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1.
Journal of Stroke ; : 113-123, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874951

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose To evaluate the outcome events and bleeding complications of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guideline-matched oral anticoagulant therapy for patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation (AF). @*Methods@#Patients with acute ischemic stroke and AF from a nationwide multicenter registry (Korean ATrial fibrillaTion EvaluatioN regisTry in Ischemic strOke patieNts [K-ATTENTION]) between January 2013 and December 2015 were included in the study. Patients were divided into the ESC guideline-matched and the non-matched groups. The primary outcome was recurrence of any stroke during the 90-day follow-up period. Secondary outcomes were major adverse cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events, ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, acute coronary syndrome, allcause mortality, and major hemorrhage. Propensity score matching and logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the effect of the treatments administered. @*Results@#Among 2,321 eligible patients, 1,126 patients were 1:1 matched to the ESC guidelinematched and the non-matched groups. As compared with the non-matched group, the ESC guideline-matched group had a lower risk of any recurrent stroke (1.4% vs. 3.4%; odds ratio [OR], 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18 to 0.95). The risk of recurrent ischemic stroke was lower in the ESC guideline-matched group than in the non-matched group (0.9% vs. 2.7%; OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.88). There was no significant difference in the other secondary outcomes between the two groups. @*Conclusions@#ESC guideline-matched oral anticoagulant therapy was associated with reduced risks of any stroke and ischemic stroke as compared with the non-matched therapy.

2.
Journal of Stroke ; : 108-118, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834639

ABSTRACT

Background@#and purpose Whether pharmacologically altered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) affects the risk of cardiovascular events is unknown. Recently, we have reported the Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Asian Patients with Ischaemic Stroke at High Risk of Cerebral Haemorrhage (PICASSO) trial that demonstrated the non-inferiority of cilostazol to aspirin and superiority of probucol to non-probucol for cardiovascular prevention in ischemic stroke patients (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01013532). We aimed to determine whether on-treatment HDL-C changes by cilostazol and probucol influence the treatment effect of each study medication during the PICASSO study. @*Methods@#Of the 1,534 randomized patients, 1,373 (89.5%) with baseline cholesterol parameters were analyzed. Efficacy endpoint was the composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis examined an interaction between the treatment effect and changes in HDL-C levels from randomization to 1 month for each study arm. @*Results@#One-month post-randomization mean HDL-C level was significantly higher in the cilostazol group than in the aspirin group (1.08 mmol/L vs. 1.00 mmol/L, P<0.001). The mean HDL-C level was significantly lower in the probucol group than in the non-probucol group (0.86 mmol/L vs. 1.22 mmol/L, P<0.001). These trends persisted throughout the study. In both study arms, no significant interaction was observed between HDL-C changes and the assigned treatment regarding the risk of the efficacy endpoint. @*Conclusions@#Despite significant HDL-C changes, the effects of cilostazol and probucol treatment on the risk of cardiovascular events were insignificant. Pharmacologically altered HDL-C levels may not be reliable prognostic markers for cardiovascular risk.

3.
Journal of Stroke ; : 42-59, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740619

ABSTRACT

Despite the great socioeconomic burden of stroke, there have been few reports of stroke statistics in Korea. In this scenario, the Epidemiologic Research Council of the Korean Stroke Society launched the “Stroke Statistics in Korea” project, aimed at writing a contemporary, comprehensive, and representative report on stroke epidemiology in Korea. This report contains general statistics of stroke, prevalence of behavioral and vascular risk factors, stroke characteristics, pre-hospital system of care, hospital management, quality of stroke care, and outcomes. In this report, we analyzed the most up-to-date and nationally representative databases, rather than performing a systematic review of existing evidence. In summary, one in 40 adults are patients with stroke and 232 subjects per 100,000 experience a stroke event every year. Among the 100 patients with stroke in 2014, 76 had ischemic stroke, 15 had intracerebral hemorrhage, and nine had subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke mortality is gradually declining, but it remains as high as 30 deaths per 100,000 individuals, with regional disparities. As for stroke risk factors, the prevalence of smoking is decreasing in men but not in women, and the prevalence of alcohol drinking is increasing in women but not in men. Population-attributable risk factors vary with age. Smoking plays a role in young-aged individuals, hypertension and diabetes in middle-aged individuals, and atrial fibrillation in the elderly. About four out of 10 hospitalized patients with stroke are visiting an emergency room within 3 hours of symptom onset, and only half use an ambulance. Regarding acute management, the proportion of patients with ischemic stroke receiving intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular treatment was 10.7% and 3.6%, respectively. Decompressive surgery was performed in 1.4% of patients with ischemic stroke and in 28.1% of those with intracerebral hemorrhage. The cumulative incidence of bleeding and fracture at 1 year after stroke was 8.9% and 4.7%, respectively. The direct costs of stroke were about ₩1.68 trillion (KRW), of which ₩1.11 trillion were for ischemic stroke and ₩540 billion for hemorrhagic stroke. The great burden of stroke in Korea can be reduced through more concentrated efforts to control major attributable risk factors for age and sex, reorganize emergency medical service systems to give patients with stroke more opportunities for reperfusion therapy, disseminate stroke unit care, and reduce regional disparities. We hope that this report can contribute to achieving these tasks.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Alcohol Drinking , Ambulances , Atrial Fibrillation , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epidemiology , Female , Hemorrhage , Hope , Humans , Hypertension , Incidence , Korea , Male , Mortality , Prevalence , Reperfusion , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Stroke , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Writing
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The clinical implications of echocardiography findings for long-term outcomes in atrial fibrillation (AF)-related stroke patients are unknown. METHODS: This was a substudy of the Korean ATrial fibrillaTion EvaluatioN regisTry in Ischemic strOke patieNts (K-ATTENTION), which is a multicenter-based cohort comprising prospective stroke registries from 11 tertiary centers. Stroke survivors who underwent two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography during hospitalization were enrolled. Echocardiography markers included the left-ventricle (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF), the left atrium diameter, and the ratio of the peak transmitral filling velocity to the mean mitral annular velocity during early diastole (E/e′ ratio). LVEF was categorized into normal (≥55%), mildly decreased (>40% and <55%), and severely decreased (≤40%). The E/e′ ratio associated with the LV filling pressure was categorized into normal (<8), borderline (≥8 and <15), and elevated (≥15). Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed for recurrent stroke, major adverse cardiac events, and all-cause death. RESULTS: This study finally included 1,947 patients. Over a median follow-up of 1.65 years (interquartile range, 0.42–2.87 years), the rates of recurrent stroke, major adverse cardiac events, and all-cause death were 35.1, 10.8, and 69.6 cases per 1,000 person-years, respectively. Multivariable analyses demonstrated that severely decreased LVEF was associated with a higher risks of major adverse cardiac events [hazard ratio (HR), 3.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.58–9.69] and all-cause death (HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.23–3.10). The multivariable fractional polynomial plot indicated that recurrent stroke might be associated with a lower LVEF. CONCLUSIONS: Severe LV systolic dysfunction could be a determinant of long-term outcomes in AF-related stroke.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Cohort Studies , Diastole , Echocardiography , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Atria , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , Registries , Stroke , Survivors
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738623

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term outcomes of optic disc pit maculopathy after vitrectomy. METHODS: We evaluated retrospectively the medical records of eight patients with macular retinal detachment or retinoschisis who underwent vitrectomy due to optic disc pit maculopathy. The best-corrected visual acuity and optical coherence tomography findings were analyzed after surgery. RESULTS: Eight eyes of eight patients (two male and six female) were enrolled. The mean best-corrected visual acuity was 0.76 log MAR, the mean age was 42.8, and the mean follow-up period was 56 months (range: 8–120 months). At baseline, retinoschisis was observed in all eight eyes. Six eyes had serous retinal detachment of the macula. Vitrectomy for a complete posterior vitreous detachment was performed. Additional internal limiting membrane peeling and tamponade were performed in six and four eyes, respectively. After surgery, serous retinal detachment was gone in all eyes (100%) at a mean of 22.8 months (range: 18 days–60 months). Three of eight eyes (37.5%) showed the disappearance of retinoschisis at a mean of 6.8 months (range: 1.7–21 months), but the remaining patients still had retinoschisis at the final visit. Ocular complications were full-thickness macular hole and iatrogenic retinal detachment in each case. The final corrected visual acuity improved to 0.29 logMAR. CONCLUSIONS: Vitrectomy is an effective treatment for patients with optic disc pit maculopathy. It achieved anatomical and visual improvements over a long period of time. However, retinoschisis due to inner retinal fluid remained in many patients.


Subject(s)
Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Medical Records , Membranes , Retinal Detachment , Retinal Perforations , Retinaldehyde , Retinoschisis , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity , Vitrectomy , Vitreous Detachment
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766806

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766749

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Burden of acute stroke management is increasing according to aging population and advances in the therapeutic time window. However, reduction of resident numbers by the national policy in addition to the underlying low medical charge and reward gradually leaded to a lower rate of application to neurology department. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide survey from May 29, 2017 through July 11, 2017 to evaluate the real-world working conditions and issues of acute stroke management by stroke neurologists in Korea. Of 100 candidates of stroke professors/specialists, a total of 81 physicians participated the survey comprising 40 questionnaires. RESULTS: Stroke care physicians were suffering from heavy work load of inpatient care, outpatient clinic due to shortage of manpower for caring acute stroke. There were only three hospitals (3.7%) where neurologists independently take lead an endovascular therapy. About 43% of the participants were involving in primary duty for acute stroke management stroke, majority of whom (65.7%) were on by themselves. Participants pointed out that the biggest drawbacks were manpower shortage due to lack of residents, and numerous frequencies of primary duty. Approximately 80% of the participants forecasted a dismal future for stroke field. CONCLUSIONS: With the growing incidence of stroke, there is an emerging need for increasing number of neurologists due to contemporary grave shortage of stroke neurologists. It is necessary to investigate the effective demand forecasting for stroke neurologists for the strategy to improve an unmet quality of stroke care with the awareness and help of government.


Subject(s)
Aging , Ambulatory Care , Brain Infarction , Forecasting , Humans , Incidence , Inpatients , Korea , Neurology , Reward , Stroke
8.
Journal of Stroke ; : 258-267, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The pathophysiology of post-stroke depression (PSD) is complex and may differ according to an individual’s mood immediately after stroke. Here, we compared the therapeutic response and clinical characteristics of PSD at a later stage between patients with and without depression immediately after stroke. METHODS: This study involved a post hoc analysis of data from EMOTION (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01278498), a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial that examined the efficacy of escitalopram (10 mg/day) on PSD and other emotional disturbances among 478 patients with acute stroke. Participants were classified into the Baseline-Blue (patients with baseline depression at the time of randomization, defined per the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] ≥8) or the Baseline-Pink groups (patients without baseline depression). We compared the efficacy of escitalopram and predictors of 3-month PSD (MADRS ≥8) between these groups. RESULTS: There were 203 Baseline-Pink and 275 Baseline-Blue patients. The efficacy of escitalopram in reducing PSD risk was more pronounced in the Baseline-Pink than in the Baseline-Blue group (p for interaction=0.058). Several risk factors differentially affected PSD development based on the presence of baseline depression (p for interaction < 0.10). Cognitive dysfunction was an independent predictor of PSD in the Baseline-Blue, but not in the Baseline-Pink group, whereas the non-use of escitalopram and being female were more strongly associated with PSD in the Baseline-Pink group. CONCLUSIONS: Responses to escitalopram and predictors of PSD 3 months following stroke differed based on the presence of baseline depression. Our data suggest that PSD pathophysiology is heterogeneous; therefore, different therapeutic strategies may be needed to prevent PSD emergence following stroke.


Subject(s)
Affective Symptoms , Anger , Citalopram , Depression , Female , Humans , Random Allocation , Risk Factors , Stroke
9.
Blood Research ; : 41-48, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Korean National Health Insurance reimburses factor VIII (FVIII) and factor IX (FIX) clotting factor concentrate (CFC) infusions to discrepant activity levels, allowing elevation of FVIII activity to 60 IU/dL and FIX to 40 IU/dL. We aimed to assess hemostatic response to these target levels using global hemostatic assays. METHODS: We enrolled 34 normal healthy men, 34 patients with hemophilia A, and 36 with hemophilia B, with residual factor activity of 3 IU/dL or less and without inhibitors. Patients with hemophilia A and B received injected CFCs according to reimbursement guidelines. Fifteen minutes after injection, we assessed hemostatic response with global hemostatic assays: thrombin generation assay (TGA), thromboelastography (TEG), and clot waveform analysis (CWA). RESULTS: Normal healthy men and patients with hemophilia A and B were 36.7, 37.2, and 35.1 years old, respectively. FVIII and recombinant FIX concentrate doses were 28.8 IU/kg and 43.6 IU/kg. Post-infusion FVIII activity rose from 0.5 IU/dL to 69.4 IU/dL, while FIX activity rose from 1.4 IU/dL to 46.8 IU/dL. Post-infusion peak thrombin concentrations in hemophilia A and B were 116.6 nM/L and 76.4 nM/L (P < 0.001). Post-infusion endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) in hemophilia A and B was 1349.8 nM/min and 915.6 nM (P < 0.001). TEG index of hemophilia A and B was 0.11 and −0.51 (P=0.006). CONCLUSION: Current reimbursed doses for FIX concentrates are insufficient to achieve hemostatic responses comparable to those after reimbursed doses for FVIII concentrates in terms of peak thrombin concentration, ETP, and TEG index.


Subject(s)
Factor IX , Factor VIII , Hemophilia A , Hemophilia B , Humans , Male , National Health Programs , Thrombelastography , Thrombin
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738576

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a delayed onset of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome in a patient with punctate inner choroidopathy. CASE SUMMARY: A 23-year-old female complained about sudden visual loss in the right eye. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/100 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. In fundus examination and optical coherence tomographic images, subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) with hemorrhage was observed in the right eye, accompanied by multiple lesions of atrophic pigmentation on the posterior pole in both eyes. We diagnosed the patient as punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) and CNV in the right eye, and treated her using three monthly intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (Avastin®, Roche, Basel, Switzerland; 1.25 mg/0.05 mL). The CNV regressed and the BCVA improved to 20/20. Two years later, she complained of visual impairment in her left eye. The BCVA was 20/40. Fundus photography revealed numerous small white dots around the posterior pole and optic disc. Disruption of the photoreceptor layer was seen in optical coherence tomography images. Small white dots were observed as multiple hyperfluorescent dots in fluorescein angiography and hypofluorescent spots in indocyanine green angiography. An enlarged blind spot was observed in the visual field. We diagnosed her as multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS). One month after systemic steroid treatment, the multiple white dots disappeared and the BCVA improved to 20/20. CONCLUSIONS: We determined that PIC and MEWDS, which belong to the white dot syndrome, could occur in a patient at different times.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Bevacizumab , Choroidal Neovascularization , Female , Fluorescein Angiography , Hemorrhage , Humans , Indocyanine Green , Intravitreal Injections , Optic Disk , Photography , Pigmentation , Switzerland , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Vision Disorders , Visual Acuity , Visual Fields , Young Adult
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787085

ABSTRACT

A 75-year-old man with chronic cholangitis and a common bile duct stone that was not previously identified was admitted for right upper quadrant pain. Acute cholecystitis with cholangitis was suspected on abdominal computed tomography (CT); therefore, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with endonasal biliary drainage was performed. On admission day 5, hemobilia with rupture of two intrahepatic artery pseudoaneurysms was observed on follow-up abdominal CT. Coil embolization of the pseudoaneurysms was conducted using percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. After several days, intrahepatic artery pseudoaneurysm rupture recurred and coil embolization through a percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage tract was conducted after failure of embolization via the hepatic artery due to previous coiling. After the second coil embolization, a common bile duct stone was removed, and the patient presented no complications during 4 months of follow-up. We report a case of intrahepatic artery pseudoaneurysm rupture without prior history of intervention involving the hepatobiliary system that was successfully managed using coil embolization through percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aneurysm, False , Arteries , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Cholangitis , Cholecystitis, Acute , Common Bile Duct , Drainage , Embolization, Therapeutic , Follow-Up Studies , Hemobilia , Hepatic Artery , Humans , Rupture , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 556-559, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718861

ABSTRACT

Intestinal tuberculosis is an infection of the gastrointestinal tract by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. To the best of our knowledge, solitary intestinal tuberculosis accompanied by intestinal obstruction, particularly in the middle of the small intestine, is extremely rare. We report a case of solitary jejunal tuberculosis in a 49-year-old man with no underlying disease. He was admitted a few days after the onset of diffuse abdominal discomfort. Upon evaluation, we initially considered a malignancy of the distal jejunum with ileus due to the presence of a mass. Therefore, he underwent laparoscopic resection of the small bowel. Unexpectedly, the histologic specimen showed a chronic caseating granulomatous lesion with acid-fast bacilli. Ultimately, he was diagnosed with solitary jejunal tuberculosis. He was successfully treated with anti-tuberculosis drugs without any complications.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Ileus , Immunocompetence , Intestinal Obstruction , Intestine, Small , Jejunum , Middle Aged , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Gastrointestinal
13.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 50-56, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-170778

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review of prospectively collected data. PURPOSE: To introduce the sternum-disk distance (SDD) method for approaching the exact surgical level without C-arm guidance during anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) surgery and to evaluate its accuracy and reliability. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Although spine surgeons have tried to optimize methods for identifying the skin level for accessing the operative disk level without C-arm guidance during ACDF, success has rarely been reported. METHODS: In total, 103 patients who underwent single-level ACDF surgery with the SDD method were enrolled. The primary outcome measure was the accuracy of the SDD method. The secondary outcome measures were the mean SDD value at each cervical level from the cranial margin of the sternum in the neutral and extension positions of the cervical spine and the inter- and intra-observer reliability of the SDD outcome determined using repeated measurements by three orthopedic spine surgeons. RESULTS: The SDD accuracy (primary outcome measure) was indicated in 99% of the patients (102/103). The mean SDD values in the neutral-position magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were 108.8 mm at C3–C4, 85.3 mm at C4–C5, 64.4 mm at C5–C6, 44.3 mm at C6–C7, and 24.1 mm at C7–T1; and those in the extension-position MRI were 112.9 mm at C3–C4, 88.7 mm at C4–C5, 67.3 mm at C5–C6, 46.5 mm at C6–C7, and 24.3 mm at C7–T1. The Cohen kappa coefficient value for intra-observer reliability was 0.88 (excellent reliability), and the Fleiss kappa coefficient value for inter-observer reliability as reported by three surgeons was 0.89 (excellent reliability). CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of the present study, we recommend performing ACDF surgery using the SDD method to determine the skin level for approaching the surgical cervical segment without fluoroscopic guidance.


Subject(s)
Cervical Vertebrae , Diskectomy , Female , Fluoroscopy , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Orthopedics , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Skin , Spinal Fusion , Spine , Sternum , Surgeons
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-175106

ABSTRACT

Atherosclerosis, characterized by chronic systemic inflammation with plaque formation, is one of the major causes of cerebrovascular disease. Recent advances in imaging technologies can help further understand the overall process and biology of plaque formation and rupture. Thus, these imaging techniques could aid clinicians to make better decision for risk stratification, therapeutic planning, and prediction of future cerebrovascular event. Ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography are the rapidly-evolving imaging modalities dealing with assessment of atherosclerotic plaque. By advances in imaging technology for evaluating plaque, we can characterize the vulnerability of plaque in-vivo, understand the composition and activity of plaque, assess therapeutic response to treatment, and ultimately predict the overall risk of future cerebrovascular episodes. In this review, we will introduce current understanding of various advanced imaging modalities and clinical application of these imaging technologies.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Biology , Carotid Artery Diseases , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Inflammation , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Positron-Emission Tomography , Rupture , Ultrasonography
15.
Journal of Stroke ; : 213-221, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72816

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: One explanation for the ‘obesity paradox’, where obese patients seem to have better cardiovascular outcomes than lean patients, is that obese patients display an identifiable high cardiovascular risk phenotype that may lead to receiving or seeking earlier/more aggressive treatment. METHODS: We analyzed a clinical trial dataset comprising 3643 recent (<120 days) ischemic stroke patients followed up for 2 years. Subjects were categorized as lean (body mass index [BMI], <25 kg/m², n=1,006), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m², n=1,493), or obese (≥30 kg/m², n=1,144). Subjects were classified as level 0 to III depending on the number of secondary prevention prescriptions divided by the number of potentially indicated drugs (0=none of the indicated medications and III=all indicated medications as optimal combination drug treatment [OCT]). Independent associations between each BMI category and stroke/myocardial infarction/vascular death (major vascular events [MVEs]) and all-cause death were assessed. RESULTS: MVEs occurred in 17.4% of lean, 16.1% of overweight, and 17.1% of obese patients; death occurred in 7.3%, 5.5%, and 5.1%, respectively. Individuals with a higher BMI status received more OCT (45.8%, 51.7%, and 55.3%, respectively; P<0.001). In the lean patient group, multivariable adjusted Cox analyses, showed that compared with levels 0-I, level II and level III were linked to lower risk of MVEs (hazard ratio [HR] 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.32–0.95 and HR 0.48; 95% CI: 0.28−0.83, respectively) and death (0.44; 0.21–0.96 and 0.23; 0.10−0.54, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: OCT for secondary prevention after an ischemic stroke is less frequent in lean (vs. obese) subjects, but when implemented is related to significantly better clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Dataset , Humans , Obesity , Overweight , Phenotype , Prescriptions , Secondary Prevention , Stroke , Vitamins
16.
Journal of Stroke ; : 304-311, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Elevated blood pressure (BP) is associated with greater severity of intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) and increased risk of ischemic stroke. Because little is known about the relationship of maintained BP level with progression of symptomatic ICAS (sICAS), we evaluated the independent association of maintained systolic BP (SBP) with risk of sICAS progression. METHODS: We analyzed the Trial of cilOstazol in Symptomatic intracranial Stenosis 2, which evaluated 402 stroke patients with sICAS (mean age, 64.5±11.3 years; male, 52.2%). Study participants were categorized into four groups according to mean SBP level: low-normal ( < 120 mm Hg), normal to high-normal (120 to 139 mm Hg), high (140 to 159 mm Hg), and very-high (≥160 mm Hg). Progression of sICAS was defined as worsening in the degree of stenosis by ≥1 grade on the 7-month magnetic resonance angiography follow-up. RESULTS: sICAS progression was observed in 52 (12.9%) subjects. Percentages of sICAS progression by mean SBP category showed a J-shape pattern: low-normal (21.4%), normal to high-normal (10.7%), high (11.4%), and very-high (38.9%). In multivariable analysis, compared to the normal to high-normal SBP group, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were low-normal, 1.88 (0.62–5.67); high, 1.06 (0.47–2.37); and very-high, 8.75 (2.57–29.86). Rate of sICAS progression by 10-mm Hg strata showed a similar pattern to findings from mean SBP category (9.47; 2.58–34.73 for SBP ≥160 mm Hg). CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals with a recent ICAS stroke, very-high SBP level during the short-term period after the index stroke was associated with significantly greater odds of sICAS progression.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Constriction, Pathologic , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Male , Odds Ratio , Stroke
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-64813

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report three cases of glial hyper-proliferation after autologous internal limiting membrane (ILM) transplantation in idiopathic large macular holes. CASE SUMMARY: Three eyes with full thickness macular holes >500 µm underwent autologous ILM transplantation. After surgery, the macular hole was closed and foveal contour was U-shaped. Optical coherence tomography revealed long-lasting proliferation of glial cells in the fovea after the hole closure. This glial proliferation continued for 6 months, with improved visual acuity, and bump-like features of the fovea. CONCLUSIONS: Autologous transplantation of ILM effectively induced long-lasting proliferation of glial cells, thereby achieving the closure of large macular holes. However, an abnormality of the foveal contour may develop after the hole closure in some cases.


Subject(s)
Autografts , Membranes , Neuroglia , Retinal Perforations , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Transplantation, Autologous , Visual Acuity
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-9111

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Stiffness in the first metatarsophalangeal joint after surgery for hallux valgus has been reported. The goal of this study was to test the efficacy of releasing plantar aponeurosis for improving the range of extension in the first metatarsophalangeal joint that was limited after hallux valgus surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients (1 man, 12 women [17 feet]; median age, 54.4 years; range, 44~69 years) with limited first metatarsophalangeal joint extension after hallux valgus surgery, who underwent an additional procedure of plantar aponeurosis release between March 2015 and August 2015, were included. Subsequently, the passive range of extension in the first metatarsophalangeal joint was evaluated via knee extension and flexion positions. Hallux valgus angle, inter-metatarsal angle, distal metatarsal articular angle, and talo-first metatarsal angle were measured on weightbearing dorsoplantar and lateral radiographs of the foot preoperatively. RESULTS: The mean range of extension for the first metatarsophalangeal joint improved significantly, from 2.5° to 40.9° in the knee extension position (p<0.00). The mean extension range for the first metatarsophalangeal joint also improved, from 18.2° to 43.2° in the knee flexion position (p<0.00). In all patients, congruence of the first metatarsophalangeal joint was recovered. CONCLUSION: Plantar aponeurosis release is an effective additional procedure for improving the extension range of the first metatarsophalangeal joint after hallux valgus surgery.


Subject(s)
Female , Foot , Hallux Valgus , Hallux , Humans , Knee , Metatarsal Bones , Metatarsophalangeal Joint , Weight-Bearing
19.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 38-45, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-157495

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective interventional study. PURPOSE: To introduce a free-hand pedicle screw (PS) insertion technique without fluoroscopic guidance in the C7 vertebra and evaluate the procedure's feasibility and radiologic outcomes. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Although PS insertion at C7 has been recognized as a critical procedure in posterior cervical fusion surgery, conventional techniques for C7 PS have several limitations. METHODS: Thirty two patients (64 screws) who underwent PS insertion in C7 with the novel technique were included in this study. Postoperative clinical and radiological outcomes were evaluated. Special attention was paid to the presence of any problems in the screw position including cortical breaches of the PS and encroachment of the PS into the spinal canal or the vertebral foramen. This novel technique for PS insertion in C7 without fluoroscopy guidance had three key elements. First, the ideal PS entry point was chosen near the C6-7 facet joint using preoperative images. Second, the convergent angle distance was measured at axial computed tomography (CT) imaging, which defined the distance between the tip of C7 spinous process and the extended line passing through the pedicle axis from the ideal entry point. Third, the cranial-caudal angle distance was measured in sagittal CT images, which defined the distance between the tip of the C7 spinous process and the extended line passing through the pedicle axis. RESULTS: Cortical breach on postoperative CT images was observed in three screws. All violated only the lateral wall of the affected pedicle. The breached screws occurred in the initial five cases. Postoperative neurologic deterioration was not observed in any patient, regardless of cortical breaching. CONCLUSIONS: The novel technique successfully allows for C7 PS to be placed and is associated with a low rate of cortical breach.


Subject(s)
Axis, Cervical Vertebra , Feasibility Studies , Fluoroscopy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Canal , Spine , Zygapophyseal Joint
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151583

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most cases with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) are usually sporadic, while about 20% of the cases are caused by genetic defects. Little information is available regarding the mutation incidence and genetic heterogeneity of CH in Koreans. We aimed to determine the mutation incidence of CH in newborn screenings (NBS) and to evaluate the frequency and spectrum of mutations underlying CH. METHODS: A total of 112 newborns with thyroid dysfunction were enrolled from 256,624 consecutive NBS. Furthermore, 58 outpatients with primary CH were added from an endocrine clinic. All coding exons of TSHR, PAX8, TPO, DUOX2, DUOXA2, and SCL5A5 were sequenced. RESULTS: The mutation incidence of CH was estimated to be 1 in 6,580 newborns. A total of 36 different mutations were identified in 53 cases. The overall mutation positive rate was 31%. The DUOX2 mutations were the most prevalent in both newborns and outpatients. Seven different recurrent mutations [p.G488R (n=13), p.A649E (n=3), p.R885Q (n=3), p.I1080T (n=2), and p.A1206T (n=2) in DUOX2; p.Y138X (n=9) in DUOXA2; and p.R450H (n=5) in TSHR) were identified as the mutations underlying CH. CONCLUSIONS: The mutation incidence of CH was considerably higher than expected in the Korean newborn population. This study revealed seven different recurrent mutations underlying CH. We conclude that DUOX2 mutations are a frequent cause of CH in the Korean population.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group/genetics , Child , Child, Preschool , Congenital Hypothyroidism/epidemiology , Exons , Female , Genetic Association Studies , Genotype , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , NADPH Oxidases/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Thyrotropin/blood
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