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1.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 126-135, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976821

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) is a serum tumor marker for breast cancer (BC) extensively used in clinical practice. CA15-3 is non-invasive, easily available, and a costeffective tumor marker for immediate diagnosis, monitoring and prediction of BC recurrence. We hypothesized that an elevation of CA15-3 may have prognostic impact in patients with early BC with normal serum CA15-3 level. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective cohort study, which included patients with BC who received curative surgery at a comprehensive single institution between 2000 and 2016.CA15-3 levels from 0 to 30 U/mL were considered normal, and patients who had CA15-3 > 30 U/mL, were excluded from the study. @*Results@#The mean age of study participants (n = 11,452) was 49.3 years. The proportion of participants with elevated CA15-3 ≥ 1 standard deviation (SD) compared with the previous examination during follow-up was 23.3% (n = 2,666). During the follow-up (median followup 5.8 years), 790 patients experienced recurrence. The fully-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for recurrence comparing participants with stable CA15-3 level to subjects with elevated CA15-3 level was 1.76 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52–2.03). In addition, if the CA15-3was elevated ≥ 1 SD, the risk was much higher (HR, 6.87; 95% CI, 5.81–8.11) than in patients without elevated CA15-3 ≥ 1 SD. In sensitivity analysis, the recurrence risk was consistently higher in participants with elevated CA15-3 levels than in participants without elevated CA15-3 levels. The association between elevated CA15-3 levels and incidence of recurrence was observed in all subtypes and the association was stronger in patients with N+ than in patients with N0 stage (p-value for interaction < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#The results of the present study demonstrated that elevation of CA15-3 in patients with early BC and initial normal serum CA15-3 levels has a prognostic impact.

2.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 137-143, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966312

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The use of absorbable skin staplers (ASS) for skin closure has been increasing due to their convenience and timesaving effect. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of ASS in reducing skin closure time and its safety regarding surgical site infection (SSI), comparing it to conventional hand sewing (HS) in patients who underwent mastectomy. @*Methods@#A single-center, retrospective study was conducted. The electronic medical records of patients who underwent mastectomy between July 2015 and June 2020 in Samsung Medical Center were reviewed. The data included previously known risk factors for SSI. We compared the time expended on skin closure and the occurrence rate of SSI between the ASS group and the HS group. @*Results@#We included 4,311 patients in the analysis. Among them, 520 patients were treated with ASS and 3,791 patients with HS. The average time for skin closure was 16.2 ± 10.1 minutes in the ASS group and 36.5 ± 29.0 minutes in the HS group (P 0.999). @*Conclusion@#The use of ASS in mastectomy reduced the time for skin closure significantly but did not increase the SSI. Therefore, it can be an effective and safe choice to use ASS instead of HS for skin closure in mastectomy.

3.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 159-171, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918218

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to investigate the impact of baseline values and temporal changes in body composition parameters, including skeletal muscle index (SMI) and visceral adipose tissue area (VAT), measured using serial computed tomography (CT) imaging on the prognosis of operable breast cancers in Asian patients. @*Materials and Methods@#This study retrospectively included 627 Asian female (mean age ± standard deviation [SD], 53.6 ± 8.3 years) who underwent surgery for stage I–III breast cancer between January 2011 and September 2012. Body composition parameters, including SMI and VAT, were semi-automatically calculated on baseline abdominal CT at the time of diagnosis and follow-up CT for post-treatment surveillance. Serial changes in SMI and VAT were calculated as the delta values. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of baseline and delta SMI and VAT values with disease-free survival. @*Results@#Among 627 patients, 56 patients (9.2%) had breast cancer recurrence after a median of 40.5 months. The mean value ± SD of the baseline SMI and baseline VAT were 43.7 ± 5.8 cm2 /m2 and 72.0 ± 46.0 cm2 , respectively. The mean value of the delta SMI was -0.9 cm2 /m2 and the delta VAT was 0.5 cm2 . The baseline SMI and VAT were not significantly associated with disease-free survival (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.983; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.937–1.031; p = 0.475 and adjusted HR, 1.001; 95% CI, 0.995–1.006; p = 0.751, respectively). The delta SMI and VAT were also not significantly associated with disease-free survival (adjusted HR, 0.894; 95% CI, 0.766–1.043; p = 0.155 and adjusted HR, 1.001; 95% CI, 0.989–1.014; p = 0.848, respectively). @*Conclusion@#Our study revealed that baseline and early temporal changes in SMI and VAT were not independent prognostic factors regarding disease-free survival in Asian patients undergoing surgery for breast cancer.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 737-747, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763122

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to analyze the discordance between immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based surrogate subtyping and PAM50 intrinsic subtypes and to assess overall survival (OS) according to discordance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 607 patients were analyzed. Hormone receptor (HR) expression was evaluated by IHC, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression was analyzed by IHC and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization. PAM50 intrinsic subtypes were determined according to 50 cancer genes using the NanoString nCounter Analysis System. We matched concordant tumor as luminal A and HR+/HER2–, luminal B and HR+/HER2+, HR–/HER2+ and HER2–enriched, and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and normal- or basal-like. We used Ion Ampliseq Cancer Panel v2 was used to identify the genomic alteration related with discordance. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate OS. RESULTS: In total, 233 patients (38.4%) were discordant between IHC-based subtype and PAM50 intrinsic subtype. Using targeted sequencing, we detected somatic mutation–related discordant breast cancer including the VHL gene in the HR+/HER2– group (31% in concordant group, 0% in discordant group, p=0.03) and the IDH and RET genes (7% vs. 12%, p=0.02 and 0% vs. 25%, p=0.02, respectively) in the TNBC group. Among the luminal A/B patients with a discordant result had significantly worse OS (median OS, 73.6 months vs. not reached; p < 0.001), and among the patients with HR positivity, the basal-like group as determined by PAM50 showed significantly inferior OS compared to other intrinsic subtypes (5-year OS rate, 92.2% vs. 75.6%; p=0.01). CONCLUSION: A substantial portion of patients showed discrepancy between IHC subtype and PAM50 intrinsic subtype in our study. The survival analysis demonstrated that current IHC-based classification could mislead the treatment and result in poor outcome. Current guidelines for IHC might be updated accordingly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Classification , Fluorescence , Genes, Neoplasm , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Methods , Phenobarbital , ErbB Receptors , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
5.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 173-181, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714863

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) recently released the breast cancer staging system, 8th edition, which included additional four biologic factors. However, there has been no external validation of the prognostic value of the new stages with different population-based databases. METHODS: To validate the prognostic value of the new staging system in the Asian population, with a focus on Korean patients with breast cancer, we performed a retrospective study with data from the Korean Breast Cancer Society that included 24,014 patients with invasive ductal or lobular carcinoma who underwent surgery between January 2009 and January 2012 in Korea. The proportional differences were evaluated between the anatomic staging system (AJCC 7th edition) and the prognostic staging system (AJCC 8th edition, December 2017 published version). Comparisons of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) with Kaplan-Meier graphs and hazard ratios were also performed. RESULTS: Our analysis included 24,014 patients (median age, 50 years; range, 20–91 years). Stage I, II, and III disease accounted for 47.6%, 43.5%, and 8.9%, respectively, of anatomic stages and 61.8%, 27.6%, and 10.8%, respectively, of clinical prognostic stages. A total of 6,272 cases (26.1%) were upstaged, 4,656 (19.4%) were downstaged, and 13,086 (54.5%) remained unchanged. OS and DFS decreased in the order from prognostic stages IA to IIIC but did not change among the anatomic stage groups. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that the prognostic staging system provides superior prognostic value to the anatomic staging system in Korean patients with breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asian People , Biological Factors , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Lobular , Disease-Free Survival , Joints , Korea , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
6.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 266-275, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42171

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is the second most common cancer of Korean women population. Due to the marked development of early detection as well as treatment techniques, the number of long-term survivors from breast cancer has been rapidly increasing. As the cancer survivors from other cancers do, breast cancer survivors also have various kinds of health problems. Diverse treatment modalities including anti-cancer hormonal therapy for breast cancer are related with wide range of long-term and late effects such as lymphedema, vasomotor symptoms, skin and musculoskeletal problems, and cardiac toxicity. Many breast cancer survivors also exposed to the increased risk of secondary cancer as well as comorbidities such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and osteoporosis. In addition, many breast cancer survivors tend to suffer from the fear of recurrence, depression, and anxiety, even after the completion of cancer treatment. To meet the complex needs of breast cancer survivors, comprehensive medical as well as psychosocial supports seem essential. However, those needs have been frequently neglected, because oncologists usually focus on cancer treatment and do not have enough time to manage the various health problems. Integrated care on the basis of intimate and interactive communication between oncologists and primary care physicians could be a desirable way of satisfying the unmet needs of breast cancer survivors and thus, improving their quality of life.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Anxiety , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Comorbidity , Depression , Dyslipidemias , Korea , Lymphedema , Osteoporosis , Physicians, Primary Care , Quality of Life , Recurrence , Skin , Survivors
7.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 365-370, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77780

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the oncologic efficacy of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist treatment concurrent with chemotherapy in a neoadjuvant setting. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 332 cases of invasive breast cancer in patients who were <40 years old at diagnosis and received GnRH agonists concurrent with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (GnRH agonist group) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone (neochemotherapy-alone group) from December 2010 to September 2014. Pathologic complete response rates (pCR) and Ki-67 changes were evaluated between the two groups. RESULTS: Median age was 32+/-3.9 and 36+/-3.0 years in the GnRH agonist group and neochemotherapy-alone group, respectively (p<0.001). After adjustment for tumor size, grade, lymph node metastasis, hormone receptor (HR) status, and chemotherapy regimen, the GnRH agonist group exhibited a higher pCR rate with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.98 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-6.34) and a greater decrease in Ki-67 expression after treatment (p=0.05) than the neochemotherapy-alone group. For HR-negative tumors, the GnRH agonist group showed a higher pCR rate (multivariate OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 1.37-8.95) and a greater decrease in Ki-67 expression (p=0.047). For HR-positive breast cancer, the pCR rate, change in Ki-67 index, and clinical response were higher, and preoperative endocrine prognostic index scores were lower, in the GnRH agonist group, but these did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Concurrent administration of GnRH agonists during neoadjuvant chemotherapy improved pCR rates and suppressed Ki-67 expression, especially in HR-negative tumors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Odds Ratio , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies
8.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 129-135, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110224

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Mutations in BRCA genes are the main cause of hereditary breast cancer in Korea. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of breast cancers involving BRCA1 (BRCA1 group) and BRCA2 (BRCA2 group) mutations. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with BRCA1 (BRCA1 group) or BRCA2 (BRCA2 group) mutation positive breast cancer from multiple centers and compared the data to that of the Korean Breast Cancer Society registry (registry group). RESULTS: The patients of the BRCA1 group were diagnosed at a younger age (median age, 37 years) and had tumors of higher histological (61.3% with histological grade 3) and nuclear (37.5% with nuclear grade 3) grade than those of the registry group. In addition, the frequency of ductal carcinoma in situ in the BRCA1 group was lower (3.7%) than in the registry group, and the BRCA1 group were more likely to be triple-negative breast cancer (61.3%). Patients in the BRCA2 group were also younger at diagnosis (mean age, 41 years) and were more likely to have involvement of the axillary node than the registry group (45.5% vs. 33.5%, p=0.002). The BRCA1 and BRCA2 groups did not show a correlation between tumor size and axillary node involvement. CONCLUSION: We report the characteristics of BRCA mutation positive breast cancer patients in the Korean population through multicenter data and nation-wide breast cancer registry study. However, BRCA-mutated breast cancers appear highly complex, and further research on their molecular basis is needed in Korea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Diagnosis , Genes, BRCA1 , Genes, BRCA2 , Korea , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
9.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 266-273, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-54454

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Preclinical studies have shown that human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status is associated with resistance to radiotherapy (RT). In this study, we evaluated the overall survival of a T1N0M0 breast cancer cohort in Korea according to the use of RT and the HER2 status. METHODS: We analyzed data collected from 11,552 patients with invasive breast cancer who were enrolled in the Korean Breast Cancer Society Registration Program between 1999 and 2007. Data on the TNM stage, estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, HER2 status, operation method, and the use of RT were analyzed. RESULTS: The median follow-up period was 51 months. A significant improvement in overall survival after RT was observed only in the HER2(-) group. In this group, the 10-year overall survival rate was 95.5% for patients who did not receive RT and 96.3% for patients who received RT (p=0.037). In contrast, in the HER2(+) group, RT was not associated with a survival benefit (p=0.887). Multivariate analysis showed that RT was significantly associated with a reduction in mortality in the HER2(-) group (hazard ratio, 0.738; 95% confidence interval, 0.549-0.993; p=0.045). CONCLUSION: We found that postoperative RT was not associated with a survival benefit in HER2(+) breast cancer patients, suggesting that HER2(+) breast cancers could be RT resistant.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Cohort Studies , Epidermal Growth Factor , Estrogens , Follow-Up Studies , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , ErbB Receptors , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Receptors, Progesterone , Survival Rate
10.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 410-416, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52425

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study compared the survival outcomes of different treatment methods for the ipsilateral breast of occult breast cancer (OBC) patients with axillary lymph node metastasis. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in which forty OBC patients with axillary lymph node metastasis were identified out of 15,029 patients who had been diagnosed with a primary breast cancer at between 1992 and 2010. The patients were categorized into three treatment groups based on ipsilateral breast management: breast-conserving surgery (BCS) (n=17), mastectomy (n=12), and nonsurgical intervention with or without radiation therapy (No surgery with or without radiation therapy [No Op+/-RT]) (n=11). All patients underwent axillary lymph node dissection. Cases were evaluated based on treatment and potential prognostic factors with respect to overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS: During the follow-up period (median follow-up of 71.5 months), the overall OS and DFS were 76.9% and 74.9%, respectively. The 5-year treatment-specific OS was 72.0% for the BCS group, 74.0% for the mastectomy group, and 87.5% for the No Op+/-RT group (log-rank p=0.49). The 5-year DFS was 70.6% for the BCS group, 66.7% for the mastectomy group, and 90.9% for the No Op+/-RT group (log-rank p=0.36). Recurrence rates for the BCS and No Op+/-RT groups were 5.9% and 18.2%, respectively. Histologic grade and lymph node status were inversely correlated with DFS (log-rank p=0.04 and p<0.01, respectively). CONCLUSION: There was no difference in survival outcomes between the three treatment methods for the ipsilateral breast (mastectomy, BCS, and No Op+/-RT) of OBC patients with axillary lymph node metastasis. A large-scale multicenter study is needed to validate the results from this small retrospective study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Mastectomy , Mastectomy, Segmental , Methods , Neoplasm Metastasis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
11.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : S31-S36, 2011.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-169532

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship of menopause and serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) level and estradiol (E2) in Korean women with breast cancer. METHODS: We reviewed 1,404 women aged from 20- to 82-year-old (median 47 years) with breast cancer who had got surgery at Asan Medical Center in 2008. All patients were checked serum FSH before the operation. Three hundred fifty-three patients were in postmenopause state at the time of surgery. Their ages were from 40- to 60-year-old (median 50.3 years). RESULTS: The proportion of postmenopausal status in each age-group were 5.1% (45- to 49-year-old), 41% (50- to 54-year-old), 86.1% (55- to 59-year-old), and 100% over the age of 60, respectively. And the proportion of the patients with FSH over 30 mUI/mL were 68.6% (45- to 49-year-old), 87.5% (55- to 59-year-old), 75.0% (55- to 59-year-old) and 30.0% (over the age of 60), respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that even though patients had been in amenorrhea over 1 year, not all patients have their FSH level over 30 mUI/mL. And this finding is more prominent in age group from 45- to 49-year-old.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms
12.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 90-95, 2010.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136992

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The main treatment for stage IV breast cancer is currently systemic therapy. Surgical resection of the primary tumor is usually done for treating the tumor-related complications. Recent studies have suggested that surgery may improve the long-term survival of stage IV breast cancer patients. We evaluated the impact of the primary surgical resection site on the survival of stage IV breast cancer patients. METHODS: We reviewed the records of the stage IV breast cancer patients who were treated at Seoul University Hospital between April 1992 and December 2007. The tumor and clinical characteristics, the type of treatments and the overall survival were compared between the surgically versus nonsurgically treated patients. RESULTS: Of the 198 identified patients, 110 (55.8%) received surgical excision of their primary tumor and 88 (44.2%) did not. The mean survival was 67 months vs. 42 months for the surgically treated patients vs. the patients without surgery, respectively (p=0.0287). On a multivariate analysis with using the Cox model and after adjusting for the estrogen receptor status, visceral metastases, the number of metastatic sites and trastuzumab treatment, surgery was an independent factor for improved survival (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.31-0.97; p=0.041). CONCLUSION: Surgical resection of the primary tumor in stage IV breast cancer patients was independently associated with improved survival. Randomized prospective trials are needed to firmly recommend surgical resection of the primary tumor in stage IV breast cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Estrogens , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Trastuzumab
13.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 90-95, 2010.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136985

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The main treatment for stage IV breast cancer is currently systemic therapy. Surgical resection of the primary tumor is usually done for treating the tumor-related complications. Recent studies have suggested that surgery may improve the long-term survival of stage IV breast cancer patients. We evaluated the impact of the primary surgical resection site on the survival of stage IV breast cancer patients. METHODS: We reviewed the records of the stage IV breast cancer patients who were treated at Seoul University Hospital between April 1992 and December 2007. The tumor and clinical characteristics, the type of treatments and the overall survival were compared between the surgically versus nonsurgically treated patients. RESULTS: Of the 198 identified patients, 110 (55.8%) received surgical excision of their primary tumor and 88 (44.2%) did not. The mean survival was 67 months vs. 42 months for the surgically treated patients vs. the patients without surgery, respectively (p=0.0287). On a multivariate analysis with using the Cox model and after adjusting for the estrogen receptor status, visceral metastases, the number of metastatic sites and trastuzumab treatment, surgery was an independent factor for improved survival (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.31-0.97; p=0.041). CONCLUSION: Surgical resection of the primary tumor in stage IV breast cancer patients was independently associated with improved survival. Randomized prospective trials are needed to firmly recommend surgical resection of the primary tumor in stage IV breast cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Estrogens , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Trastuzumab
14.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 154-159, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57616

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A better predictive model for occult invasive disease in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) patients is essential to guide the tailored use of sentinel node biopsies. We hypothesized that recent improvement of contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could provide more accurate information on the presence of occult invasion in DCIS patients. METHODS: From a prospectively maintained database, we identified 143 DCIS patients diagnosed with needle biopsies in whom MRI images were available. RESULTS: Sixty-five patients (45.5%) were upstaged to invasive carcinoma after curative surgery. Ultrasonographic lesion size, mass-appearance on mammography, type of needle used, and the presence of suspicious microinvasive foci were associated with increased likelihood of upstaging. Among the features of MRI, only mass-appearance was significantly associated with the presence of invasive disease (p=0.002). However, up to 50% of masses in MRI cases had massappearance on mammography as well. Other morphologic and pharmacokinetic features of MRI, such as shape, margin, and patterns of enhancement and washout, did not have a significant association. CONCLUSION: Among various morphologic and pharmacokinetic parameters of contrast-enhanced MRI, only mass-appearance was associated with occult invasive disease. Our results show the limitations of current contrast-enhanced MRI in predicting invasive disease in patients with preoperative diagnoses of DCIS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy , Biopsy, Needle , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mammography , Needles , Nitriles , Prospective Studies , Pyrethrins , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
15.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 375-381, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69401

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Extended treatment with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) after tamoxifen has shown effectiveness in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer. However it is very difficult to start on AIs for patients who become postmenopausal after tamoxifen because tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that influences menopause, confusing the menopausal status of patients. We assessed the menopausal status and hormone concentrations at the start of letrozole treatment in women with breast cancer who were premenopausal when diagnosed with breast cancer and who became postmenopausal during 5 years of tamoxifen therapy. METHODS: We evaluated 164 patients with breast cancer who received extended letrozole therapy between May 2006 and December 2007. All had been premenopausal at diagnosis but became postmenopausal during 5 years of tamoxifen therapy. Menopause was defined as amenorrhea for >1 year, serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) concentration > or =30 mIU/mL or serum estradiol (E2) concentrations or =30 mIU/mL and 113 (70.2%) had E2 concentrations or =30 mIU/mL were observed in 87 patients (57.6%) after 6 months of letrozole and in 133 (88.1%) after 2 years, and E2 concentrations or =30 mIU/mL and E2 levels < or =20 pg/mL were not significantly related to age at surgery (p=0.836 and p=0.228, respectively), at start of letrozole (p=0.855 and p=0.357, respectively), or at amenorrhea (p=0.098 and p=0.154, respectively). CONCLUSION: Applying postmenopausal ranges of hormone concentrations observed in normal healthy people to patients who completed 5 years of tamoxifen is inappropriate, because tamoxifen itself may affect FSH concentration. Further studies should focus on identifying an indicator of ovarian function so that these patients can start extended hormone therapy.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Amenorrhea , Aromatase Inhibitors , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Estradiol , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Menopause , Nitriles , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators , Tamoxifen , Triazoles
16.
Journal of Korean Breast Cancer Society ; : 132-135, 2004.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-212655

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Micropapillary carcinoma in breast cancer was first described by Petersen in 1993, after which other reports from all over the world described their characteristics. In Korea, this type of carcinoma was first described in 1996. The purpose of our study was to find the clinicopathological characteristics of micropapillary carcinomas from our experiences and to compare the results with those of other studies. METHODS: We analyzed 19 patients, from Dec. 1999 to Dec. 2002, diagnosed with micropapillary carcinomas from postoperative pathological reports retrospectively, compared with 939 patients diagnosed with infiltrating duct carcinoma in the same period. RESULTS: The mean age and tumor size were 46.8 years (range 32~73) and 3.75cm (range 0.5~10.0), respectively. Micropapillary carcinoma showed the larger size (P=0.032) and more frequent rates of lymphovascular invasion (P= 0.007) and metastasis to axillary lymph nodes (P=0.003) than infiltrating duct carcinoma. But, in the T stage-matched analysis, the rates of axillary lymph node metastasis in micropapillary carcinoma and infiltrating duct carcinoma showed no significant differences (T1, T2, T3 : P=0.072, P= 0.080, P=0.575 ). Only in T2 stage, rates of lymphovascular invasion showed more frequent significantly in micropapillary carcinoma (P=0.012). Age, nuclear and histological grades showed no significant differences. The positive expressions of estrogen and progesterone receptors were more frequent in micropapillary carcinoma compared with infiltrating duct carcinoma, while the expressions of the C-erb-B2, p53, Ki-67 and bcl-2 showed no significant differences. CONCLUSION: The micropapillary carcinomas showed more frequent lymphovascular invasion and positive expressions of the estrogen and progesterone receptors in their immunohistochemistry.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Estrogens , Immunohistochemistry , Korea , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Receptors, Progesterone , Retrospective Studies
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