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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903869

ABSTRACT

Although research conducted in East Asia has uncovered parasite eggs from ancient toilets or cesspits, data accumulated to date needs to be supplemented by more archaeoparasitological studies. We examined a total of 21 soil samples from a toilet-like structure at the Hwajisan site, a Baekje-period royal villa, in present-day Korea. At least 4 species of helminth eggs, i.e., Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Clonorchis sinensis, and Trichuris sp. (or Trichuris vulpis) were detected in 3 sediment samples of the structure that was likely a toilet used by Baekje nobles. The eggs of T. trichiura were found in all 3 samples (no. 1, 4, and 5); and A. lumbricoides eggs were detected in 2 samples (no. 4 and 5). C. sinensis and T. vulpis-like eggs were found in no. 5 sample. From the findings of this study, we can suppose that the soil-transmitted helminths were prevalent in ancient Korean people, including the nobles of Baekje Kingdom during the 5th to 7th century.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903858

ABSTRACT

Our previous research on coprolite specimens from the mummies of Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910 CE) has revealed various species of parasite eggs. Herein, we added 2 new helminthic cases of human remains from Joseon-period graves in the Republic of Korea (Korea). The organic materials precipitated on the hip bones of 2 half-mummied cases (Goryeong and Gwangmyeong cases) were collected, rehydrated, and examined by a microscope. In the sample from Goryeong-gun (gun=County), ova of Trichuris trichiura, Clonorchis sinensis, and Metagonimus spp. were detected, and eggs of T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides were found from the sample of Gwangmyeong-si (si=City). By adding this outcome to the existing data pool, we confirm our previous estimates of Joseon-period parasite infection rates. The overall rates of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and C. sinensis decreased dramatically from Joseon to the modern period. In Goryeong mummy specimen, we also found Metagonimus spp. eggs that has rarely been detected in archaeological samples so far.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896165

ABSTRACT

Although research conducted in East Asia has uncovered parasite eggs from ancient toilets or cesspits, data accumulated to date needs to be supplemented by more archaeoparasitological studies. We examined a total of 21 soil samples from a toilet-like structure at the Hwajisan site, a Baekje-period royal villa, in present-day Korea. At least 4 species of helminth eggs, i.e., Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Clonorchis sinensis, and Trichuris sp. (or Trichuris vulpis) were detected in 3 sediment samples of the structure that was likely a toilet used by Baekje nobles. The eggs of T. trichiura were found in all 3 samples (no. 1, 4, and 5); and A. lumbricoides eggs were detected in 2 samples (no. 4 and 5). C. sinensis and T. vulpis-like eggs were found in no. 5 sample. From the findings of this study, we can suppose that the soil-transmitted helminths were prevalent in ancient Korean people, including the nobles of Baekje Kingdom during the 5th to 7th century.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896154

ABSTRACT

Our previous research on coprolite specimens from the mummies of Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910 CE) has revealed various species of parasite eggs. Herein, we added 2 new helminthic cases of human remains from Joseon-period graves in the Republic of Korea (Korea). The organic materials precipitated on the hip bones of 2 half-mummied cases (Goryeong and Gwangmyeong cases) were collected, rehydrated, and examined by a microscope. In the sample from Goryeong-gun (gun=County), ova of Trichuris trichiura, Clonorchis sinensis, and Metagonimus spp. were detected, and eggs of T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides were found from the sample of Gwangmyeong-si (si=City). By adding this outcome to the existing data pool, we confirm our previous estimates of Joseon-period parasite infection rates. The overall rates of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and C. sinensis decreased dramatically from Joseon to the modern period. In Goryeong mummy specimen, we also found Metagonimus spp. eggs that has rarely been detected in archaeological samples so far.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764986

ABSTRACT

We analyzed Clonorchis sinensis ancient DNA (aDNA) acquired from the specimens of the Joseon mummies. The target regions were cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (NADH) dehydrogenase subunits 2 (NAD2) and 5 (NAD5). The sequences of C. sinensis aDNA was completely or almost identical to modern C. sinensis sequences in GenBank. We also found that ITS1, NAD2 and NAD5 could be good markers for molecular diagnosis between C. sinensis and the other trematode parasite species. The current result could improve our knowledge about genetic history of C. sinensis.


Subject(s)
Clonorchis sinensis , Cytochromes c , Cytochromes , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Diagnosis , DNA , Electron Transport Complex IV , Hydrogen , Mummies , NAD , Niacinamide , Oxidoreductases , Parasites , Republic of Korea
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786639

ABSTRACT

Horace N. Allen, an American physician, was a Presbyterian missionary to Korea. In 1886, he wrote the annual report of the Korean government hospital, summarizing patient statistics according to outpatient and inpatient classification for the first ever in Korean history. In the report, he speculated that hemoptysis cases of outpatient might have been mainly caused by distoma. Allen’s conjecture was noteworthy because only a few years lapsed since the first scientific report of paragonimiasis. However, he was not sure of his assumption either because it was not evidently supported by proper microscopic or post-mortem examinations. In this letter, we thus revisit his assumption with our parasitological data recently obtained from Joseon period mummies.


Subject(s)
Autopsy , Classification , Hemoptysis , Humans , Inpatients , Korea , Missionaries , Mummies , Outpatients , Paragonimiasis , Prevalence , Protestantism
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764886

ABSTRACT

The parasitic infection patterns of the Joseon period have begun to be revealed in a series of paleoparasitological studies. However, parasitism prevailing during or before the Three Kingdom period is still relatively unexplored. In the present study, we therefore conducted parasitological examinations of soil and organic-material sediments precipitated upon human hipbone and sacrum discovered inside an ancient Mokgwakmyo tomb dating to the Silla Dynasty (57 BCE–660 CE). Within the samples, we discovered ancient Ascaris lumbricoides (eggs per gram [EPG], 46.6–48.3) and Trichuris trichiura (EPG, 32.8–62.1) eggs, the species commonly detected among Korean populations until just prior to the 1970s. These findings show that soil-transmitted parasitic infection among the Silla nobility might not have been uncommon. This is the first-ever report on the presence of ancient parasite eggs in the samples obtained from a Three Kingdom period tomb; and it also presents the earliest positive results for any of the ancient South Korean tombs paleoparasitologically examined to date.


Subject(s)
Ascaris lumbricoides , Eggs , Humans , Ovum , Parasites , Sacrum , Soil , Trichuris
8.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 200-204, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716888

ABSTRACT

The Harappan Civilization, one of the earliest complex societies in the world, flourished on the Indian subcontinent. Although many additional Harappan settlements and cemeteries have been discovered and investigated, no coupled burials at Harappan cemeteries have been reported to date. In 2013–2016, we excavated the cemetery of the Rakhigarhi site (Haryana), the largest city of the Harappan Civilization. At the site, we found a grave that turned out to be a coupled (joint) burial of the primary type. This report is the first anthropologically confirmed case of coupled burial from a Harappan cemetery.


Subject(s)
Anthropology , Burial , Cemeteries , Civilization
9.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 214-218, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50230

ABSTRACT

We found the changed distribution of glucose transporter (GLUT) proteins in the skin during rat development. At 15 days of gestation, GLUT1 and 2 proteins were expressed in the stratum corneum of epidermal cells. In postnatal skin, however, GLUT1 and 2 exhibit different expression patterns. While GLUT1 expression becomes more restricted to the stratum basale with development, GLUT2 was found mainly in stratum spinosum and granulosum, but not being localized in the stratum basale at any stages of perinatal skin development. Considering all these, it can be speculated that each GLUT protein plays its specific role in different epidermal layers and that the glucose used in mammalian skin in utero could be originated from the amniotic fluid during skin development.


Subject(s)
Amniotic Fluid , Animals , Epidermis , Female , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Glucose , Immunohistochemistry , Pregnancy , Rats , Skin
10.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 306-309, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47821

ABSTRACT

A human skull was discovered at the 16th-century drainage channel of market district ruins, one of the busiest streets in the capital of Joseon kingdom. By anthropological examination, we noticed the cut mark at the right occipital part of the cranium. Judging from the wound property, it might have been caused by a strong strike using a sharp-edged weapon. As no periosteal reaction or healing signs were observed at the cut mark, he might have died shortly after the skull wound was made. We speculated that this might have been of a civilian or soldier victim who died in a battle or the decapitated head of prisoner. This is the first report about the discovery of the skull damaged by sharp-edged weapon at the archaeological sites in the capital city of Joseon Kingdom.


Subject(s)
Drainage , Head , Humans , Korea , Military Personnel , Prisoners , Prisons , Seoul , Skull , Strikes, Employee , Weapons , Wounds and Injuries
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69357

ABSTRACT

Previous paleoparasitological studies of Joseon specimens established that the prevalence of Taenia infection was not much different from that of the early 20th century Korean population. As many of taeniases originally diagnosed as Taenia saginata in South Korea were revealed to be actually Taenia asiatica, which share a common intermediate host with T. solium (the pig), Joseon people must have ingested raw pork frequently. However, the current examination of extant Joseon documents revealed that the population ate significant amounts of beef even if the beef ban was enforced; and pork was not consumed as much as we thought. Considering the meat consumption pattern at that time, Joseon people should have been infected by T. saginata more frequently than T. asiatica. This may suggest a low prevalence of T. saginata metacestodes in cattle compared to that of T. asiatica metacestodes in pigs, possibly due to the traditional way of rearing pigs (using human feces). This letter gives us a chance to reconsider the existing preconception about parasitic infections in Korean history though we are still hard to accurately estimate the historical patterns of taeniases at this stage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Humans , Korea , Meat , Population , Prevalence , Red Meat , Swine , Taenia saginata , Taenia solium , Taenia , Taeniasis
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-16940

ABSTRACT

Multiplex Ligation dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) to detect large deletions or duplications has been widely used as a diagnostic tool for various disease clinically. As this method requires only a small amount of template DNA and is very simple and high throughput, it has numerous advantages for the analysis of the human specimen obtained from archaeological sites. In this study we therefore tried to perform MLPA analysis for detecting any of duplications or deletions in mummy samples (n=4) from medieval Joseon tombs of Korea. Of them, we could not get any authentic data from 3 samples by MLPA method while only one case (HD2) showed the possible presence of duplications or deletions during her lifetime. Although the current report reveal that MLPA is a promising tool for anthropological study in South Korea, more studies are still needed to make up for the validity problem of commercial MLPA kit used in this study.


Subject(s)
DNA , Humans , Korea , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mummies
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51150

ABSTRACT

Analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA) extracted from Ascaris is very important for understanding the phylogenetic lineage of the parasite species. When aDNAs obtained from a Joseon tomb (SN2-19-1) coprolite in which Ascaris eggs were identified were amplified with primers for cytochrome b (cyt b) and 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene, the outcome exhibited Ascaris specific amplicon bands. By cloning, sequencing, and analysis of the amplified DNA, we obtained information valuable for comprehending genetic lineage of Ascaris prevalent among pre-modern Joseon peoples.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Ascariasis/diagnosis , Ascaris/classification , Base Sequence , Cytochromes b/genetics , DNA Primers/genetics , DNA, Helminth/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Female , Fossils/history , History, Ancient , Humans , Male , Molecular Sequence Data , Mummies/history , Ovum/chemistry , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics
14.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 151-151, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-40879

ABSTRACT

The author's name and the institutional affiliation of the authors were published incorrectly.


Subject(s)
Cemeteries , Seoul , Skeleton
15.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 244-252, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-62483

ABSTRACT

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis reveals the diets of different human populations in history. In this study, we performed stable isotope analysis on human skeletons from Joseon-period cemeteries discovered around Old Seoul City (Hansung). Our data clearly showed that Joseon individuals consumed more C3-based than C4-based foods as the main staples, and that the proteins they ate were mainly of terrestrial, but not of marine origin. Stable isotope values exhibited unique patterns in each of our sample subgroups. Whereas the delta13C values did not show any statistical differences among the subgroups, significantly higher values of delta15N were found in males than in females, which might reflect dietary differences between the sexes. For a fuller understanding of the dietary patterns of pre-industrial (pre-20th century) Koreans, additional studies on Joseon samples from Korean archaeological sites will be necessary.


Subject(s)
Carbon , Cemeteries , Diet , Female , Humans , Male , Nitrogen , Seoul , Skeleton
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