperative day 5 without complications. The outpatient follow-up performed 1 month later showed no evidence of disease progression. Despite the use of advanced diagnostic tools, appendiceal mucocele may be confused for ovarian malignancies. Because the clinical features of appendiceal mucocele are nonspecific, clinicians and radiologists know the specific imaging findings. A multidisciplinary approach including general surgery, gynecology, and radiology is required for preoperative diagnosis and treatment.

7.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 513-521, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967061

ABSTRACT

The apocrine morphology of the breast is observed in a broad pathological spectrum, ranging from benign cysts to invasive carcinomas. However, the number of clinical research investigating malignant apocrine lesions is limited. This study retrospectively reviewed the data of patients with malignant apocrine lesions admitted in a tertiary center between January 2004 and December 2021, based on the radiology-pathology correlation and the recent advances in their status to enhance the therapeutic implications of androgen receptor (AR). Among the 37 patients with lesions, 27 (73.0%) had triple-negative subtypes with predominant AR expression. The radiological features of malignant apocrine lesions did not differ from those of typical invasive ductal carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ. This study demonstrated that knowledge on the imaging features of malignant apocrine lesions and their histological basis could enhance the adoption of new targeted therapies in patients with this particular type of breast cancer.

8.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 1-11, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937789

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to determine the correlation between various clinical results, including recurrence in patients with breast cancer, and preoperative blood composition ratio and postoperative pathological results. @*Methods@#A total of 444 patients who underwent surgery were included, and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), and postoperative pathological results were classified into postoperative cancer stages to confirm the association with various clinical results, including recurrence. @*Results@#The median age of the patients was 51 years. The stages were divided into 1, 2, 3, and 4. Additionally, stages 1 and 2 comprised one group and stages 3 and 4 comprised another group. The cut-off values of the NLR, PLR, and MLR were confirmed to be 1.43, 158.84, and 0.21, respectively. It was noted that the association with recurrence was higher in the group with hormone receptor negative (p<0.001), higher stage (p<0.001), and underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy (p<0.001). In the association with blood composition ratio and recurrence, survival was high in the PLR group with a high cut-off value (p=0.004). There was no significant relationship in the NLR and MLR groups. In the disease-free survival and overall-survival curves, only the PLR group showed a significant association of 0.003 and 0.001, respectively. The NLR and MLR groups did not show any significant result. @*Conclusion@#No significant association with recurrence and mortality was confirmed in the NLR and MLR groups. However, the preoperative blood test in the high PLR group showed recurrence and mortality rate were high.

9.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 12-17, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937788

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#As breast-conserving surgery has become a standard treatment for patients with breast cancer, several approaches have been devised to achieve desirable cosmetic results, including a method using a patient’s own tissues or organs or a mesh to resolve defects. However, its application has been limited due to the associated complications. Accordingly, breast reconstruction using an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) has been introduced to improve patients’ cosmetic satisfaction. However, the comparison of reconstruction and primary sutures using this method has not been well-studied. Therefore, this study surveyed patients who underwent breast cancer surgery based on cosmetic indicators to study the efficacy of ADM after breast-conserving surgery. @*Methods@#This retrospective study included 68 patients diagnosed with breast cancer who underwent breast-conserving surgery at a single institution by a single surgeon from April 2019 to December 2020. @*Results@#This study included 68 patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery. Among them, 22 patients underwent breast-conserving surgery using ADM, while 46 patients received only primary sutures without ADM. Among the items of the Breast Cancer Treatment Outcome Scale-12 (BCTOS-12), patient satisfaction was significantly higher in the group using ADM, than that in the control group in terms of breast shape (1.86±0.89 vs. 2.39±0.80, p=0.017). Regarding breast tenderness, the result also confirmed the group treated using ADM experienced less tenderness than the control group not treated with ADM (1.68±0.78 vs. 2.22±1.03, p=0.035). The two groups exhibited no significant differences in breast texture, arm heaviness, nipple appearance, shoulder discomfort, arm discomfort, scar tissue, arm swelling, breast swelling, fit of the bra, and breast sensitivity. @*Conclusion@#Breast reconstruction using ADM in patients with breast cancer was effective from a cosmetic perspective. Prospective multicenter studies should be conducted to provide clear guidelines.

10.
Health Communication ; (2): 167-176, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914406

ABSTRACT

Results@#Among grit’s sub-areas, consistent effort was significantly associated with gender (male students scored higher than female students (t=2.20, p=.029), scores were higher when parental relationships were intimate (F=5.88, p=.003), and the closer the relationship with the homeroom teacher, the higher the score (F=3.51, p=.032). The regression model in this study was statistically significant (F=26.730, p<.001), and the variables that influenced steady effort (Grit) were self-resilience (β=.331, p<.001), and self-emotion regulation (β=.290, p<.001), sex (β=-.142, p=.024), the explanatory power of the variable’s continuous effort was 29.4%. @*Conclusion@#The middle school age is the time to discover life goals and dreams. Grit is persistent efforts to achieve our goals and in order to raise the level of Grit, we need to develop and provide ongoing curriculum and tailored school programs that will increase self-resilience and self-emotion control skills.

11.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 139-154, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875274

ABSTRACT

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a crucial tool for evaluating mediastinal masses considering that several lesions that appear indeterminate on computed tomography and radiography can be differentiated on MRI. Using a three-compartment model to localize the mass and employing a basic knowledge of MRI, radiologists can easily diagnose mediastinal masses. Here, we review the use of MRI in evaluating mediastinal masses and present the images of various mediastinal masses categorized using the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group’s three-compartment classification system. These masses include thymic hyperplasia, thymic cyst, pericardial cyst, thymoma, mediastinal hemangioma, lymphoma, mature teratoma, bronchogenic cyst, esophageal duplication cyst, mediastinal thyroid carcinoma originating from ectopic thyroid tissue, mediastinal liposarcoma, mediastinal pancreatic pseudocyst, neurogenic tumor, meningocele, and plasmacytoma.

12.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 32-47, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874560

ABSTRACT

Immune system is essential for host homeostasis. Immune cells communicate with each other by binding to receptors or by releasing vesicles including chemokines and cytokines. Under healthy circumstances, immune cell-derived factors are critical for cellular growth, division and function, whereas under conditions such as ageing and inflammatory states, they can aggravate pathologies and cause disease. Cell-derived membranous extracellular vesicles mediate cell-to-cell communication and are implicated in various physiological and pathological processes involving ageing and age-related diseases. Extracellular vesicles are responsible for spreading detrimental factors to the surroundings and the propagation phase of inflammatory diseases. The regulation of extracellular vesicles is a putative target for treatment of inflammatory diseases. Moreover, their features are ideal for developing biomarkers and drug delivery systems modulated by bioengineering in inflammatory diseases. The present review summarizes the current understanding of extracellular vesicles in ageing and inflammatory diseases.

13.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 1218-1230, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901378

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To compare the per-patient diagnostic performance of simulated abbreviated MRI (AMRI) to that of conventional MRI (CMRI) with full-sequence dynamic gadoxetic acid (GA) enhancement for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening in high-risk patients. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 201 consecutive patients at high-risk for HCC, who underwent 3T liver MRI, were included in this retrospective study. The AMRI protocol comprised T2-weighted imaging, hepatobiliary phase imaging after GA injection, and diffusion-weighted imaging. For each patient, two AMRI and CMRI image sets were independently reviewed by two radiologists.Inter-reader agreement was assessed using Cohen’s kappa value. A composite reference standard was used to determine the diagnostic performance of each image set for each reader. @*Results@#A total of 93 HCCs were detected in 79 patients. The inter-reader agreement was almost perfect for both image sets (κ = 0.839, 0.948). In AMRI, the per-patient sensitivity and negative predictive values (NPV) were 94.9% and 96.4%, respectively. In CMRI, the per-patient sensitivity and NPV were 96.2% and 97.5%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#AMRI, using only three sequences, had a comparable diagnostic performance to CMRI in screening early-stage HCC. AMRI could be an alternative HCC screening tool for highrisk HCC patients.

14.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 1000-1004, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901300

ABSTRACT

Percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB) is a minimally-invasive procedure that is an indispensable tool for evaluating pulmonary lesions. Though extremely rare, tumor seeding of the pleura and chest wall can occur as a complication. Given that the breast is located anterior to the thorax, needle tracking through the breast is inevitable when PTNB is performed using the anterior approach. We describe tumor seeding of metastatic pulmonary ameloblastoma in the pectoralis muscle layer of the breast along the needle track of PTNB in a 51-year-old female presenting with a palpable lump in the right breast.

15.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 280-288, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899007

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), and raloxifene treatment for osteoporosis is reimbursable under the Korean National Health Insurance.Evidence suggests that SERMs use reduces the risk of breast cancer in Asian population.Herein, we retrospectively investigated the protective effect of raloxifene on breast cancer rates in Korean population. @*Methods@#Using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database, we selected women with osteoporosis aged 50 years and above. Patients treated for at least 2 years with raloxifene were assigned to the user group, whereas the remaining patients were assigned to the non-user group. The effect on breast cancer risk was assessed using the Cox proportionalhazards model with a time-dependent covariate to adjust for immortal time bias. @*Results@#A total of 322,870 women who were registered between 2010 and 2011 were included.The user group comprised 0.7% (n = 2,307) of the total population. The mean age was 65.7 ± 8.0 years and 67.2 ± 8.6 years in the user and non-user groups, respectively (p < 0.001). There was no difference in the previous use of estrogen replacement between the 2 groups (p = 0.087). The incidence of breast cancer per 1,000 person-years was 0.49 (n = 8) and 0.68 (n = 1,714) in the user and non-user groups, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32–1.27). HR decreased with increase in the treatment duration, but this change was not statistically significant (HR, 1.00, 95% CI, 0.32–3.11 in 2–3 years; HR, 0.63, 95% CI, 0.20–1.94 in 3–4 years; and HR, 0.41, 95% CI, 0.10–1.65 in 4–5 years). @*Conclusion@#Long-term treatment with raloxifene in women with osteoporosis was not significantly associated with a reduction in breast cancer rates. However, further investigation is required for a conclusive proof.

16.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 143-151, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896662

ABSTRACT

Agmatine, the primary decarboxylation product of L-arginine, generated from arginine decarboxylase. Since the discovery of agmatine in the mammalian brain in the 1990s, an increasing number of agmatine-mediated effects have been discovered, demonstrating the benefits of agmatine on ischemic strokes, traumatic brain injury and numerous psychological disorders such as depression, anxiety, and stress. Agmatine also has cellular protective effects and contributes to cell proliferation and differentiation in the central nervous system (CNS). Neural progenitor cells are an important component in the recovery and repair of many neurological disorders due to their ability to differentiate into functional adult neurons. Recent data has revealed that agmatine can regulate and increase proliferation and the fate of progenitor cells in the adult hippocampus. This review aims to summarise and discuss the role of agmatine in the CNS; specifically, the effects and relationship between agmatine and neural progenitor cells and how these ideas can be applied to potential therapeutic application.

17.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 1218-1230, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893674

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To compare the per-patient diagnostic performance of simulated abbreviated MRI (AMRI) to that of conventional MRI (CMRI) with full-sequence dynamic gadoxetic acid (GA) enhancement for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening in high-risk patients. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 201 consecutive patients at high-risk for HCC, who underwent 3T liver MRI, were included in this retrospective study. The AMRI protocol comprised T2-weighted imaging, hepatobiliary phase imaging after GA injection, and diffusion-weighted imaging. For each patient, two AMRI and CMRI image sets were independently reviewed by two radiologists.Inter-reader agreement was assessed using Cohen’s kappa value. A composite reference standard was used to determine the diagnostic performance of each image set for each reader. @*Results@#A total of 93 HCCs were detected in 79 patients. The inter-reader agreement was almost perfect for both image sets (κ = 0.839, 0.948). In AMRI, the per-patient sensitivity and negative predictive values (NPV) were 94.9% and 96.4%, respectively. In CMRI, the per-patient sensitivity and NPV were 96.2% and 97.5%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#AMRI, using only three sequences, had a comparable diagnostic performance to CMRI in screening early-stage HCC. AMRI could be an alternative HCC screening tool for highrisk HCC patients.

18.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 1000-1004, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893596

ABSTRACT

Percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB) is a minimally-invasive procedure that is an indispensable tool for evaluating pulmonary lesions. Though extremely rare, tumor seeding of the pleura and chest wall can occur as a complication. Given that the breast is located anterior to the thorax, needle tracking through the breast is inevitable when PTNB is performed using the anterior approach. We describe tumor seeding of metastatic pulmonary ameloblastoma in the pectoralis muscle layer of the breast along the needle track of PTNB in a 51-year-old female presenting with a palpable lump in the right breast.

19.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 280-288, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891303

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), and raloxifene treatment for osteoporosis is reimbursable under the Korean National Health Insurance.Evidence suggests that SERMs use reduces the risk of breast cancer in Asian population.Herein, we retrospectively investigated the protective effect of raloxifene on breast cancer rates in Korean population. @*Methods@#Using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database, we selected women with osteoporosis aged 50 years and above. Patients treated for at least 2 years with raloxifene were assigned to the user group, whereas the remaining patients were assigned to the non-user group. The effect on breast cancer risk was assessed using the Cox proportionalhazards model with a time-dependent covariate to adjust for immortal time bias. @*Results@#A total of 322,870 women who were registered between 2010 and 2011 were included.The user group comprised 0.7% (n = 2,307) of the total population. The mean age was 65.7 ± 8.0 years and 67.2 ± 8.6 years in the user and non-user groups, respectively (p < 0.001). There was no difference in the previous use of estrogen replacement between the 2 groups (p = 0.087). The incidence of breast cancer per 1,000 person-years was 0.49 (n = 8) and 0.68 (n = 1,714) in the user and non-user groups, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32–1.27). HR decreased with increase in the treatment duration, but this change was not statistically significant (HR, 1.00, 95% CI, 0.32–3.11 in 2–3 years; HR, 0.63, 95% CI, 0.20–1.94 in 3–4 years; and HR, 0.41, 95% CI, 0.10–1.65 in 4–5 years). @*Conclusion@#Long-term treatment with raloxifene in women with osteoporosis was not significantly associated with a reduction in breast cancer rates. However, further investigation is required for a conclusive proof.

20.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 143-151, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888958

ABSTRACT

Agmatine, the primary decarboxylation product of L-arginine, generated from arginine decarboxylase. Since the discovery of agmatine in the mammalian brain in the 1990s, an increasing number of agmatine-mediated effects have been discovered, demonstrating the benefits of agmatine on ischemic strokes, traumatic brain injury and numerous psychological disorders such as depression, anxiety, and stress. Agmatine also has cellular protective effects and contributes to cell proliferation and differentiation in the central nervous system (CNS). Neural progenitor cells are an important component in the recovery and repair of many neurological disorders due to their ability to differentiate into functional adult neurons. Recent data has revealed that agmatine can regulate and increase proliferation and the fate of progenitor cells in the adult hippocampus. This review aims to summarise and discuss the role of agmatine in the CNS; specifically, the effects and relationship between agmatine and neural progenitor cells and how these ideas can be applied to potential therapeutic application.

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